List of political parties in Romania

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This article lists political parties in Romania.

Romania has a multi-party system with numerous political parties, in which no one party often has a chance of gaining parliamentary majority alone, and parties must work with each other to form coalition governments.

Present-day parliamentary parties[edit]

Present-day political parties with parliamentary representation, in order of the number or representatives they have in the Chamber of Deputies:

Name Abbr. Leader Ideology Deputies Senators MEPs
Social Democratic Party
Partidul Social Democrat
PSD Victor Ponta Social democracy 148 58 10
National Liberal Party
Partidul Național Liberal
PNL Crin Antonescu Liberalism 99 50 5
Democratic Liberal Party
Partidul Democrat-Liberal
PD-L Vasile Blaga Christian democracy, liberal conservatism 43 21 11
People's Party - Dan Diaconescu
Partidul Poporului - Dan Diaconescu
PP-DD Dan Diaconescu Populism 31 19
Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania
Uniunea Democrată Maghiară din România
Romániai Magyar Demokrata Szövetség
UDMR Hunor Kelemen Hungarian minority interests 18 8 3
Conservative Party
Partidul Conservator
PC Daniel Constantin Conservatism 18 8 1
National Union for the Progress of Romania
Uniunea Naţională pentru Progresul României
UNPR Gabriel Oprea Social democracy 12 5
Civic Force
Forţa Civică
FC Mihai Răzvan Ungureanu Christian democracy 3 1
Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party
Partidul Naţional Ţaranesc Creştin-Democrat
PNŢCD Aurelian Pavelescu Agrarianism, Christian democracy 1 1
Green Party
Partidul Verde
PV Remus Cernea Green Politics 1 1

In addition, ethnic minority parties are guaranteed eighteen seats: one for each recognised minority (except Magyars, who are already represented by the UDMR). However, they are not considered major parties, and are treated below.

Minor parties[edit]

Present-day ethnic minority organizations[edit]

Association of Italians of Romania Asociaţia Italienlor din România, Associazione degli Italiani di Romania
Bulgarian Union of the Banat - Romania Uniunea Bulgară din Banat - România, Български съюз на Банат - Румъния
Cultural Union of Ruthenians of Romania Uniunea Culturală a Rutenilor din România
Democratic Forum of Germans of Romania Forumul Democrat al Germanilor din România, Demokratisches Forum der Deutschen in Rumänien
Democratic Union of Slovaks and Czechs in Romania Uniunea Democratică a Slovacilor şi Cehilor din România, Demokratický svaz Slováků a Čechů v Rumunsku, Demokratický zväz Slovákov a Čechov v Rumunsku
Democratic Union of Turco-Islamic Tatars of Romania Uniunea Democrată a Tătarilor Turco-Musulmani din România
Federation of Jewish Communities of Romania Federaţia Comunităţilor Evreieşti din România
Greek Union of Romania Uniunea Elenă din România, Ένωση Ελλήνων της Ρουμανίας
League of Albanians of Romania Liga Albanezilor din România, Liga e shqiptarëve në Rumani
Lipovan Russian Community of Romania Comunitatea Ruşilor Lipoveni din România
Party of the Roma Partida Romilor, Partida le Romenge
Turkish Democratic Union of Romania Uniunea Democrată Turcă din România, Romanya Türk Demokrat Birliği
Union of Armenians of Romania Uniunea Armenilor din România, Հայերի միությունը Ռումինիայի
Union of Croatians of Romania Uniunea Croaţilor din România, Savez Hrvata u Rumunjskoj
Union of Poles of Romania "Dom Polski" Uniunea Polonezilor din România "Dom Polski", Związek Polaków w Rumunii "Dom Polski"
Union of Serbs of Romania Uniunea Sârbilor din România, Савез Срба у Румунији
Union of Slavic Macedonians of Romania Asociaţia Macedonenilor Slavi din România, Сојуз на словенски Македонци на Романија
Union of Ukrainians of Romania Uniunea Ucrainienilor din România, Союз українців Румунії

