Pekudei

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Pekudei, Pekude, Pekudey, P’kude, or P’qude (פְקוּדֵיHebrew for “amounts of,” the second word, and the first distinctive word, in the parashah) is the 23rd weekly Torah portion (פָּרָשָׁה, parashah) in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the 11th and last in the book of Exodus. It constitutes Exodus 38:21–40:38. The parashah is made up of 4,432 Hebrew letters, 1,182 Hebrew words, and 92 verses, and can occupy about 159 lines in a Torah scroll (סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה, Sefer Torah).[1]

Jews read it the 22nd or 23rd Sabbath after Simchat Torah, generally in March. The lunisolar Hebrew calendar contains up to 55 weeks, the exact number varying between 50 in common years and 54 or 55 in leap years. In leap years (for example, 2014 and 2016), parashah Pekudei is read separately. In common years (for example, 2015, 2017, and 2018), parashah Pekudei is combined with the previous parashah, Vayakhel, to help achieve the needed number of weekly readings.

The parashah tells of the setting up of the Tabernacle.

The Tabernacle in the Wilderness (illustration from the 1890 Holman Bible)

Readings[edit]

In traditional Sabbath Torah reading, the parashah is divided into seven readings, or עליות, aliyot.[2]

The Tailor (watercolor circa 1896–1902 by James Tissot)

First reading — Exodus 38:21–39:1[edit]

In the first reading (עליה, aliyah), at Moses’ direction, Aaron’s son Ithamar oversaw the accounts of the Tabernacle, and the text sets forth the amounts of gold, silver, and copper that Bezalel, Oholiab, and their coworkers used.[3] The silver came from the half-shekel a head for each man 20 years old and older who was counted in the census.[4]

Second reading — Exodus 39:2–21[edit]

In the second reading (עליה, aliyah), Bezalel, Oholiab, and their coworkers made the priests’ vestments, the ephod, and the breastpiece — just as God had commanded Moses.[5]

Third reading — Exodus 39:22–32[edit]

In the third reading (עליה, aliyah), Bezalel, Oholiab, and their coworkers made the robe, the tunics of fine linen, and the frontlet inscribed “Holy to the Lord” — just as God had commanded Moses.[6]

Fourth reading — Exodus 39:33–43[edit]

The Cloud Led the Israelites (1984 illustration by Jim Padgett, courtesy of Sweet Publishing)

In the fourth reading (עליה, aliyah), they brought the Tabernacle and all its furnishings to Moses, and he blessed them.[7]

Fifth reading — Exodus 40:1–16[edit]

In the fifth reading (עליה, aliyah), God told Moses to set up the Tabernacle, and Moses did just as God had commanded him.[8]

Sixth reading — Exodus 40:17–27[edit]

In the sixth reading (עליה, aliyah), it was the first day of the second year of the Exodus that Moses erected the Tabernacle and its furnishings — just as God had commanded Moses.[9]

Seventh reading — Exodus 40:28–38[edit]

In the seventh reading (עליה, aliyah), Moses finished the work, and the cloud covered the Tent of Meeting, and God’s Presence filled the Tabernacle.[10] When the cloud lifted from the Tabernacle, the Israelites would set out, and when the cloud did not lift, they would not set out.[11] And God’s cloud rested over the Tabernacle by day, and fire would appear in it by night, throughout the Israelites’ journeys.[12]

In inner-Biblical interpretation[edit]

The parashah has parallels or is discussed in these Biblical sources:[13]

Exodus chapters 25–39[edit]

This is the pattern of instruction and construction of the Tabernacle and its furnishings:

