Pekudei, Pekude, Pekudey, P’kude, or P’qude (פְקוּדֵי — Hebrew for “amounts of,” the second word, and the first distinctive word, in the parashah) is the 23rd weekly Torah portion (פָּרָשָׁה, parashah) in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the 11th and last in the book of Exodus. It constitutes Exodus 38:21–40:38. The parashah is made up of 4,432 Hebrew letters, 1,182 Hebrew words, and 92 verses, and can occupy about 159 lines in a Torah scroll (סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה, Sefer Torah).
Jews in the Diaspora read it the 22nd or 23rd Sabbath after Simchat Torah, generally in March. The lunisolar Hebrew calendar contains up to 55 weeks, the exact number varying between 50 in common years and 54 or 55 in leap years. In leap years (for example, 2014 and 2016), parashah Pekudei is read separately. In common years (for example, 2013, 2015, 2017, and 2018), parashah Pekudei is combined with the previous parashah, Vayakhel, to help achieve the needed number of weekly readings.
The parashah tells of the setting up of the Tabernacle.
- 1 Readings
- 2 In inner-Biblical interpretation
- 3 In classical rabbinic interpretation
- 4 Commandments
- 5 In the liturgy
- 6 Haftarah
- 7 Further reading
- 8 External links
- 9 Notes
First reading — Exodus 38:21–39:1
In the first reading (עליה, aliyah), at Moses’ direction, Aaron’s son Ithamar oversaw the accounts of the Tabernacle, and the text sets forth the amounts of gold, silver, and copper that Bezalel, Oholiab, and their coworkers used. The silver came from the half-shekel a head for each man 20 years old and older who was counted in the census.
Second reading — Exodus 39:2–21
Third reading — Exodus 39:22–32
Fourth reading — Exodus 39:33–43
In the fourth reading (עליה, aliyah), they brought the Tabernacle and all its furnishings to Moses, and he blessed them.
Fifth reading — Exodus 40:1–16
Sixth reading — Exodus 40:17–27
Seventh reading — Exodus 40:28–38
In the seventh reading (עליה, aliyah), Moses finished the work, and the cloud covered the Tent of Meeting, and God’s Presence filled the Tabernacle. When the cloud lifted from the Tabernacle, the Israelites would set out, and when the cloud did not lift, they would not set out. And God’s cloud rested over the Tabernacle by day, and fire would appear in it by night, throughout the Israelites’ journeys.
In inner-Biblical interpretation
The parashah has parallels or is discussed in these Biblical sources:
Exodus chapters 25–39
This is the pattern of instruction and construction of the Tabernacle and its furnishings:
|The Sabbath||16||Exodus 31:12–17||1||Exodus 35:1–3|
|Contributions||1||Exodus 25:1–9||2||Exodus 35:4–29|
|Craftspeople||15||Exodus 31:1–11||3||Exodus 35:30–36:7|
|Tabernacle||5||Exodus 26:1–37||4||Exodus 36:8–38|
|Ark||2||Exodus 25:10–22||5||Exodus 37:1–9|
|Table||3||Exodus 25:23–30||6||Exodus 37:10–16|
|Menorah||4||Exodus 25:31–40||7||Exodus 37:17–24|
|Altar of Incense||11||Exodus 30:1–10||8||Exodus 37:25–28|
|Anointing Oil||13||Exodus 30:22–33||9||Exodus 37:29|
|Incense||14||Exodus 30:34–38||10||Exodus 37:29|
|Altar of Sacrifice||6||Exodus 27:1–8||11||Exodus 38:1–7|
|Laver||12||Exodus 30:17–21||12||Exodus 38:8|
|Tabernacle Court||7||Exodus 27:9–19||13||Exodus 38:9–20|
|Priestly Garments||9||Exodus 28:1–43||14||Exodus 39:1–31|
|Ordination Ritual||10||Exodus 29:1–46||15||Leviticus 8:1–9:24|
|Lamp||8||Exodus 27:20–21||16||Numbers 8:1–4|
In classical rabbinic interpretation
Exodus chapter 38
Rabbi Simeon son of Rabbi Ishmael interpreted the term “the Tabernacle of the testimony” in Exodus 38:21 to mean that the Tabernacle was God’s testimony to the whole world that God had forgiven Israel for having made the Golden Calf. Rabbi Isaac explained with a parable. A king took a wife whom he dearly loved. He became angry with her and left her, and her neighbors taunted her, saying that he would not return. Then the king sent her a message asking her to prepare the king’s palace and make the beds therein, for he was coming back to her on such-and-such a day. On that day, the king returned to her and became reconciled to her, entering her chamber and eating and drinking with her. Her neighbors at first did