Salvador Laurel

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Salvador Laurel
Salvador laurel.jpg
10th Vice President of the Philippines
In office
February 25, 1986 – June 30, 1992
President Corazon Aquino
Preceded by Arturo Tolentino
Succeeded by Joseph Estrada
5th Prime Minister of the Philippines
In office
February 25, 1986 – March 25, 1986
President Corazon Aquino
Preceded by Cesar Virata
Succeeded by Position abolished
Secretary of Foreign Affairs of the Philippines
In office
March 25, 1986 – February 2, 1987
President Corazon Aquino
Preceded by Pacifico Castro (Acting)
Succeeded by Manuel Yan
Member of the Interim Batasang Pambansa from Region IV-A
In office
June 12, 1978 – June 5, 1984
Senator of the Philippines
In office
December 30, 1967 – September 23, 1972[1]
Personal details
Born Salvador Roman Hidalgo Laurel
(1928-11-18)November 18, 1928
Paco, Manila, Philippines
Died January 27, 2004(2004-01-27) (aged 75)
Atherton, California, United States
Political party Nacionalista Party
Other political
affiliations
UNIDO (1984–1989)
Spouse(s) Celia Diaz
(1950–2004) (his death)
Alma mater University of the Philippines College of Law
Yale University
Religion Roman Catholicism

Salvador Roman Hidalgo Laurel[2] (November 18, 1928 – January 27, 2004), also known as Doy Laurel, was Vice-President of the Philippines from 1986 to 1992 under Corazon Aquino, and briefly Aquino's only Prime Minister from February 25–March 25, 1986. He was a foremost leader of the United Nationalist Democratic Organization (UNIDO), the political party that helped topple the Marcos dictatorship through the 1986 People Power Revolution that restored democracy to the Philippines.

Early life[edit]

Laurel is the fifth son of President José P. Laurel, president of the second Philippine Republic. He was born to a family whose illustrious lineage spans generations of nationalists who distinguished themselves as public servants. His grandfather, Judge Sotero Remoquillo Laurel was a delegate to the Malolos Congress and Secretary of the Interior in the first Philippine Revolutionary government under President Emilio Aguinaldo.

He first enrolled at Centro Escolar de Señoritas (1933–35) then Paco Elementary School (1935–36) followed by Justo Lukban Elementary School (1936–1937) and he graduated from elementary at Ateneo de Manila in 1941. He graduated from high school at De La Salle College High School in 1946.

Doy’s father wanted him to experience a public school education so he enrolled him first in the Paco Elementary School (1935–36) and then the Justo Lukban Elementary School (1936–37). In June 1937 he was admitted to the Jesuit-run Ateneo de Manila Grade School. During the Japanese occupation Ateneo de Manila was closed down by the Japanese for the reason that it was run by Americans. This prompted Laurel to enroll in De La Salle High School also located in Manila. On September 27, 1941, on his first year in high school, he received 2nd honors with a general average of 93.4. Barely three months later his studies came to an abrupt halt with the outbreak of World War II on December 8, 1941.

Stay in Japan[edit]

Towards the end of World War II, the Japanese Supreme Council of War issued an order to have officials of the Philippine Government flown to Japan. President Laurel volunteered to go alone in order to spare his Cabinet members the ordeal of being separated from their families. His wife, Paciencia and 7 of his children went with him. Among the officials who accompanied him were Speaker Benigno Aquino, Sr., Minister of Education and Mrs. Camilo Osias and General Mateo Capinpin. On Tuesday, March 21, 1945 began a long and perilous journey by land to Tuguegarao where a Japanese navy plane would fly the group to Japan. The odyssey ended in Nara, Japan, where they were confined until November 10, 1945.

The long confinement in Nara was providential in honing and enriching the character of Doy Laurel.[citation needed] It gave the romantic and impressionable 15 year old the luxury of time to write poetry and prose and satisfy his insatiable thirst for books. Whenever he was lucky to find an English book he would read it voraciously and discuss it animatedly with his mentor, Education Minister Camilo Osias. But his most treasured moments in Nara were those spent with his father. He enjoyed their daily morning walks, in the Park. During those intimate moments his father would invariably talk to him about his views on life, the value of moral character, impressing upon him the importance of intellectual honesty and integrity.

