List of medieval Mongol tribes and clans

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Mongol Empire c.1207

The qualifier Mongol Tribes was established as an umbrella term in the early 13th century, when Temüjin (later Genghis Khan) united the different tribes under his control and established the Mongol Empire. There were 19 Nirun tribes (marked (N) in the list) that descended from Bodonchar and 18 Darligin tribes (marked (D) in the list), which were also core Mongolic tribes but not descending from Bodonchar. The unification created a new common ethnic identity as Mongols. Descendants of those clans form the Mongolian nation and other Inner Asian peoples.

From the Secret History of the Mongols[edit]

History of the Mongols
Mongolian flag.png
Proto-Mongols Prehistory–Antiquity
Hünnü 209 BC – 93 AD
Xianbei 93–234
Üeban 160–490
Nirun 330–555
Tuoba Empire 386–585
Tuyuhun 285–670
Khitan Empire 906–1125
Khar-Khitan 1125–1221
Mongol khanates 1206–1368
Khitan Sultanate 1220s–1306
Chagatai Khanate 1225–1340s
Ilkhanate 1256–1335
Golden Horde 1240s–1502
Moghulistan 1346–1462
Chobanids 1335–1357
Jalairid Sultanate 1335–1432
Injuids 1335–1357
Mongol Khaganate 1368–1691
Kara Del 1383–1513
Four Oirat 1399–1634
Arghun state 1479–1599
Kalmyk Khanate 1630–1771
Khotgoid Khanate 1609–1691
Khoshut Khanate 1640s–1717
Zunghar Khanate 1634–1758
Mongolia 1911–1924
1924–1992
Mongolia 1992–present

Tribes and clans mentioned in the Secret History of the Mongols:[1]

Khamag Mongol confederation included Temüjin's clan[edit]

  • Khori Tümed, the people that Alun Gua descends from
  • Khorilar clan descended from Alun Goa's father Khorilardai Mergen
  • Dorben (four), descendants of Duva sokhor (the blind) (N)
  • Uriankhat, tribe of a man whom Dobun mergen (the wise) meets in the forest and who gives him a deer
  • Ma'alikh baya'ut, clan of Dobun's servant (D)
  • Jarchi'ut Adangkhan, Uriankhai clan that Alun Gua's five sons (Belgunotai, Bugunotai, Bukhu khatagi, Bukhatu salji, and Bodonchar, the Fool) subdue (D)
  • Belgunot, descendants of Belgunotai; Mongolian: Belgünüd
  • Bugunot, descendants of Bugunotai; Mongolian: Bügünüd
  • Khatagin, descendants of Bukha khatagi (N)
  • Salji'ut, descendants of Bukhatu salji (N); Mongolian: Saljiud
  • Borjigin, descendants of Bodonchar
    • Jadaran, descendants of Bodonchar's captive wife's first son, Jamukha's clan (N)
    • Baarin, descandants of Bodonchar and his captive wife (N)
    • Manan Ba'arin, descendants of Bodonchar's son with his captive wife
    • Jaruud, descendants of Bodonchar's concubine;
    • Descendants of Bodonchar and his chosen wife:
  • Mangkhol or Mangghal, the Mongols

Khereid tribe[edit]

[2][3] They were partly influenced by Nestorianism.[4][5] Prominent Christian figures were Tooril and Sorghaghtani Beki.

  • Tumen Tubegun; Mongolian: Tümen Tübegün
  • Dungkhait; Mongolian:Dongoid
  • Ubchikh
  • Jirgin
  • Ongchijid

Tatar confederation[edit]

  • Airi'ut, mentioned in connection with Ambakhai's death
  • Buiri'ut, mentioned in connection with Ambakhai's death
  • Juyin other Tatars, or maybe a military organization, mentioned in connection with Ambakhai's death
  • Chakhan Tatar, mentioned in connection with the final destruction of the Tatar; Mongolian: Tsagaan Tatar
  • Alchi Tatar, mentioned in connection with the final destruction of the Tatar
  • Duta'ut Tatar, mentioned in connection with the final destruction of the Tatar
  • Alukhai Tatar, mentioned in connection with the final destruction of the Tatar
  • Tariat Tatar[6]

Mergid confederation[edit]

The Mergids were a Mongol tribe who opposed the rise of Temüjin, and kidnapped his new wife Börte. They were defeated and absorbed into the Mongol nation early in the 13th century. The ethnicity of the Mergids is somewhat obscure; most likely they were Mongolic, but it has also been postulated that they are more closely related to Paleosiberian,[citation needed] such as the Chukchi, or to Tungusic peoples, such as the Manchu and the Evenks.

  • Uduyid; Mongolian:Uduid Mergid
  • Uvas, Uvas Mergid
  • Khaad, Khaad Mergid

Forest peoples[edit]

Other peoples mentioned[edit]

Other smaller groups mentioned[edit]

Groups whose affiliation is not really made clear: these groups may or may not be related to any of the tribes and clans mentioned above:

  • some clans whose members join Temüjin after the first victory over the Merkit and the separation from Jamukha:
    • Jalair'
    • Tarkhut
    • Bishi'ut; Mongolian: Bishiüd
    • Bayads
    • Khinggiadai (D), Khinggit, subclan of Olhunoud; Mongolian: Khingid
    • Gorlos (D), subclan of Olhunoud
    • Ikires; Mongolian: Ikhires
    • Sakhait
    • Arulat (Mongolian:Arulad)(D)
    • Oronar
  • some clans that take part in Sangums conspiracy:
    • Khardakit
    • Ebugedjin; Mongolian: Övögjin
    • Kharta'at (N?)
  • Khorulas, clan that joins Chinggis at the Baljun lake
  • Tokhura'ut
  • Negus or Chonos tribe, clan whose chief is killed together with the 70 Chinos princes

From the Tarikh-i Rashidi[edit]

Tribes and clans mentioned in the Tarikh-i-Rashidi:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Erich Haenisch, Die geheime Geschichte der Mongolen, Leipzig 1948
  2. ^ Kereys, Files about origins of Kirgiz-Kaisak(Kazak) people, Muhamedzhan Tynyshbaev
  3. ^ Kereys, Genealogy of türks, kirgizes, kazakhs and ruling dynasties, Shakarim Qudayberdy-uly
  4. ^ R. Grousset, The Empire of the Steppes, New Brunswick, NJ, Rutgers University Press, 1970, p191.
  5. ^ Moffett, A History of Christianity in Asia pp. 400-401.
  6. ^ Tarikh-i Rashidi