The Tabernacle
Item Instruction Construction
Order Verses Order Verses
The Sabbath 16 Exodus 31:12–17 1 Exodus 35:1–3
Contributions 1 Exodus 25:1–9 2 Exodus 35:4–29
Craftspeople 15 Exodus 31:1–11 3 Exodus 35:30–36:7
Tabernacle 5 Exodus 26:1–37 4 Exodus 36:8–38
Ark 2 Exodus 25:10–22 5 Exodus 37:1–9
Table 3 Exodus 25:23–30 6 Exodus 37:10–16
Menorah 4 Exodus 25:31–40 7 Exodus 37:17–24
Altar of Incense 11 Exodus 30:1–10 8 Exodus 37:25–28
Anointing Oil 13 Exodus 30:22–33 9 Exodus 37:29
Incense 14 Exodus 30:34–38 10 Exodus 37:29
Altar of Sacrifice 6 Exodus 27:1–8 11 Exodus 38:1–7
Laver 12 Exodus 30:17–21 12 Exodus 38:8
Tabernacle Court 7 Exodus 27:9–19 13 Exodus 38:9–20
Priestly Garments 9 Exodus 28:1–43 14 Exodus 39:1–31
Ordination Ritual 10 Exodus 29:1–46 15 Leviticus 8:1–9:24
Lamp 8 Exodus 27:20–21 16 Numbers 8:1–4

Exodus chapter 39[edit]

2 Chronicles 1:5–6 reports that the bronze altar that Bezalel built, which they brought to Moses in Exodus 39:39, still stood before the Tabernacle in Solomon’s time, and Solomon sacrificed a thousand burnt offerings on it.

Exodus chapters 39–40[edit]

Martin Buber and others noted that the language used to describe the building of the Tabernacle parallels that used in the story of creation.[14]

Creation and the Tabernacle
Verses in Genesis Texts Words in Common Verses in Exodus Texts
1:7, 16, 25 7And God made (וַיַּעַשׂ) the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament; and it was so. . . . 16And God made (וַיַּעַשׂ) the two great lights: the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night; and the stars. . . . 25And God made (וַיַּעַשׂ) the beast of the earth after its kind, and the cattle after their kind, and everything that creeps upon the ground after its kind; and God saw that it was good. made

make וַיַּעַשׂ וְעָשׂוּ וְעָשִׂיתָ

25:8, 10, 23, 31 8And let them make (וְעָשׂוּ) Me a sanctuary, that I may dwell among them. . . . 10And they shall make (וְעָשׂוּ) an ark of acacia-wood: two cubits and a half shall be the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the height thereof. . . . 23And you shall make (וְעָשִׂיתָ) a table of acacia-wood: two cubits shall be the length thereof, and a cubit the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the height thereof. . . . 31And you shall make (וְעָשִׂיתָ) a candlestick of pure gold: of beaten work shall the candlestick be made, even its base, and its shaft; its cups, its knops, and its flowers, shall be of one piece with it.
2:1–2 1And the heaven and the earth were finished (וַיְכֻלּוּ), and all the host of them. 2And on the seventh day God finished (וַיְכַל) His work that He had made; and He rested on the seventh day from all His work that He had made. finished

וַיְכֻלּוּ וַיְכַל וַתֵּכֶל

39:32; 40:33 32Thus was finished (וַתֵּכֶל) all the work of the Tabernacle of the tent of meeting; and the children of Israel did according to all that the Lord commanded Moses, so did they. . . . 33And he reared up the court round about the tabernacle and the altar, and set up the screen of the gate of the court. So Moses finished (וַיְכַל) the work.
1:31 31And God saw (וַיַּרְא) everything that He had made, and, behold (וְהִנֵּה), it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day. saw . . . behold

וַיַּרְא . . . וְהִנֵּה

39:43 43And Moses saw (וַיַּרְא) all the work, and, behold (וְהִנֵּה), they had done it; as the Lord had commanded, even so had they done it. And Moses blessed them.
2:3 3And God blessed (וַיְבָרֶךְ) the seventh day, and hallowed it; because in it He rested from all His work that God in creating had made. blessed

