|2nd Prime Minister of the Philippines|
May 7, 1899 – November 13, 1899
|Deputy||Trinidad Pardo de Tavera|
|Preceded by||Apolinario Mabini|
|Succeeded by||Jorge B. Vargas
(Position next held by Ferdinand Marcos)
|Member of the Philippine Assembly from Laguna's First District|
October 16, 1907 – May 20, 1909
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||Potenciano Malvar|
February 17, 1857|
|Died||April 26, 1911
|Alma mater||Ateneo de Manila University|
||This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: It looks weird and has inconsistent style.. (October 2013)|
Pedro Alejandro Paterno y de Vera Ignacio, also spelled Pedro Alejandro Paterno y Debera Ignacio (born on February 17, 1857 - died on April 26, 1911; in some references the birth date is February 27, 1858 while the death date is March 11, 1911) was a Filipino politician who has been called "the greatest turncoat in Philippine history." He was also a poet and novelist.'
His intervention on behalf of the Spanish led to the signing of the Pact of Biak-na-Bato on December 14, 1897, an account of which he published in 1910. Among his other works include the first novel written by a native Filipino, Ninay (1885), and the first Filipino collection of poems in Spanish, Sampaguitas y otras poesías varias (Jasmines and Other Poems), published in Madrid in 1880.
Pedro Paterno was born on the 17th of February, 1857. He was one of 13 children of wealthy spouses Don Maximo Paterno and Dona Carmen de Vera Ignacio. He finished Bachiller en Artes in Ateneo de Manila . He gained fame with his conclusion. He still continued studies at University of Salamanca. Here he took courses Philosophy and Theology, then he moved to the Central University of Madrid where he also graduated expertise in law in 1880 .
He is called the mediator of the Spaniards and Filipinos to achieve peace deal with the Spaniards. According to him, because Spanish is less than a hundred people with incoherence in the Philippines. But is firmly opposed by the people because they want to fight for true freedom of the Philippines.
At the trial of José Rizal in 1896, it was suggested that Paterno, along with Rizal, had incited the Katipunan because they had both written about the ancient Tagalog civilization. As evidence for their complicity, the Spanish prosecution cited Paterno's earlier work "Antigua Civilización" as promoting ideas which had "consequences both erroneous and injurious to Spanish sovereignty." Nobody moved against Paterno, however, because he was close to a significant number of Spanish officials - both military and civilian - who could vouch for him. Thus, Paterno, like many others of the Manila elite, distanced himself from the events of the Katipunan revolution.
In 1897 the Philippine revolutionary forces led by Emilio Aguinaldo had been driven out of Cavite and retreated northwards from town to town until they finally settled in Biak-na-Bato, in the town of San Miguel de Mayumo in Bulacan. Here, they established what became known as the Republic of Biak-na-Bato.
Because many highly placed Spaniards of the time thought Paterno held great sway over the natives, Primo de Rivera accepted Paterno's offer. He called for a truce, explaining his decision to the Cortes Generales: "I can take Biak-na-Bato, any military man can take it, but I can not answer that I could crush the rebellion."
Paterno left Manila on August 4, 1897 and found Aguinaldo five days later. This began a three-month-long series of talks which saw Paterno constantly shuffling between Manila, Biyak-na-bato, and some areas in Southern Luzon where a number of revolutionary chiefs held sway. During the negotiations, Paterno's wife Luisa died on November 27, 1897.
In ceremonies on December 14–15 that year, Aguinaldo signed the Pact of Biak-na-bato. He proclaimed the official end of the Philippine revolution on Christmas Day, and on left for Hong Kong via the port of Dagupan on December 27.
He returned to Manila on January 11 amidst great celebration, but was spurned by Primo de Rivera and other authorities when he asked to be recompensed by being granted a dukedom, a seat on the Spanish Senate, and payment for his services in Mexican Dollars.
American Colonial Period
With the Philippine-American War after the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1898, he was among the most prominent Filipinos who joined the American side and advocated the incorporation of the Philippines into the United States.
||The neutrality of this article is disputed. (October 2013)|
He died of cholera on April 26, 1911.
Despite Paterno's prominence in the many upheavals that defined the birth of the Philippine nation during his lifetime, Paterno's legacy is largely infamous among Philippine historians and nationalists.
Philippine historian Resil Mojares notes that:
History has not been kind to Pedro Paterno. A century ago, he was one of the country's premier intellectuals, blazing trails in Philippine letters. Today he is ignored in many of the fields in which he once held forth with much eminence, real and imagined. No full length biography or extended review of his corpus of writings has been written, and no one reads him today.
Much of this is attributed to Paterno's penchant for turncoatism, as described by historian Ambeth Ocampo, who sums up his career thus:
Remember, Paterno was one of the greatest "balimbing" [turncoats] in history (perhaps he was the original balimbing in Philippine political history). He was first on the Spanish side, then when the declaration of independence was made in 1898, he wormed his way to power and became president of the Malolos Congress in 1899, then sensing the change in political winds after the establishment of the American colonial government, he became a member of the First Philippine Assembly.
- García Castellón, Manuel. "Pedro Alejandro Paterno y de Vera-Ignacio (Manila, 1858 - 1911)". Retrieved 2 June 2011.
- Tucker, Spencer C. The Encyclopedia of Spanish-American and Philippine- American Wars: a political, social, and military history, Volume 1. Retrieved 2 June 2011., 993 pages
- Ocampo, Ambeth (December 4, 2005). "Looking Back: "Looking Back: The First Filipino Novel"". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
- Mojares, Resil (2006). "Pedro Paterno". Brains of the Nation: Pedro Paterno, T.H. Pardo de Tavera, Isabelo de los Reyes, and the Production of Modern Knowledge. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press. pp. 1–118. ISBN 971-550-496-5.
- Don Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy (1899). "Chapter III. Negotiations". True Version of the Philippine Revolution. Authorama: Public Domain Books. Retrieved 2007-12-26.
- Zaide, Gregorio F. (1984). Philippine History and Government. National Bookstore Printing Press.
- Pedro Paterno's Proclamation of War on June 2, 1899
- Ninay The first Filipino novel written by Pedro Paterno published by Filipiniana.net
|Prime Minister of the Philippines
|— TITULAR —
Prime Minister of the Philippines
1899 - April 1, 1901
Jorge B. Vargas