Historical parties[edit]

Other post-1989 parties[edit]

Parties no longer active:

Alliance for Romania Alianţa pentru România (APR) Absorbed into National Liberal Party;active June 1997 - August 2001
Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party Partidul Naţional Ţărănesc Creştin Democrat (PNŢ-CD) Refounded as the Christian-Democratic People's Party; active 1989-2005
Civic Alliance Party Partidul Alianţa Civică (PAC) Absorbed into National Liberal Party; active 1991-1998
Democratic Agrarian Party of Romania Partidul Democrat Agrar din România (PDAR)  
Free Exchange Party Partidul Liber-Schimbist (PL-S) Active 1990-1996
Liberal Party 1993 Partidul Liberal 1993 (PL 1993) Absorbed into National Liberal Party; active 1993-1995
National Christian Democratic Alliance Alianţa Natională Creştin Democrată (ANCD) Absorbed into Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party
National Initiative Party Partidul Inițiativa Națională Absorbed into the National Union for the Progress of Romania in February 2012
National Liberal Party-Câmpeanu Partidul Naţional-Liberal-Câmpeanu (PN-L-C) Absorbed into National Liberal Party; active 1995-2003
National Liberal Party-Democratic Convention Partidul Naţional Liberal - Convenţia Democrată (PNL-CD) Absorbed into National Liberal Party; 1991–1993
National Liberal Party Youth Wing Partidul Naţional-Liberal Aripa Tînără (PNLAT) Merged into the Liberal Party 1993; active 1990-1992
Party of Liberty and Social Unity Partidul Libertăţii şi Unităţii Sociale (PLUS) Active 1993-1996
Party of Unity of the Romanian Nation Partidul Unității Națiunii Române Absorbed into Conservative Party in 2006
Party of Romanian Life Partidul Vieţii Româneşti (PVR)  
People's Action Acţiunea Populară (AP)  
People's Party Partidul Popular (PP)  
Republican Party Partidul Republican (PR) Dissolved in 2008
Romanian Democratic Convention Convenţia Democrată Română (CDR) Electoral alliance created in 1992 by Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party, the National Liberal Party, the Civic Alliance Party and others, disbanded in 2000 after the withdrawal of National Liberal Party. The remaining parties formed a new alliance named CDR 2000, but failed to win enough votes to enter Parliament in the 2000 election. CDR 2000 eventually disappeared in January 2001
Romanian National Unity Party Partidul Unităţii Naţionale a Românilor (PUNR)
Romanian Social Democratic Party Partidul Social Democrat Român (PSDR) Absorbed into Social Democratic Party in 2001
Socialist Party of Labour Partidul Socialist al Muncii (PSM) One section absorbed into Social Democratic Party in July 2003, another reconstituted as the Socialist Alliance Party
Union for Romanian Reconstruction Uniunea pentru Reconstrucţia României (URR) Absorbed into Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party in December 2004
Union of Right-Wing Forces Uniunea Forţelor de Dreapta (UFD) Founded in 1996 as Alternative for Romania Party (Partidul Alternativa României (PAR)), changed its name to UFD in 2000, absorbed into National Liberal Party in April 2003
United Left Party Partidul Stângii Unite Absorbed into the Socialist Alliance Party in October 2008

Communist-era parties[edit]

Although distinct parties in the communist era were not politically relevant, the following were the officially recognized political forces:

Romanian Communist Party Partidul Comunist Român (PCR) Known as Romanian Workers' Party (Partidul Muncitoresc Român (PMR)) between 1948 and 1965; disestablished in 1989
Front of Democratic and Socialist Unity Frontul Democraţiei şi Unitaţii Socialiste (FDUS) An organization created as an outlet of the PCR; active 1975-1989
General Union of Romanian Trade Unions Uniunea Generală a Sindicatelor din România (UGSR) Active 1948-1989
Hungarian People's Union Uniunea Populară Maghiară (UPM) / Magyar Népi Szövetség (MNSz) Created as Union of Hungarian Workers of Romania (Magyar Dolgozók Országos Szövetsége (MADOSZ)), in close alliance with the Romanian Communist Party; active 1934-1953
Jewish Democratic Committee Comitetul Democratic Evreiesc In close alliance with the Romanian Communist Party; active 1946-1953[1]
Ploughmen's Front Frontul Plugarilor Closely associated with the Romanian Communist Party; active 1933-1953

Other parties were allowed to exist, with unclear status, until mid-1948.[2]

Parties active between 1918 and 1947[edit]

The following parties were all active in Romania in the interwar period and, in some cases, through and after World War II. Dates of founding and dissolution are given, where known. Failing that, the earliest and latest dates known for activities are given.