וַיְבָרֶךְ

39:43 43And Moses saw all the work, and, behold, they had done it; as the Lord had commanded, even so had they done it. And Moses blessed (וַיְבָרֶךְ) them.
Josephus

In early nonrabbinic interpretation[edit]

The parashah has parallels or is discussed in these early nonrabbinic sources:

Exodus chapter 38[edit]

Josephus taught that when the Israelites brought together the materials with great diligence, Moses set architects over the works by the command of God. And these were the very same people that the people themselves would have chosen, had the election been allowed to them: Bezalel, the son of Uri, of the tribe of Judah, the grandson of Miriam, the sister of Moses, and Oholiab, file son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan.[15]

In classical rabbinic interpretation[edit]

The parashah is discussed in these rabbinic sources from the era of the Mishnah and the Talmud:

Exodus chapter 38[edit]

Reading Exodus 38:21, “These are the accounts of the Tabernacle,” Rabbi Tanhuma cited Proverbs 28:20, “A faithful man shall abound with blessings; but he that makes haste to be rich shall not be unpunished.” Rabbi Tanhuma taught that God always brings blessings through a person of integrity, but one who is not faithful and “makes haste to be rich shall not be unpunished.” The Midrash taught that “a faithful man” refers to Moses, who was God’s confidant, as Numbers 12:7 reports, “My servant Moses . . . is trusted in all My house.” Thus Solomon said in Proverbs 28:20, “A faithful man shall abound with blessings,” because God blessed everything that Moses oversaw, on account of his trustworthiness. Another explanation of “A faithful man” is that it refers to Moses, who was made treasurer over the work of the Tabernacle. But our Rabbis taught (in Mishnah Shekalim 5:2[16]), “One must not appoint fewer than two people to control the finances of a city or community,” and the Midrash asked whether Moses was not solely in charge. The Midrash answered that although Moses was the sole treasurer, he called others to audit the accounts. The Midrash noted that Exodus 38:21 says, “These are the accounts of the Tabernacle,” and does not say, “which Moses rendered,” but “which were rendered according to the commandment of Moses.” Thus the accounts were rendered through Moses but, as Exodus 38:21 reports, “by the hand of Ithamar” (implying that Moses showed all the accounts to Ithamar).[17]

Worshiping the Golden Calf (illustration from a Bible card published 1901 by the Providence Lithograph Company)

Rabbi Simeon son of Rabbi Ishmael interpreted the term “the Tabernacle of the testimony” in Exodus 38:21 to mean that the Tabernacle was God’s testimony to the whole world that God had forgiven Israel for having made the Golden Calf. Rabbi Isaac explained with a parable. A king took a wife whom he dearly loved. He became angry with her and left her, and her neighbors taunted her, saying that he would not return. Then the king sent her a message asking her to prepare the king’s palace and make the beds therein, for he was coming back to her on such-and-such a day. On that day, the king returned to her and became reconciled to her, entering her chamber and eating and drinking with her. Her neighbors at first did not believe it, but when they smelled the fragrant spices, they knew that the king had returned. Similarly, God loved Israel, bringing the Israelites to Mount Sinai, and giving them the Torah, but after only 40 days, they sinned with the Golden Calf. The heathen nations then said that God would not be reconciled with the Israelites. But when Moses pleaded for mercy on their behalf, God forgave them, as Numbers 14:20 reports, “And the Lord said: ‘I have pardoned according to your word.’” Moses then told God that even though he personally was quite satisfied that God had forgiven Israel, he asked that God might announce that fact to the nations. God replied that God would cause God’s Shechinah to dwell in their midst, and thus Exodus 25:8 says, “And let them make Me a sanctuary, that I may dwell among them.” And by that sign, God intended that all nations might know that God had forgiven the Israelites. And thus Exodus 38:21 calls it “the Tabernacle of the testimony,” because the Tabernacle was a testimony that God had pardoned the Israelites’ sins.[18]

Bezalel (watercolor circa 1896–1902 by James Tissot)