not believe it, but when they smelled the fragrant spices, they knew that the king had returned. Similarly, God loved Israel, bringing the Israelites to Mount Sinai, and giving them the Torah, but after only 40 days, they sinned with the Golden Calf. The heathen nations then said that God would not be reconciled with the Israelites. But when Moses pleaded for mercy on their behalf, God forgave them, as Numbers 14:20 reports, “And the Lord said: ‘I have pardoned according to your word.’” Moses then told God that even though he personally was quite satisfied that God had forgiven Israel, he asked that God might announce that fact to the nations. God replied that God would cause God’s Shechinah to dwell in their midst, and thus Exodus 25:8 says, “And let them make Me a sanctuary, that I may dwell among them.” And by that sign, God intended that all nations might know that God had forgiven the Israelites. And thus Exodus 38:21 calls it “the Tabernacle of the testimony,” because the Tabernacle was a testimony that God had pardoned the Israelites’ sins.
Rabbi Tanhuma said in the name of Rav Huna that when Exodus 38:22 reported that “Bezalel . . . made all that the Lord commanded Moses,” the verse did not say “that Moses commanded Bezalel,” and thus the verse taught that Bezalel was able to conceive on his own exactly what God told Moses at Sinai, even though Bezalel did not hear it from Moses. Similarly, Rabbi Samuel bar Nahmani said in the name of Rabbi Johanan that Bezalel (whose name can be read betzel El, “in the shadow of God”) was so called because of his wisdom. When God told Moses (in Exodus 31:7) to tell Bezalel to make a tabernacle, an ark, and vessels, Moses reversed the order and told Bezalel to make an ark, vessels, and a tabernacle. Bezalel replied to Moses that as a rule, one first builds a house and then brings vessels into it, but Moses directed to make an ark, vessels, and a tabernacle. Bezalel asked where he would put the vessels. And Bezalel asked whether God had told Moses to make a tabernacle, an ark, and vessels. Moses replied that perhaps Bezalel had been in the shadow of God (betzel El) and had thus come to know this.
Doing the math implied by Exodus 36:4, Exodus 38:22, Joshua 14:7, and 1 Chronicles 2:19–20, the Gemara deduced that in earlier generations, a boy of eight could father children. Exodus 38:22 reports that “Bezalel, son of Uri, son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah, made all that the Lord had commanded Moses,” when they built the Tabernacle. And 1 Chronicles 2:19–20 reports that Caleb fathered the Hur who fathered Uri who fathered Bezalel. Exodus 36:4 reports that “wise men . . . wrought all the work of the Sanctuary,” so Bezalel must have been at least 13 years old to have been a man when he worked on the Tabernacle. A Baraita taught that Moses made the Tabernacle in the first year after the Exodus, and in the second, he erected it and sent out the spies, so the Gemara deduced that Bezalel must have been at least 14 years old when Moses sent out the spies, the year after Bezalel worked on the Tabernacle. And Joshua 14:7 reports that Caleb said that he was 40 years old when Moses sent him to spy out the land. Thus, the Gemara deduced that Caleb was only 26 years older than his great-grandson Bezalel. Deducting two years for the three pregnancies needed to create the three intervening generations, the Gemara concluded that each of Caleb, Hur, and Uri must have conceived his son at the age of eight.
Rabbi Judah ben Simon taught that God required each of the Israelites to give a half-shekel (as reported in Exodus 38:26) because (as reported in Genesis 37:28) their ancestors had sold Joseph to the Ishmaelites for 20 shekels.
Exodus chapter 39
Rabbi Judah ben Pazi noted that a similar word appears in both Genesis 1:6 — where rakya is translated as “firmament” — and Exodus 39:3 — where vayraku is translated as “and they flattened.” He thus deduced from the usage in Exodus 39:3 that Genesis 1:6 taught that on the second day of creation, God spread the heavens flat like a cloth. Or Rabbi Judah ben Simon deduced from Exodus 39:3 that Genesis 1:6 meant “let a lining be made for the firmament.”