On September 12, 1945 his father was arrested by a group of Americans headed by Col. Turner and was taken to Sugamo Prison. The family was flown to Manila two months later on November 10, 1945.

Return to Manila[edit]

Christmas of 1945 was bleakest for Laurel, since their family was left with almost nothing. Their Peñafrancia home was looted and emptied of its furniture, while his father was placed in solitary confinement in Sugamo Prison in Japan. He wrote a poem dedicated to him to lift up his spirits and sent it as his Christmas present:

TO MY BELOVED FATHER

Trudge on, noble leader And with thy dauntless Courage Swerve not in thy glorious, tho’ thankless path, And heed not their threats and wrath; Forgive them who are nescient And With their perennial Discontent Thy goals impend; Assuage thy bitter struggle and with thy Sapient calm, O Sage! The glorious and the great Have always been exalted late And in the midst of great work condemned.

At La Salle he joined a group of young men who planned to go to Indonesia to join Sukarno in his struggle for independence from the Dutch, but local authorities stopped them at the pier.

After completing his high school at the De La Salle College in March 1946. Although all his older brothers were lawyers he enrolled at the University of the Philippines as a pre-med student where he obtained his AA (Pre-Medicine) and was admitted to Medicine proper but after two years decided to shift to Law. He was admitted to the Law school while working to complete his (AA Pre-Law). He received his LLB (Bachelor of Laws), degree in UP in March, 1952.

He was acclaimed the University Champion Orator after he won first prize in three consecutive inter-university oratorical contests: the 1949 Inter-University Oratorical contest sponsored by the Civil Liberties Union (CLU); the Student Councils Association of the Philippines (SCAP) and the Inter-University Symposium on Japanese Peace Treaty in 1951.

Without waiting for the results of the bar exams, he left for Connecticut to study at Yale University, his father’s alma mater, where he earned his Master of Laws degree (LL.M.) in 1953. He earned the title Doctor of Juridical Science (J.S.D.) also Yale University in 1960.

Of his studies and scholastic endeavors at Yale University, Myres S. McDougal, a Sterling Professor of Law, Emeritus of the Yale Law School, wrote:

"Salvador H. Laurel was a superb scholar at Yale. Like his father in an earlier day, he came to us in the vital formative years of his intellectual development, and remained to earn his master of laws degree (LLM) and doctorate in juridical science (J.S.D.) with highest standing. I have taught so many brilliant students from other countries at Yale Law School. Doy was one of the very best and has always been one of my favorites. His papers and comments were always informed, perceptive, wise, creative and deeply dedicated to the public and common interest. His deepest loyalty and devotion is to his own country, but he is aware of a larger interdependent world."

He married Celia Díaz, a society debutante.

Legal career[edit]

In Manila, Doy joined his brothers in the Laurel Law Offices in Intramuros. During his early years as a barrister he became deeply involved with legal aid. He was appalled to discover that 94% of the cases filed by indigents in the fiscal’s office were dismissed for lack of counsel. This led him to found the CLASP – Citizen’s Legal Aid Society of the Philippines.

He campaigned throughout the country convincing lawyers to join him in his quest for justice for the poor. His ardor inspired many so that at the end of the first year 750 lawyers had joined him in the CLASP. In 1976 the International Bar Association honored him with the “Most Outstanding Legal Aid Lawyer of the World” award in Stockholm, Sweden.

In 1960 he edited the papers of the Constitutional Convention of 1935. He succeeded in compressing 24 tomes of papers into seven compact volumes. It was a promise he had made to his father who was originally supposed to collaborate with him in the project but who had died of cerebral hemorrhage in 1959.