Rabbi Tanhuma taught in the name of Rav Huna that even the things that Bezalel did not hear from Moses he conceived of on his own exactly as they were told to Moses from Sinai. Rabbi Tanhuma said in the name of Rav Huna that one can deduce this from the words of Exodus 38:22, “And Bezalel the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah, made all that the Lord commanded Moses.” For Exodus 38:22 does not say, “that Moses commanded him,” but, “that the Lord commanded Moses.”[19] And the Agadat Shir ha-Shirim taught that Bezalel and Oholiab went up Mount Sinai, where the heavenly Sanctuary was shown to them.[20]

A Midrash explained that Israel sinned with fire in making the Golden Calf, as Exodus 32:24 says, “And I cast it into the fire, and there came out this calf.” And then Bezalel came and healed the wound (and the construction of the Tabernacle made atonement for the sins of the people in making the Golden Calf). The Midrash likened it to the words of Isaiah 54:16, “Behold, I have created the smith who blows the fire of coals.” The Midrash taught that Bezalel was the smith whom God had created to address the fire. And the Midrash likened it to the case of a doctor's disciple who applied a plaster to a wound and healed it. When people began to praise him, his teacher, the doctor, said that they should praise the doctor, for he taught the disciple. Similarly, when everybody said that Bezalel had constructed the Tabernacle through his knowledge and understanding, God said that it was God who created him and taught him, as Isaiah 54:16 says, “Behold, I have created the smith.” Thus Moses said in Exodus 35:30, “see, the Lord has called by name Bezalel.”[21]

Exodus 35:30 identifies Bezalel’s grandfather as Hur, whom either Rav or Samuel deduced was the son of Miriam and Caleb.[22] A Midrash explained that Exodus 35:30 mentions Hur because when the Israelites were about to serve the Golden Calf, Hur risked his life on God's behalf to prevent them from doing so, and they killed him. Whereupon God assured Hur that God would repay him for his sacrifice. The Midrash likened it to the case of a king whose legions rebelled against him, and his field marshal fought against the rebels, questioning how they could dare rebel against the king. In the end, the rebels killed the field marshal. The king reasoned that if the field marshal had given the king money, the king would have had to repay him. So even more so the king had an obligation to repay the field marshal when he gave his life on the king’s behalf. The king rewarded the field marshal by ordaining that all his male offspring would become generals and officers. Similarly, when Israel made the Golden Calf, Hur gave his life for the glory of God. Thus God assured Hur that God would give all Hur’s descendants a great name in the world. And thus Exodus 35:30 says, “see, the Lord has called by name Bezalel, the son of Uri, the son of Hur.”[23]

Rabbi Johanan taught that God proclaims three things for God’s Self: famine, plenty, and a good leader. 2 Kings 8:1 shows that God proclaims famine, when it says: “The Lord has called for a famine.” Ezekiel 36:29 shows that God proclaims plenty, when it says: “I will call for the corn and will increase it.” And Exodus 31:1–2 shows that God proclaims a good leader, when it says: “And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, ‘See I have called by name Bezalel, the son of Uri.’” Rabbi Isaac taught that we cannot appoint a leader over a community without first consulting the people, as Exodus 35:30 says: “And Moses said unto the children of Israel: ‘See, the Lord has called by name Bezalel, the son of Uri.’” Rabbi Isaac taught that God asked Moses whether Moses considered Bezalel suitable. Moses replied that if God thought Bezalel suitable, surely Moses must also. God told Moses that, all the same, Moses should go and consult the people. Moses then asked the Israelites whether they considered Bezalel suitable. They replied that if God and Moses considered Bezalel suitable, then surely they had to, as well. Rabbi Samuel bar Nahmani said in the name of Rabbi Johanan that Bezalel (בְּצַלְאֵל, whose name can be read בְּצֵל אֶל, betzel El, “in the shadow of God”) was so called because of his wisdom. When God told Moses (in Exodus 31:7) to tell Bezalel to make a tabernacle, an ark, and vessels, Moses reversed the order and told Bezalel to make an ark, vessels, and a tabernacle. Bezalel replied to Moses that as a rule, one first builds a house and then brings vessels into it, but Moses directed to make an ark, vessels, and a tabernacle. Bezalel asked where he would put the vessels. And Bezalel asked whether God had told Moses to make a tabernacle, an ark, and vessels. Moses replied that perhaps Bezalel had been in the shadow of God (בְּצֵל אֶל, betzel El) and had thus come to know this. Rav Judah taught in the name of Rav that Exodus 35:31 indicated that God endowed Bezalel with the same attribute that God used in creating the universe. Rav Judah said in the name of Rav that Bezalel knew how to combine the letters by which God created the heavens and earth. For Exodus 35:31 says (about Bezalel), “And He has filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom and in understanding, and in knowledge,” and Proverbs 3:19 says (about creation), “The Lord by wisdom founded the earth; by understanding He established the heavens,” and Proverbs 3:20 says, “By His knowledge the depths were broken up.”[24]