Agrarian League Liga Agrară Offshoot of the People's Party; active 1929-1938
Agrarian Party Partidul Agrar Led by Constantin Argetoianu; active 1932-1938[3]
Bessarabian Peasants' Party Partidul Ţărănesc din Basarabia () Founded in the Moldavian Democratic Republic; most of it merged into the Peasants' Party in 1921, a wing led by Ion Inculeţ kept the name and later joined the National Liberal Party; active 1918-1923[4]
Bloc of Democratic Parties Blocul Partidelor Democrate (BPD) A political alliance formed by the Communist Party of Romania, the Social Democratic Party (PSD), the Ploughmen's Front, the National Liberal Party-Tătărescu, the Union of Patriots, and the National Peasants' Party-Anton Alexandrescu; active 1946-1947[1]
Bolshevik Leninist Group of Romania Grupul Bolşevic Leninist din România A Trotskyist grouping led by David Korner; active 1935.[5]
Citizen Bloc Blocul Cetăţenesc A nationalist party led by Grigore Forţu; active 1934[6]
Citizen Committees-Dem. I. Dobrescu Comitetele Cetăţeneşti Dem. I. Dobrescu A dissident wing of the National Peasants' Party; active 1935-1938[7]
Communist Party of Romania Partidul Comunist din România (PCdR) Founded in 1921 as the Socialist-Communist Party (Partidul Socialist-Comunist), a group that emerged from the Socialist Party of Romania; after 1944 Romanian Communist Party (Partidul Comunist Român (PCR)); active 1921-1948. Absorbed the Social Democratic Party and renamed itself the Romanian Workers' Party
Conservative-Democratic Party Partidul Conservator-Democrat An offshoot of the Conservative Party, led by Take Ionescu; merged into the Conservative Nationalist Party; active 1908-1922
Conservative Nationalist Party Partidul Conservator Naţionalist An offshoot of the Conservative Party, active 1916-c. 1935
Constitutional Front Frontul Constituţional A political alliance formed by the National Liberal Party-Brătianu, the People's Party, the Crusade of Romanianism and the Citizen Bloc; active 1934-1936[6]
Crusade of Romanianism Cruciada Românismului Fascist party; active 1935-1936.[8]
Democratic Nationalist Party Partidul Naţionalist-Democrat (PND) Right-wing nationalist party, active 1910-1938
Democratic Peasants' Party-Constantin Stere Partidul Ţărănesc-Democrat Constantin Stere (PŢD) A dissident wing of the National Peasants' Party, merged with the Radical Peasants' Party-Grigore Iunian; active 1930-1933[9]
Democratic Peasants' Party-Nicolae L. Lupu Partidul Ţărănesc-Democrat Nicolae L. Lupu (PŢD) A dissident wing of the National Peasants' Party; active 1946-1948[10]
Federation of National-Social Democracy Federaţia Democraţiei Naţional-Sociale An alliance between the Democratic Nationalist Party and the Peasants' Party; active 1920-1922[11]
Fire Swastika Svastica de Foc Fascist party, an offshoot of the National-Christian Defense League; active 1935-1938[3]
German Party Partidul German din România (PGR) / Deutsche Partei in Rumänien Generally backing the party in government, it became strongly influenced by Nazism after 1936; active 1919-1944[12]
German People's Party Partidul Poporului German din România (PPGR) / Deutsche Volkspartei in Rumänien (DVPR) An offshoot of the German Party, active 1935-1938
Hungarian People's Union Uniunea Populară Maghiară (UPM) / Magyar Népi Szövetség (MNSz) An offshoot of the Magyar Party, created as Union of Hungarian Workers of Romania (Magyar Dolgozók Országos Szövetsége (MADOSZ)), in close alliance with the Communist Party of Romania; active 1934-1953
Independent Social Democratic Party Partidul Social Democrat Independent (PSDI) A dissident wing of the Social Democratic Party, led by Constantin Titel Petrescu; active 1946-1947[13]
Iron Guard Garda de Fier The usual name of the group founded as the Legion of the Archangel Michael (Legiunea Arhanghelul Mihail or Legiunea Arhanghelului Mihail), running in election first as the "Corneliu Codreanu" Grouping (Gruparea "Corneliu Codreanu") and then as the "Everything For the Fatherland" Party (Partidul "Totul pentru Ţară" (TPŢ)) - fascist party active between 1927 and c. 1944-1945 (with minor groups claiming heritage to this day)
Jewish Democratic Committee Comitetul Democratic Evreiesc In close alliance with the Communist Party of Romania; active 1946-1948[1]
Jewish Party Partidul Evreiesc Active 1923-1938[14]
Laborer Party Partidul Muncitor Active 1918; merged into the Peasants' Party[15]
League Against Usury Liga Contra Cametei Active 1929-c. 1931[16]
Liberal Democratic Party Partidul Liberal-Democrat (PLD) Founded as "Free Man" Grouping (Gruparea "Omul Liber") - a dissident wing of the National Liberal Party, led by Jean Th. Florescu; active 1931-1935.[17]
Magyar Party Partidul Maghiar Active 1922-1938[18]
National-Agrarian Action Acţiunea Naţional-Agrară (ANA) An offshoot of the National Peasants' Party, merged into the National Union for Work and Reconstruction; active 1946-1947[19]
National Agrarian Party Partidul Naţional Agrar (PNA) An offshoot of the People's Party, merged into the National Christian Party; active c.1931-1935[20]
National Awareness Guard Garda Conştiinţei Naţionale (GCN) A fascist party formed around Constantin Pancu; active 1919-1922[21]