Reading Exodus 39:33, “and they brought the Tabernacle,” a Midrash taught that on the day that the Tabernacle was set up, the Israelites rejoiced greatly because God then dwelt in their midst. And the people sang the words of Song of Songs 3:11, “Go forth, O you daughters of Zion, and gaze upon King Solomon, even upon the crown wherewith his mother has crowned him in the day of his espousals, and in the day of the gladness of his heart.” “O you daughters of Zion” were the children who are distinguished as God’s from among the peoples. “And gaze upon King Solomon” meant “gaze upon a King to whom all peace belongs” (reading the name Solomon as a play on the word “His peace”) — that is, upon the King of kings, God. “Even upon the crown wherewith his mother has crowned him” referred to the Tabernacle, which was called a crown because just as a crown has beautiful designs, so was the Tabernacle beautifully designed. “In the day of his espousals” referred to Sinai (at the Revelation). “And in the day of the gladness of his heart” referred to Jerusalem (when God caused God’s presence to dwell in the Temple in Jerusalem). According to another explanation, “in the day of his espousals” was the day when God was with Israel at the Red Sea, and “in the day of the gladness of his heart” was when God’s presence dwelt in the Tent of Meeting. And according to yet another explanation, “in the day of his espousals” was in the Tabernacle, and “in the day of the gladness of his heart” was in the Temple (when they were erected).
Exodus chapter 40
Noting that Exodus 40:17 reports that “the tabernacle was reared up” — using the passive voice — a Midrash told that when in Exodus 40:1–2 God told Moses to set up the Tabernacle, Moses protested that he did not know how to set it up. So God told Moses to begin working with his hands and make a show of setting it up, and the Tabernacle would stand up on its own. But God reassured Moses that God would record that Moses set it up, as Exodus 40:18 reports, “Moses reared up the tabernacle.”
Rav Assi of Hozna'ah deduced from the words, “And it came to pass in the first month of the second year, on the first day of the month,” in Exodus 40:17 that the Tabernacle was erected on the first of Nisan. With reference to this, a Tanna taught that the first of Nisan took ten crowns of distinction by virtue of the ten momentous events that occurred on that day. The first of Nisan was: (1) the first day of the Creation, (2) the first day of the princes’ offerings, (3) the first day for the priesthood to make the sacrificial offerings, (4) the first day for public sacrifice, (5) the first day for the descent of fire from Heaven, (6) the first for the priests’ eating of sacred food in the sacred area, (7) the first for the dwelling of the Shechinah in Israel, (8) the first for the Priestly Blessing of Israel, (9) the first for the prohibition of the high places, and (10) the first of the months of the year.
In Deuteronomy 18:15, Moses foretold that “A prophet will the Lord your God raise up for you . . . like me,” and Rabbi Johanan thus taught that prophets would have to be, like Moses, strong, wealthy, wise, and meek. Strong, for Exodus 40:19 says of Moses, “he spread the tent over the Tabernacle,” and a Master taught that Moses himself spread it, and Exodus 26:16 reports, “Ten cubits shall be the length of a board.” Similarly, the strength of Moses can be derived from Deuteronomy 9:17, in which Moses reports, “And I took the two tablets, and cast them out of my two hands, and broke them,” and it was taught that the tablets were six handbreadths in length, six in breadth, and three in thickness. Wealthy, as Exodus 34:1 reports God’s instruction to Moses, “Carve yourself two tablets of stone,” and the Rabbis interpreted the verse to teach that the chips would belong to Moses. Wise, for Rav and Samuel both said that 50 gates of understanding were created in the world, and all but one were given to Moses, for Psalm 8:6 said of Moses, “You have made him a little lower than God.” Meek, for Numbers 12:3 reports, “Now the man Moses was very meek.”