Joseph Sold by His Brothers (illustration from a Bible card published 1907 by the Providence Lithograph Company)

Doing the math implied by Exodus 36:4, Exodus 38:22, Joshua 14:7, and 1 Chronicles 2:19–20, the Gemara deduced that in earlier generations, a boy of eight could father children. Exodus 38:22 reports that “Bezalel, son of Uri, son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah, made all that the Lord had commanded Moses,” when they built the Tabernacle. And 1 Chronicles 2:19–20 reports that Caleb fathered the Hur who fathered Uri who fathered Bezalel. Exodus 36:4 reports that “wise men . . . wrought all the work of the Sanctuary,” so Bezalel must have been at least 13 years old to have been a man when he worked on the Tabernacle. A Baraita taught that Moses made the Tabernacle in the first year after the Exodus, and in the second, he erected it and sent out the spies, so the Gemara deduced that Bezalel must have been at least 14 years old when Moses sent out the spies, the year after Bezalel worked on the Tabernacle. And Joshua 14:7 reports that Caleb said that he was 40 years old when Moses sent him to spy out the land. Thus, the Gemara deduced that Caleb was only 26 years older than his great-grandson Bezalel. Deducting two years for the three pregnancies needed to create the three intervening generations, the Gemara concluded that each of Caleb, Hur, and Uri must have conceived his son at the age of eight.[25]

Rabbi Judah ben Simon taught that God required each of the Israelites to give a half-shekel (as reported in Exodus 38:26) because (as reported in Genesis 37:28) their ancestors had sold Joseph to the Ishmaelites for 20 shekels.[26]

Exodus chapter 39[edit]

A Midrash noted that the section recounting the setting up of the Tabernacle in Parashah Pekudei, in which, beginning with Exodus 39:1, nearly every paragraph concludes, “Even as the Lord commanded Moses,”[27] is followed by Leviticus 1:1: “And the Lord called to Moses.” The Midrash compared this to the case of a king who commanded his servant to build him a palace. On everything the servant built, he wrote the name of the king. The servant wrote the name of the king on the walls, the pillars, and the roof beams. After some time the king entered the palace, and on everything he saw he found his name. The king thought that the servant had done him all this honor, and yet the servant remained outside. So the king had called that the servant might come right in. So, too, when God directed Moses to make God a Tabernacle, Moses wrote on everything he made “Even as the Lord commanded Moses.” God thought that Moses had done God all this honor, and yet Moses remained outside. So God call Moses so that he might enter the innermost part of the Tabernacle. Therefore Leviticus 1:1 reports, “And the Lord called to Moses.”[28] Rabbi Samuel bar Nahman said in the name of Rabbi Nathan that “as the Lord commanded” is written 18 times in the section recounting the setting up of the Tabernacle in Parashah Pekudei, corresponding to the 18 vertebrae of the spinal column. Likewise, the Sages instituted 18 benedictions of the Amidah prayer, corresponding to the 18 mentions of the Divine Name in the reading of the Shema, and also in Psalm 29. Rabbi Hiyya bar Abba taught that the 18 times “command” are counted only from Exodus 38:23, “And with him was Oholiab, the son of Ahisamach of the tribe of Dan,” until the end of the Book of Exodus.[29]

