Oonopidae

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Oonopidae
Spinestis nikita (female).jpg
Female Spinestis nikita
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Arachnida
Order: Araneae
Superfamily: Dysderoidea
Family: Oonopidae
Simon, 1890
Genera

Oonops
Gamasomorpha
Ischnothyreus
Scaphiella
Orchestina
Prethopalpus
 many others

Diversity
approx. 100 genera, 1500 species
Distribution.oonopidae.1.png

Oonopidae is a family of spiders commonly known as goblin spiders, consisting of over 1,500 described species in about 100 genera worldwide,[1] with total species diversity estimated at 2000 to 2500 species.[2] The type genus of the family is Oonops Keyserling, 1835. They are generally tiny (1-3 mm) haplogyne araneomorph spiders. Some have hardened plates (scuta) on their abdomens. Oonopids usually have six eyes, the anterior median eyes having been lost. However, four-eyed (Opopaea viamao), two-eyed (e.g. Coxapopha, Diblemma) and even completely eyeless species (e.g. Cousinea, the cave-dwelling Blanioonops) are also known. The family is permeated with unusual morphological traits, many of which are limited to males. Examples include heavily modified mouthparts (e.g. Coxapopha, Xyccarph), sternal pouches (sometimes alternatively called holsters; e.g. Grymeus) and extensions of the carapace (e.g. Ferchestina, Unicorn). The male pedipalps are also often highly modified. The genus Opopaea, for example, exhibits an expanded palpal patella while male Ischnothyreus are characterized by completely sclerotized, pitch-black pedipalps. Members of the genus Orchestina are believed to be able to jump, as both sexes have greatly enlarged femora on the fourth leg pair. Oonopidae are seldom seen by people as they are too small to be easily noticed. Generally, oonopid spiders are found in the leaf litter layer and under rocks, but they also constitute a significant component of the spider fauna living in the canopy of tropical rain forests. Three blind Afrotropical genera (Anophthalmoonops, Caecoonops, Termitoonops) are exclusively found in termite nests. A few species, such as the pantropical Heteroonops spinimanus, are thought to be parthenogenetic as no males have yet been collected.

Fossil record[edit]

Oonopidae are frequently encountered as subfossils preserved in copals and as fossils preserved in amber. Oonopids even occur in more amber deposits than any other spider family, which may be accounted for by their widespread distribution, small size, and wandering behaviour, as amber appears to be biased towards trapping such spiders. In contrast, sedimentary fossils of Oonopidae are unknown. Most fossil oonopids described from amber are assigned to the extant genus Orchestina. This genus was already widespread by the end of the Cretaceous, as indicated by specimens found in amber dating back approximately 100 million years. This makes Orchestina the oldest extant spider genus along with the Archaeidae. Orchestina's fossil record even includes a pair of spiders that were entombed during copulation.

Systematics[edit]

See List of Oonopidae species for a complete list of described genera and species.

The categorization into subfamilies follows Joel Hallan's Biology Catalog.

Tapinesthis inermis
Megaoonops avrona
Xestaspis shoushanensis

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ World Spider Catalog (2015). Family: Oonopidae Simon, 1890 World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch, version 16, accessed on 13 April 2015
  2. ^ Busschere, C., Fannes, W., Henrard, A., Gaublomme, E., Jocqué, R., & Baert, L. (2014). "Unravelling the goblin spiders puzzle: rDNA phylogeny of the family Oonopidae (Araneae)" (PDF). Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny 72 (2): 177–192. 
  3. ^ Platnick; Berniker; Bonaldo (2013). "The South American goblin spider genera Dysderina and Tridysderina (Araneae, Oonopidae)". American Museum Novitates 3772: 1–52. doi:10.1206/3772.2. 
  • How to Know the Spiders by B. J. Kaston. Dubuque, 1953.
  • Jocqué, R. & Dippenaar-Schoeman, A.S. (2006). Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa. 336 pp. ISBN 90-75894-85-6.
  • Penney, D. (2004). New spiders in upper Cretaceous amber from New Jersey in the American Museum of Natural History (Arthropoda: Araneae). Palaeontology 47(2): 367-375.
  • Penney, D. (2006). Fossil oonopid spiders in Cretaceous ambers from Canada and Myanmar. Palaeontology 49(1): 229-235.
  • Platnick, N.I. & Brescovit, A.D. (1995). On Unicorn, a new genus of the spider family Oonopidae (Araneae, Dysderoidea). American Museum Novitates 3152: 1-12. PDF

External links[edit]