List of heads of state of Romania

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Coat of arms of Romania
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This is a list of all the persons that have served as heads of state of Romania since 1859. This includes both monarchic and republican heads of state, as well as the members of the two regencies (1866 and 1927–1930).

United Principalities/Principality of Romania (1859–1881)[edit]

Non-dynastic (1859–1866)[edit]

Picture Name Born-Died Reign start Reign end Notes
1 1 Carol Popp de Szathmary - Alexandru Ioan Cuza.jpg Alexandru Ioan Cuza 1820–1873 24 January 1859 23 February 1866 First Domnitor of the United Principalities; deposed in 1866.
LocotenentaDomneasca1866.jpg Princely Lieutenancy 23 February 1866 22 May 1866 Lascăr Catargiu
gen. Nicolae Golescu
col. Nicolae Haralambie

House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1866–1881)[edit]

Picture Name Born-Died Reign start Reign end Notes
2 1 Carol I of Romania king.jpg Carol I 1839–1914 22 May 1866 26 March 1881 Second Domnitor of the United Principalities; became first King of the Romanians in 1881.

Kingdom of Romania (1881–1947)[edit]

House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1881–1947)[edit]

Picture Name Born-Died Reign start Reign end Notes
(2) 1 Carol I of Romania king.jpg Carol I 1839–1914 26 March 1881 10 October 1914 First King of the Romanians
3 2 King Ferdinand of Romania.jpg Ferdinand I 1865–1927 10 October 1914 20 July 1927 Became King of Greater Romania in 1922.
4 3 Mihai.jpg Michael I 1921– 20 July 1927 8 June 1930 First reign, with Prince Nicholas, Miron Cristea, and Gheorghe Buzdugan (replaced after his death on 7 October 1929 by Constantin Sărăţeanu) as Regents
5 4 King Carol II of Romania.jpg Carol II 1893–1953 8 June 1930 6 September 1940 Abdicated in 1940.
(4) (3) Mihai.jpg Michael I 1921– 6 September 1940 30 December 1947 Second reign with Ion Antonescu as Conducător until 1944. Abdicated in 1947 under Communist pressure.

Romanian People's Republic/Socialist Republic of Romania (1947–1989)[edit]

Picture Name Born-Died Term start Term end Party Position(s)
6 Constantin Parhon.jpg Constantin Ion Parhon 1874–1969 30 December 1947 13 April 1948 Romanian Workers' Party President of the Provisional Presidium of the Republic
1 13 April 1948 12 June 1952 President of the Presidium of the Great National Assembly
7 2 Petru Groza joben.jpg Petru Groza 1884–1958 12 June 1952 7 January 1958 Ploughmen's Front (1952–1953)
Independent (1953–1958)
President of the Presidium of the Great National Assembly[1]
8 3 Ion Gheorghe Maurer.jpg Ion Gheorghe Maurer 1902–2000 11 January 1958 21 March 1961 Romanian Workers' Party President of the Presidium of the Great National Assembly
9 1 Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej1.jpg Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej 1901–1965 21 March 1961 19 March 1965 Romanian Workers' Party President of the State Council[2]
10 2 Chivu Stoica.jpg Chivu Stoica 1908–1975 24 March 1965 9 December 1967 Romanian Workers' Party
renamed in 1965 to
Communist Party of Romania
President of the State Council
11 3 Nicolae Ceausescu.jpg Nicolae Ceaușescu 1918–1989 9 December 1967 28 March 1974 Communist Party of Romania President of the State Council
1 28 March 1974 25 December 1989 President of Romania

Romania since 1989[edit]

The Constitution of Romania prohibits the President to be a member of any party while in office. The parties listed below represent the political affiliation before the 1991 Constitution was adopted and the party affiliation of the ad interim Presidents, for whom sush restriction is not explicitly stipulated in the law.

Picture Name Born-Died Term start Term end Party Position(s)
Romania flag 1989 revolution.svg Council of the National Salvation Front[3] 22 December 1989 26 December 1989 National Salvation Front Collective Head of State
12 Ion Iliescu (2004).jpg Ion Iliescu 1930– 26 December 1989[4] 6 February 1990 National Salvation Front President of Council of the National Salvation Front
6 February 1990 20 June 1990 President of the Provisional National Unity Council
2 20 June 1990 7 April 1992 President of Romania
(2) 7 April 1992 11 October 1992 Democratic National Salvation Front
(2) 11 October 1992 29 November 1996 Independent
13 3 Emil Constantinescu.jpg Emil Constantinescu 1939– 29 November 1996 20 December 2000 Independent President of Romania
(12) (2) Ion Iliescu (2004).jpg Ion Iliescu 1930– 20 December 2000 20 December 2004 Independent President of Romania
14 4 Traian Băsescu 2005Mar09.jpg Traian Băsescu 1951– 20 December 2004 20 April 2007 Independent Suspended in the period from 20 April 2007 until 23 May 2007.
15 Nicolae Văcăroiu.jpg Nicolae Văcăroiu 1943- 20 April 2007 23 May 2007 Social Democratic Party ad interim President of Romania as President of the Senate
(14) (4) Traian Băsescu 2005Mar09.jpg Traian Băsescu 1951– 23 May 2007 21 December 2009 Independent Resumed the office of President of Romania after the Referendum rejected the impeachment
21 December 2009 10 July 2012 Reelected as President of Romania for a second term; Suspended for a second time from 6 July 2012 until 28 August 2012
16 Crin Antonescu.jpg Crin Antonescu 1959– 10 July 2012 27 August 2012 National Liberal Party ad interim President of Romania as President of the Senate
(14) (4) Traian Băsescu 2005Mar09.jpg Traian Băsescu 1951– 27 August 2012 Incumbent Independent Resumed the office of President of Romania after the Referendum was declared invalid due to insufficient turnout.

Living former heads of state[edit]

Name Term/Reign Office Date of birth
Michael I 1927-1930/1940-1947 King of Romania 25 October 1921
Ion Iliescu 1989-1996/2000-2004 President of Romania 3 March 1930
Emil Constantinescu 1996-2000 President of Romania 19 November 1939
Nicolae Văcăroiu 20.04.2007-23.05.2007 Interim President 5 December 1943
Crin Antonescu 10.07.2012-27.08.2012 Interim President 21 September 1959

Timeline[edit]

Crin Antonescu Nicolae Văcăroiu Traian Băsescu Ion Iliescu Emil Constantinescu Ion Iliescu Nicolae Ceauşescu Nicolae Ceauşescu Chivu Stoica Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej Ion Gheorghe Maurer Petru Groza Constantin Ion Parhon Mihai I of Romania Carol II of Romania Mihai I of Romania Ferdinand I of Romania Carol I of Romania Carol I of Romania Alexandru Ioan Cuza

See also[edit]

Footnotes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Mihail Sadoveanu and Anton Moisescu were Acting Presidents of the Presidium of the Great National Assembly 7–11 January 1958
  2. ^ Ion Gheorghe Maurer, Ştefan Voitec and Avram Bunaciu were Acting Presidents of the State Council 19–24 March 1965
  3. ^ Rulers.org
  4. ^ Rulers.org
  • Bulei, Ion, O istorie a românilor, Editura Meronia, Bucureşti, 2007, pg. 266-267