The Firmament (illustration from Camille Flammarion's 1888 L'atmosphère: météorologie populaire)

Rabbi Judah ben Pazi noted that a similar word appears in both Genesis 1:6 — where rakya is translated as “firmament” — and Exodus 39:3 — where vayraku is translated as “and they flattened.” He thus deduced from the usage in Exodus 39:3 that Genesis 1:6 taught that on the second day of creation, God spread the heavens flat like a cloth.[30] Or Rabbi Judah ben Simon deduced from Exodus 39:3 that Genesis 1:6 meant “let a lining be made for the firmament.”[31]

A Baraita taught that the High Priest’s wore his mitre so that hair was visible between the headplate and the mitre described in Exodus 39:30–31.[32]

The Pesikta Rabbati taught that when the Israelites continually complained, God asked them to build the Tabernacle, so that they would be too busy to complain. But when, as Exodus 39:32 reports, all the work of the Tabernacle was finished, God exclaimed, “Woe is Me! It is finished!”[33]

The Tabernacle that the Israelites Built (illustration from the 1897 Bible Pictures and What They Teach Us by Charles Foster)

Reading Exodus 39:33, “and they brought the Tabernacle,” a Midrash taught that on the day that the Tabernacle was set up, the Israelites rejoiced greatly because God then dwelt in their midst. And the people sang the words of Song of Songs 3:11, “Go forth, O you daughters of Zion, and gaze upon King Solomon, even upon the crown wherewith his mother has crowned him in the day of his espousals, and in the day of the gladness of his heart.” “O you daughters of Zion” were the children who are distinguished as God’s from among the peoples. “And gaze upon King Solomon” meant “gaze upon a King to whom all peace belongs” (reading the name Solomon as a play on the word “His peace”) — that is, upon the King of kings, God. “Even upon the crown wherewith his mother has crowned him” referred to the Tabernacle, which was called a crown because just as a crown has beautiful designs, so was the Tabernacle beautifully designed. “In the day of his espousals” referred to Sinai (at the Revelation). “And in the day of the gladness of his heart” referred to Jerusalem (when God caused God’s presence to dwell in the Temple in Jerusalem). According to another explanation, “in the day of his espousals” was the day when God was with Israel at the Red Sea, and “in the day of the gladness of his heart” was when God’s presence dwelt in the Tent of Meeting. And according to yet another explanation, “in the day of his espousals” was in the Tabernacle, and “in the day of the gladness of his heart” was in the Temple (when they were erected).[34]

The High Priest's garments (1984 illustration by Jim Padgett, courtesy of Sweet Publishing)

Exodus chapter 40[edit]

A Midrash taught that the priestly garments of which God spoke in Exodus 40:13 were in fact the garments for which Jacob prayed at Bethel in Genesis 28:20. The Midrash taught that Jacob did not ask simply for food and garments, but that God would promise to be with him and build up the world from him. And Jacob would know that God was with him and guarded him when God would raise up from him sons who would be priests, eating of the showbread and clothed in the priestly garments. The Midrash interpreted the words of Genesis 28:20, “bread to eat,” to refer to the showbread, and “garments to put on” to refer to the priestly garments, for Exodus 40:13 says: "And you shall put upon Aaron the holy garments.”[35]

