Jalayir (Kazakh: Жалайыр, Mongolian: Жалайр, also Djalair (~ Yyalair), Jalair ) is one of the Darliqin Mongol tribes according to Rashid-al-Din Hamadani's Jami' al-tawarikh. After the Mongol conquest in the 13th century many Jalayirs spread over Central Asia and the Middle East. Jalayirs are one of the founding tribes of Mongolia's largest ethnic group Khalkha. Smaller clans named Jalayir are also found among the Inner Mongolians in China. The Jalayirs who stayed in Central Asia under the rules of Genghis Khan's older sons' descendants eventually adopted Turkic language. They are found among the Kazakhs of the Great jüz; also they are found among the Uzbeks (especially among Uzbeks of Southern Tajikistan and Afghanistan), Karakalpaks, and the Kyrgyz. The Jalayirs who went to Iran, Iraq, and Afghanistan found the Jalayirid Sultanate in 1330. The state was then taken over by the "Black sheep" Turks or Kara Koyunlu in 1432. Smaller numbers of powerful Jalayir families lived in Khorasan, Iran as well as in the Mughal Empire until the 19th century.
The Jalayir might be the Chaladi who were recorded in Chinese sources of 910. The Jalayirs revolted against the Khitan rule in 1014. Subsequently, they were suppressed by the Khitans in the next year. Then the Jalayirs turned to the Mongol tirbe and defeated the Borjigins utterly. But Khaidu of the Borjigin conquered and dispersed them among Mongol tribes around 1060.
The Jalayir is one of the three core tribes in Khamag Mongol confederation in 12th century. The Jalayirs such as Mukhulai helped Genghis Khan to found his Empire. During the Mongol invasion of Khorazm in 1219-1223, Muqali campaigned in North China as the first prince of the state (guo-wang) and a viceory. The Jalayirs served under Great Khans as steward, chief judge, imperial tutor and advisor. Genghis Khan also gave 1,000 men under Jalayir Moqe noyan to his son Chagatai Khan in Turkestan. And a body of the Jalayir settled in Golden Horde.
When Möngke Khan ordered Hulagu (Alau) to conquer Abbasid caliphate, Ayyubids in Syria and Mamluks in Egypt in 1252, the Jalayirs prepared strong military contingent. Their commander Kok-Elege participated sieges of Persian and Arab fortresses from 1256–1261 and the battle against Berke's commander Nogai Khan in 1262.
Under Genghis Khan's successors, Muqali's descendants inherited his title and came to be one of the mainstays of Confucian influence in Kublaid Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368). The Jalayirs were close to Great Khans in China and Il-khans in Iran. In Il-khanate, Jalayir Buqa revolted against Tekuder Khan and installed Hulagu's grandson Arghun in 1284. But his coup was revealed and executed by his protégé later. After the death of Qazan Khan (r. 1343-1346), Chagatai Khanate fell under the control of nomadic Turco-Mongol clans: the Jalayir in the north, the Arlat in the west, the Barlas in the centre, the Qaraunas and the Qa'uchin in the south-west and the Dughlats in the east. Meanwhile, Hasan Buzurg established Jalayirid Dynasty and tried to reunite Turco-Mongol states in the name of his puppet khans in Iraq and western Persia of which fell into political chaos after the death of Il-khan Arpa Ke'un in 1336. When Tamerlane ravaged the Jalayirid Dynasty of Ahmad (1383–1410), Central Asian Jalayirs were one of main clans in both Timurid Empire and Moghulistan. The Jalayirids in Persia were finally overthrown by Kara Koyunlu Turks in 1432. But the Jalayirs in Central Asia were active for two more centuries.
In 16th century, the Jalayirs played important role in Eastern and Central Mongolian politics. They were one of the 14 clans of Khalkha tumen and Dayan Khan's son Gersenj was written in Mongolian chronicles as the prince of Jalayir (Jalaid).
Jalayir tribe in the Kazakh people
Now, the Jalayir (or Жалайыр in Kazakh language) tribe is one of the big-major tribe of the modern Kazakh people from the ancient time, the Jalayir population about 700,000 in Kazakhs, belongs to the Senior-Juz of Kazakhs, mostly the Jalayirs live in north, north-east and middle part of Kazakhstan such as Saryarka region, Karagandy province and Akmola province and east Kazakhstan province, Jalayirs also exists with a few populations among the Kazakh people in Uzbekistan and Russia (see the Jalayir tribe of Kazakh people - from wikipeida Jalayir introduction in Kazakh language - https://kk.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%96%D0%B0%D0%BB%D0%B0%D0%B9%D1%8B%D1%80).
The Jalayirs were brought to Khorasan by Timur and numbered 400 families. They are the inhabitants of Kalat-i-nadiri. Until end of the 19th century, Kalat-i-nadiri had its own hereditary chief of Jalayir tribe who held the fortress as feudatories of Persia. Under Nader Shah Afshar Jalayirs rose to power and held important official positions within government and military:
- Qasem Ali Khan Jalayir - military commander during reign of Nader Shah Afshar.
- Subedar Khan Jalayir - military commander during reign of Nader Shah Afshar.
- Zal Khan Jalayir - military commander during reign of Shahrokh Shah Afshar.
Hereditary rulers of Kalat-i-nadiri:
- Tahmasp Qoli Khan Jalayir - vizier and military commander during reign of Nader Shah Afshar.
- Yousef Ali Khan Jalayir - vizier and military commander during reign of Shahrokh Shah Afshar.
- Fath Ali Khan
- Yalangtush Khan I (d.1826) - son of Fath Ali Khan, during the reign of Fath Ali Shah Qajar
- Sayd Mohammad Khan - son of Fath Ali Khan and brother to Yalangtush Khan I, during the reign of Fath Ali Shah Qajar
- son of Yalangtush Khan (d.1883)
- Yalangtush Khan II (reigned from 1883–1885)
There were Jalayirs who served in Mughal Empire as officials.
Ethnic origin theory
"The term Jalayir (~ Yyalair) can be the Mongolian version of the Turkic name for the "dynastic" tribe of the Second Uigur Kaganate (758-843): Yaglakar ~ yala er. Yaglakar (Ch. 藥羅葛/药罗葛 Yaoluoge) was the royal tribe of the Tele Uigur On-Uigur Toquz Oγuz "ten Uigur tribes in the Tokuz-Oguz confederation".
- Jalayir tribe of Kazakh people - from wikipeida Jalayir introduction in Kazakh language
- see the Jalayir of Kazakhs at tribal system of Kazakh people www.elim.kz
- Yate, Khurasan and Sistan, p.157
- Zuev Yu.A., "Early Turks: Essays on history and ideology", pp. 104-105
- Christopher P. Atwood - Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire ISBN 978-0-8160-4671-3, Facts on File, Inc. 2004.
- The Chinese government. By William Frederick Mayers, George Macdonald Home Playfair. Published by Kelly & Walsh, Limited, 1886.
- René Grousset "The Empire of the Steppes - a History of Central Asia" ISBN 0-8135-0627-1, Rutgers University Press, 6th paperback edition, 1999
- Zuev Yu.A., Early Turks: Essays on history and ideology, Almaty, Daik-Press, 2002, (In Russian), ISBN 9985-4-4152-9