National-Christian Defense League Liga Apărării Naţional-Creştine (LANC) A far right proto-fascist party, merged into National Christian Party; active 1920-1935
National Christian Party Partidul Naţional-Creştin (PNC) Fascist party, active 1935-1938
National-Corporatist League Liga Naţional-Corporatistă A fascist party, led by Mihail Manoilescu; active 1932-1938[22]
National Democratic Front Frontul Naţional Democratic (FND) An alliance between the Communist Party of Romania, the Ploughmen's Front, the Hungarian People's Union, the Union of Patriots, and the Social Democratic Party (the latter withdrew in 1945); active 1944-1948
National Fascist Movement Mişcarea Naţională Fascistă (MNF) Active cca. 1923
National Italo-Romanian Cultural and Economic Movement Mişcarea Naţională Culturală şi Economică Italo-Română Fascist party, merged into the National Fascist Movement; active 1921-1923[23]
National Liberal Party Partidul Naţional-Liberal (PNL) Active 1875-1947
National Liberal Party-Brătianu Partidul Naţional Liberal-Brătianu (PNL) A dissident wing of the National Liberal Party; active 1931-1935
National Liberal Party-Tătărescu / National Liberal Party-Bejan Partidul Naţional-Liberal-Tătărescu (PNL) / Partidul Naţional-Liberal-Bejan (PNL) A dissident wing of the National Liberal Party; active 1944-1948
National Peasants' Party Partidul Naţional Ţărănesc (PNŢ) Merger of the Romanian National Party and the National Peasants' Party; active 1926-1947
National Peasants' Party-Anton Alexandrescu Partidul Naţional Ţărănesc-Anton Alexandrescu (PNŢ) An offshoot of the National Peasants' Party, in close alliance with the Romanian Communist Party, merged into the Ploughmen's Front; active 1945-1948[24]
National Renaissance Front Frontul Renaşterii Naţionale (FRN) Renamed Party of the Nation (Partidul Naţunii) in 1940, created as the fascist-inspired single official corporatist party by King Carol II; active 1938-1940
National Romanian Fascia Fascia Naţională Română Merged into the National Fascist Movement; active c.1920-1923[25]
National Socialist Party Partidul Naţional-Socialist Fascist party; active 1933[26]
National Union Uniunea Naţională A 1932 joint ticket of the National Peasants' Party and the Democratic Nationalist Party
National Union for Work and Reconstruction Uniunea Naţională Muncă şi Refacere (UNMR) Led by Constantin Argetoianu, partly merged into the Union of Patriots and the Ploughmen's Front; active 1947[19]
Peasants' Party Partidul Ţărănesc () Founded 1918, merged with the Romanian National Party into the National Peasants' Party in 1927
Peasants' Party-Nicolae L. Lupu Partidul Ţărănesc Nicolae L. Lupu (PŢD) A dissident wing of the National Peasants' Party; active 1927-1934[27]
People's Party Partidul Poporului (PP) Founded under the name People's League (Liga Poporului); active 1918-1929
Ploughmen's Front Frontul Plugarilor Closely associated with the Romanian Communist Party; active 1933-1953
Progressive Conservative Party Partidul Conservator-Progresist An offshoot of the Conservative Party, led by Alexandru Marghiloman; active in 1918
Radical Peasants' Party-Grigore Iunian Partidul Ţărănesc-Radical Grigore Iunian (PŢR) A dissident wing of the National Peasants' Party; active 1933-1938[28]
Romanian Front Frontul Român (FR) Far right offshoot of National Peasants' Party; active 1935-c.1944[29]
Romanian National Party Partidul Naţional Român (PNR) Founded inside Austria-Hungary in 1881, merged with the Peasants' Party to form the National Peasants' Party in 1927
Social Democratic Party Partidul Social Democrat (PSD or PSDR) Active 1910-1916, 1927–1947, merged into the Romanian Communist Party
Romanian Social Democratic Party of Bukovina Partidul Social Democrat din Bucovina Active 1906-1918; founded inside Austria-Hungary, merged into the Socialist Party of Romania
Social Democratic Party of Transylvania and Banat Partidul Social Democrat din Transilvania şi Banat Active 1906-1918; founded inside Austria-Hungary, it emerged from the Hungarian Social Democratic Party, and merged into the Socialist Party of Romania
Socialist Party / Unitary Socialist Party Partidul Socialist (PS) / Partidul Socialist Unitar (PU) An offshoot of the Social Democratic Party, led by Leon Ghelerter and Gheorghe Popovici; active 1933-1938, 1944[30]
Socialist Democratic Party Partidul Socialist Democrat (PSD) Created by Ioan Flueraş and George Grigorovici; active 1945-1946[31]
Socialist Party of Romania Partidul Socialist din România (PS) Active 1918-1921; formed by members of the Social Democratic Party, it absorbed the Social Democratic Party of Transylvania and Banat and the Romanian Social Democratic Party of Bukovina
Socialist Peasants' Party Partidul Socialist-Ţărăneasc (PSŢ) A dissident wing of the National Peasants' Party, merged into the Ploughmen's Front; active 1943-1944[32]
Union of Patriots / National People's Party Uniunea Patrioţilor / Partidul Naţional-Popular (PNP) In close alliance with the Communist Party of Romania; active 1946-1948[33]
"Vlad Ţepeş" League Liga "Vlad Ţepeş" Offshoot of the People's Party, led by Grigore Filipescu; active 1929-1938
Workers and Peasants' Bloc Blocul Muncitoresc-Ţărănesc (BMŢ) An umbrella group for the banned Communist Party of Romania; active 1925-1933