Rabbi Zerika asked about an apparent contradiction of Scriptural passages in the presence of Rabbi Eleazar, or, according to another version, he asked in the name of Rabbi Eleazar. Exodus 40:35 reads: “And Moses was not able to enter into the tent of meeting because the cloud abode thereon,” whereas Exodus 24:18 says: “And Moses entered into the midst of the cloud.” The Gemara concluded that this teaches us that God took hold of Moses and brought him into the cloud. Alternatively, the school of Rabbi Ishmael taught in a Baraita that in Exodus 24:18, the word for “in the midst” (בְּתוֹךְ, be-tokh) appears, and it also appears in Exodus 14:22: “And the children of Israel went into the midst of the sea.” Just as in Exodus 14:22, the word “in the midst” (בְּתוֹךְ, be-tokh) implies a path, as Exodus 14:22 says, “And the waters were a wall unto them,” so here too in Exodus 24:18, there was a path (for Moses through the cloud).
Reading the words of Exodus 40:38, “For over the Mishkan a cloud of God rested by day, and fire would appear in it by night,” a Midrash taught that when the Israelites saw the pillar of cloud resting on the Mishkan, they rejoiced, thinking that God had been reconciled with them. But when night came, the pillar of fire descended and surrounded the Mishkan. All the Israelites saw it as one flame of fire and began to weep in sorrow, feeling that they had labored (building the Mishkan) for nothing, as all their work appeared to have been burnt up in a moment. When they arose early the next morning and saw the pillar of cloud encompassing the Mishkan, they immediately rejoiced with an inordinate joy.
In the liturgy
A Midrash taught that on the day that Moses completed construction of the Tabernacle (as reported in Exodus 40:33), he composed Psalm 91, which Jews read in the Pesukei D’Zimrah section of the morning Shacharit prayer service.
The haftarah for the parashah is:
Sephardi — 1 Kings 7:40–50
Both the parashah and the haftarah in 1 Kings 7:40–50 report the leader’s erection of the holy place — Moses’ setting up the Tabernacle in the parashah, and Solomon’s building of the Temple in Jerusalem in the haftarah. Both the parashah and the haftarah report that the builders finished the work: “Moses finished the work” (וַיְכַל מֹשֶׁה, אֶת-הַמְּלָאכָה, vayechal Mosheh et ha-melachah) in Exodus 40:33, and “so Hiram made an end of doing all the work” (וַיְכַל חִירָם, לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת-כָּל-הַמְּלָאכָה, vayechal Chiram la’asot et kol ha-melachah) in 1 Kings 7:40.
Ashkenazi — 1 Kings 7:51–8:21
Similarly, both the parashah and the haftarah in 1 Kings 7:51–8:21 report the finishing of the leaders’ work: “Moses finished the work” (וַיְכַל מֹשֶׁה, אֶת-הַמְּלָאכָה, vayechal Mosheh et ha-melachah) in Exodus 40:33, and “all the work that king Solomon wrought . . . was finished” (וַתִּשְׁלַם, כָּל-הַמְּלָאכָה, אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה הַמֶּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה, vatishlam kol ha-melachah asher asah ha-melech Shlomoh) in 1 Kings 7:51. And in both the parashah and the haftarah, a cloud and the Presence of the Lord fill the Sanctuary, indicating God’s approval.
On Shabbat Shekalim
On Shabbat Rosh Chodesh
When parashah Vayakhel is combined with parashah Pekudei, the haftarah is:
On Shabbat HaChodesh
On Shabbat HaChodesh, Jews read Exodus 12:1–20, in which God commands that “This month [Nissan] shall be the beginning of months; it shall be the first month of the year,” and in which God issued the commandments of Passover. Similarly, the haftarah in Ezekiel 45:21–25 discusses Passover. In both the parashah and the haftarah, God instructs the Israelites to apply blood to doorposts.
On Shabbat Parah
When the parashah coincides with Shabbat Parah (the special Sabbath prior to Passover — as it does in 2015 and 2018), the haftarah is:
On Shabbat Parah, the Sabbath of the red heifer, Jews read Numbers 19:1–22, which describes the rites of purification using the red heifer (פָרָה אֲדֻמָּה, parah adumah). Similarly, the haftarah in Ezekiel 36 also describes purification. In both the special reading and the haftarah in Ezekiel 36, sprinkled water cleansed the Israelites.