Early Political Career[edit]

Senator[edit]

It was not until 1967, a decade after his father’s death, that he seriously entered politics when he ran and won a Senate seat. He became the youngest Nacionalista senator. Laurel was named the most outstanding senator from 1968 to 1971. He was the author of five “Justice for the Poor” laws, also called “Laurel Laws,” nine laws on judicial reforms, the Government Reorganization Act, and the amendment to the Land Reform Code.

In 1967 Doy ran for the Senate where he hoped to continue his crusade for justice for the poor. He emerged victorious as the youngest Nacionalista elected senator. Thus began a distinguished public service career that spanned nearly 37 years

On his first year as Senator he was Chairman of the Senate Committee on Justice, Committee on Economic Affairs, Committee on Government Reorganization, and Committee on Community Development. Senator Salvador H. Laurel authored five "Justice for the Poor Laws" known as the “Laurel Laws”, nine laws on Judicial Reforms (1968–1970); Government Reorganization Act (1968–1970) and Amendments to the Land Reform Code (1971). He also wrote a book on penal reforms and another on Land Reform entitled “This Land Is Mine”. He was consistently voted “Most Outstanding Senator of the Year” 1968, 1969, 1970 and 1971. In 1972 Doy was the first Philippine government official to visit Mainland China then under Chairman Mao Tse Tung. He was met by Premier Zhou En Lai and Vice Premier Li Xinnian and other high officials of the Chinese government. Upon his return he submitted an extensive report to the Senate on his China visit. He strongly advocated for the resumption of friendly ties with the PROC and the adoption of a one-China policy (which eventually became the official stand of the Philippines).

Vice-Presidency and[edit]

For a brief period in March 1986, Laurel became the only man in Philippine history to concurrently hold the positions of Foreign Minister, Prime Minister of the Philippines and Vice-President of the Philippines. The Premiership was abolished in March 1986, and Laurel was replaced as Secretary of Foreign Affairs by Raul Manglapus in 1987.

He ran for President in the 1992 elections as the head of the Nacionalista Party. However, he failed to gain Aquino's support and lost to her favoured successor, Fidel V. Ramos.

Post Vice-Presidency[edit]

Laurel's cremains are interred at the Libingan ng mga Bayani.

In 1996, he was appointed by President Fidel V. Ramos as the chairman of the Philippine National Centennial Commission. Through his unwavering leadership, he revived Filipino nationalism by promoting the Filipino heritage and culture using heavy advertising. The Philippines celebrated its Independence Day centennial on June 12, 1998.

He was supposed to resign after the centennial celebrations, but President Joseph Estrada extended his term. Estrada abolished the commission in 1999. A few months after, he was charged with graft before the Sandiganbayan (Anti-graft court) for misappropriation of funds in constructing the regarding the controversial construction of a P1.165-billion Centennial Expo in Clarkfield, Angeles City, Pampanga. Laurel, whose family has never been tainted with corruption vehemently denied the allegation and chose to stand as his own defense counsel.

He returned to private life and spent most of his retirement in the United States. He died from lymphoma on January 27, 2004 at Atherton, California. His remains were cremated days after and were buried in the Libingan ng mga Bayani.

Death[edit]

He died of lymphoma on January 27, 2004 in Atherton, California.

On January 29, President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo issued Presidential Proclamation No. 544 declaring the period of mourning over the death of Salvador H. Laurel Former Vice President of the Republic of the Philippines.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Original term ends until December 30, 1973 but was cut short pursuant to the Declaration of Martial Law by President Ferdinand Marcos on September 23, 1972.
  2. ^ Jose P. Laurel Memorial Foundation

References[edit]

  • Zaide, Sonia M. (1999). The Philippines: A Unique Nation. All Nations Publishing. 

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Arturo Tolentino
Vice President of the Philippines
February 25, 1986 – June 30, 1992
Succeeded by
Joseph Estrada
Preceded by
Cesar Virata
Prime Minister of the Philippines
1986
Office abolished
Preceded by
Pacifico Castro
Acting
Secretary of Foreign Affairs
1986–1987
Succeeded by
Manuel Yan