Parties active before 1918[edit]

Conservative Party Partidul Conservator Active 1880-1918
Conservative-Democratic Party Partidul Conservator-Democrat An offshoot of the Conservative Party, led by Take Ionescu; merged into the Conservative Nationalist Party; active 1908-1922
Conservative Nationalist Party Partidul Conservator Naţionalist An offshoot of the Conservative Party, active 1916-cca. 1935
Constitutional Party Partidul Constituţional Active 1891-1907
Democratic Nationalist Party Partidul Naţionalist-Democrat (PND) Right-wing nationalist party; active 1910-1938
Free and Independent Faction Fracţiunea liberă şi independentă Active 1866-1875; merged into the National Liberal Party[34]
National Liberal Party Partidul Naţional-Liberal Active 1875-1947
National Party Partida Naţională Active 1856-1859
Peasants' Party Partida Ţărănească Active 1895[35]
Radical Party Partidul Radical A offshoot of the National Liberal Party, led by C. A. Rosetti; active c. 1884[34]
Romanian Social Democratic Party Partidul Social Democrat din România (PSDR) Merged into the Romanian Communist Party; active 1910-1916, 1927–1947
Romanian Social-Democratic Workers' Party Partidul Social-Democrat al Muncitorilor din România (PSDMR) Active 1893-1899; most of it merged into the National Liberal Party

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Ştefan
  2. ^ Frunză, p.357
  3. ^ a b Veiga, p.215
  4. ^ Niculae et al., p.12
  5. ^ "How the Bolshevik-Leninist Group of Romania was Founded" (with introduction), at the Marxists Internet Archive; retrieved 19 July 2007
  6. ^ a b Gruber, Cap. V
  7. ^ Niculae et al., p.15
  8. ^ Veiga, p.228-230
  9. ^ Niculae et al., p.14
  10. ^ Frunză, p.299; Niculae et al., p.16, 45; Videnie, p.46
  11. ^ Constantinescu
  12. ^ "Germanii", on Divers.ro
  13. ^ Frunză, p.282
  14. ^ "Evreii", on Divers.ro
  15. ^ Niculae et al., p.9
  16. ^ Mihailov
  17. ^ Tineretul Liberal Gorj; Marian Ştefănescu, Jean Th. Florescu şi misiunea sa la Madrid
  18. ^ "Maghiarii", on Divers.ro
  19. ^ a b Otu
  20. ^ Veiga, p.215, 224
  21. ^ Veiga, p.45-49
  22. ^ Veiga, p.214
  23. ^ Veiga, p.163
  24. ^ Frunză, p.118-119, 299; Niculae et al., p.16; Videnie, p.46
  25. ^ Veiga, p.179
  26. ^ Veiga, p.133, 163, 254, 255
  27. ^ Niculae et al., p.14, 15
  28. ^ Niculae et al., p.14-15
  29. ^ Niculae et al., p.15; Veiga, p.215
  30. ^ 110 ani de social-democraţie, p.5, 21; Frunză, p.203-204, 214
  31. ^ 110 ani de social-democraţie, p. 6, 24
  32. ^ Frunză, p.116, 125, 187
  33. ^ Frunză, p.117; Marin, "II. Viaţa şi opera lui G. Călinescu sub comunism"
  34. ^ a b Ornea
  35. ^ Niculae, et al., p. 39

References[edit]

External links[edit]