The parashah has parallels or is discussed in these sources:
- Philo. Who Is the Heir of Divine Things? 26:131. Alexandria, Egypt, early 1st Century C.E.. Reprinted in, e.g., The Works of Philo: Complete and Unabridged, New Updated Edition. Translated by Charles Duke Yonge, 287. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson Pub., 1993. ISBN 0-943575-93-1.
- Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 3:6:1–10:1. Circa 93–94. Reprinted in, e.g., The Works of Josephus: Complete and Unabridged, New Updated Edition. Translated by William Whiston, 85–95. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson Pub., 1987. ISBN 0-913573-86-8.
- Tosefta: Zevachim 1:8; Menachot 7:7–8. Land of Israel, circa 300 C.E. Reprinted in, e.g., The Tosefta: Translated from the Hebrew, with a New Introduction. Translated by Jacob Neusner, 2:1310, 1434–35. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson Pub., 2002. ISBN 1-56563-642-2.
- Genesis Rabbah 3:9; 4:2; 84:18. Land of Israel, 5th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Genesis. Translated by H. Freedman and Maurice Simon, volume 1, pages 25, 27; volume 2, page 783. London: Soncino Press, 1939. ISBN 0-900689-38-2.
- Jerusalem Talmud: Berakhot 6a; Peah 5a; Kilayim 76a; Sukkah 8a, 27a; Rosh Hashanah 2b, 6a; Sanhedrin 12a. Land of Israel, circa 400 CE. Reprinted in, e.g., Talmud Yerushalmi. Edited by Chaim Malinowitz, Yisroel Simcha Schorr, and Mordechai Marcus, volumes 1, 3, 5, 22, 24. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 2005–2012.
- Babylonian Talmud: Shabbat 28a, 87b; Yoma 4b, 6a, 12a–b, 32a, 71b; Sukkah 7b, 21a; Rosh Hashanah 3a; Taanit 29a; Megillah 29b; Yevamot 4b; Nedarim 38a; Sotah 37a, 38a; Sanhedrin 69b; Zevachim 19b, 22a, 58b, 119a–b; Menachot 62a, 98a, 99a; Chullin 138a; Bekhorot 5a, 44a; Arakhin 3b. Babylonia, 6th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., Talmud Bavli. Edited by Yisroel Simcha Schorr, Chaim Malinowitz, and Mordechai Marcus, 72 vols. Brooklyn: Mesorah Pubs., 2006.
- Exodus Rabbah 51:1–52:5. 10th Century. 10th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Exodus. Translated by S. M. Lehrman, 3:562–81. London: Soncino Press, 1939. ISBN 0-900689-38-2.
- Rashi. Commentary. Exodus 38–40. Troyes, France, late 11th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., Rashi. The Torah: With Rashi’s Commentary Translated, Annotated, and Elucidated. Translated and annotated by Yisrael Isser Zvi Herczeg, 2:507–24. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 1994. ISBN 0-89906-027-7.
- Judah Halevi. Kuzari. 3:23. Toledo, Spain, 1130–1140. Reprinted in, e.g., Jehuda Halevi. Kuzari: An Argument for the Faith of Israel. Intro. by Henry Slonimsky, 162. New York: Schocken, 1964. ISBN 0-8052-0075-4.
- Zohar 2:220a–269a. Spain, late 13th Century.
- Joseph Garçon. “Sermon on Elleh Fequde.” Salonika, 1500. In Marc Saperstein. Jewish Preaching, 1200–1800: An Anthology, 199–216. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989. ISBN 0-300-04355-4.
- Moses Almosnino. “Sermon on Elleh Fequde.” Salonika, 1568. In Marc Saperstein. Jewish Preaching, 1200–1800: An Anthology, 217–39. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989. ISBN 0-300-04355-4.
- Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan, 4:44. England, 1651. Reprint edited by C. B. Macpherson, 643. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Classics, 1982. ISBN 0-14-043195-0.
- Richard Elliott Friedman. “A Brilliant Mistake” and “The Sacred Tent.” In Who Wrote the Bible?, 161–87. New York: Summit Books, 1987. ISBN 0-671-63161-6.
- Gabriel Josipovici. “Building the Tabernacle.” In The Book of God: A Response to the Bible, 90–107. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988. ISBN 0-300-04320-1.
- Jon D. Levenson. “Cosmos and Microcosm.” In Creation and the Persistence of Evil: The Jewish Drama of Divine Omnipotence, 78–99. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1988. ISBN 0-06-254845-X.
- Craig R. Koester. Dwelling of God: The Tabernacle in the Old Testament, Intertestamental Jewish Literature, and the New Testament. Washington: Catholic Biblical Association of America, 1989. ISBN 0-915170-21-3.
- Nehama Leibowitz. New Studies in Shemot/Exodus, 689–709. Jerusalem: Haomanim Press, 1993. Reprinted as New Studies in the Weekly Parasha. Lambda Publishers, 2010. ISBN 965524038X.
- Alan Lew. This Is Real and You Are Completely Unprepared: The Days of Awe as a Journey of Transformation, 53–55. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 2003. ISBN 0-316-73908-1.
- Suzanne A. Brody. “Successful Campaign.” In Dancing in the White Spaces: The Yearly Torah Cycle and More Poems, 84. Shelbyville, Kentucky: Wasteland Press, 2007. ISBN 1-60047-112-9.
- "Torah Stats — Shemoth". Akhlah Inc. Retrieved February 23, 2013.
- See, e.g., The Schottenstein Edition Interlinear Chumash: Shemos/Exodus. Edited by Menachem Davis, 281–95. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 2008. ISBN 1-4226-0204-4.
- Exodus 38:21–31.
- Exodus 38:25–26.
- Exodus 39:2–21.
- Exodus 39:22–32.
- Exodus 39:33–43.
- Exodus 40:1–16.
- Exodus 40:17–27.
- Exodus 40:33–34.
- Exodus 40:35–37.
- Exodus 40:38.
- For more on inner-Biblical interpretation, see, e.g., Benjamin D. Sommer. “Inner-biblical Interpretation.” In The Jewish Study Bible. Edited by Adele Berlin and Marc Zvi Brettler, pages 1829–35. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-19-529751-2.
- Exodus Rabbah 51:4.
- Jerusalem Talmud Peah 5a.
- Babylonian Talmud Berakhot 55a.
- Babylonian Talmud Sanhedrin 69b.
- Genesis Rabbah 84:18.
- Jerusalem Talmud Berakhot 6a.
- Genesis Rabbah 4:2.
- Babylonian Talmud Zevachim 19a.
- Exodus Rabbah 52:5.
- Midrash Tanhuma Pekudei 11.
- Babylonian Talmud Shabbat 87b.
- See Genesis 1:1–5.
- See Numbers 7:10–17.
- See Leviticus 9:1–21.
- See Leviticus 9:24.
- See Exodus 25:8.
- See Leviticus 9:22, employing the blessing prescribed by Numbers 6:22–27.
- See Leviticus 17:3–4.
- See Exodus 12:2.
- Babylonian Talmud Nedarim 38a.
- Babylonian Talmud Yoma 4b. Reprinted in, e.g., Talmud Bavli. Elucidated by Abba Zvi Naiman, Michoel Weiner, Yosef Widroff, Moshe Zev Einhorn, Israel Schneider, and Zev Meisels; edited by Yisroel Simcha Schorr and Chaim Malinowitz, volume 13, page 4b3. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 1998. ISBN 1-57819-660-4.
- Midrash HaGadol 40:38. Quoted in Avivah Gottlieb Zornberg. The Particulars of Rapture: Reflections on Exodus, page 492. New York: Doubleday, 2001. ISBN 0-385-49152-2.
- Maimonides. The Commandments: Sefer Ha-Mitzvoth of Maimonides. Translated by Charles B. Chavel, 2 vols. London: Soncino Press, 1967. ISBN 0-900689-71-4. Sefer HaHinnuch: The Book of [Mitzvah] Education. Translated by Charles Wengrov, 1:433. Jerusalem: Feldheim Pub., 1991. ISBN 0-87306-179-9.
- Menachem Davis. The Schottenstein Edition Siddur for the Sabbath and Festivals with an Interlinear Translation, 272. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 2002. ISBN 1-57819-697-3.
- Exodus 40:18.
- 1 Kings 7:40–50.
- Exodus 40:34–35; 1 Kings 8:10–11.
- Exodus 12:2.
- Exodus 12:3–20.
- Exodus 12:7; Ezekiel 45:19.
- Numbers 19:18; Ezekiel 36:25.