A Midrash taught that many wise people were there, yet they had to come to Moses, for they could not erect the Tabernacle on their own. Moses excelled them all in skill, as Solomon said in Proverbs 31:29, “Many daughters have done valiantly, but you excel them all.” So each of the wise people took a finished piece of work and came to Moses to present him the boards, the bars, and all the parts. As soon as Moses saw the parts, the Holy Spirit settled on him, and he set the Tabernacle up. The Midrash clarified that Moses did not set it up by himself, for miracles were performed with it, and it rose of its own accord, for Exodus 40:17 says (using the passive voice), “The Tabernacle was reared up.” And the Midrash taught that Solomon’s Temple, too, was built of its own accord.[36] Similarly, noting that Exodus 40:17 reports that “the Tabernacle was reared up” — using the passive voice — another Midrash told that when in Exodus 40:1–2 God told Moses to set up the Tabernacle, Moses protested that he did not know how to set it up. So God told Moses to begin working with his hands and make a show of setting it up, and the Tabernacle would stand up on its own. But God reassured Moses that God would record that Moses set it up, as Exodus 40:18 reports, “Moses reared up the Tabernacle.”[37]

Moses Destroys the Tables of the Ten Commandments (watercolor circa 1896–1902 by James Tissot)

Rav Assi of Hozna'ah deduced from the words, “And it came to pass in the first month of the second year, on the first day of the month,” in Exodus 40:17 that the Tabernacle was erected on the first of Nisan. With reference to this, a Tanna taught that the first of Nisan took ten crowns of distinction by virtue of the ten momentous events that occurred on that day.[38] The first of Nisan was: (1) the first day of the Creation,[39] (2) the first day of the princes’ offerings,[40] (3) the first day for the priesthood to make the sacrificial offerings,[41] (4) the first day for public sacrifice, (5) the first day for the descent of fire from Heaven,[42] (6) the first for the priests’ eating of sacred food in the sacred area, (7) the first for the dwelling of the Shechinah in Israel,[43] (8) the first for the Priestly Blessing of Israel,[44] (9) the first for the prohibition of the high places,[45] and (10) the first of the months of the year.[46]

In Deuteronomy 18:15, Moses foretold that “A prophet will the Lord your God raise up for you . . . like me,” and Rabbi Johanan thus taught that prophets would have to be, like Moses, strong, wealthy, wise, and meek. Strong, for Exodus 40:19 says of Moses, “he spread the tent over the Tabernacle,” and a Master taught that Moses himself spread it, and Exodus 26:16 reports, “Ten cubits shall be the length of a board.” Similarly, the strength of Moses can be derived from Deuteronomy 9:17, in which Moses reports, “And I took the two tablets, and cast them out of my two hands, and broke them,” and it was taught that the tablets were six handbreadths in length, six in breadth, and three in thickness. Wealthy, as Exodus 34:1 reports God’s instruction to Moses, “Carve yourself two tablets of stone,” and the Rabbis interpreted the verse to teach that the chips would belong to Moses. Wise, for Rav and Samuel both said that 50 gates of understanding were created in the world, and all but one were given to Moses, for Psalm 8:6 said of Moses, “You have made him a little lower than God.” Meek, for Numbers 12:3 reports, “Now the man Moses was very meek.”[47]

The Bronze Basin (1984 illustration by Jim Padgett, courtesy of Sweet Publishing)

The Mishnah taught that any sacrifice performed by a priest who had not washed his hands and feet at the laver (described in Exodus 40:30–32) was invalid.[48]

Rabbi Jose the son of Rabbi Hanina taught that a priest was not permitted to wash in a laver that did not contain enough water to wash four priests, for Exodus 40:31 says, “That Moses and Aaron and his sons might wash their hands and their feet thereat.” (“His sons” implies at least two priests, and adding Moses and Aaron makes four.)[49]

The Mishnah reported that the High Priest Ben Katin made 12 spigots for the laver, where there had been two before. Ben Katin also made a machine for the laver, so that its water would not become unfit by remaining overnight.[50]

The Israelites Followed the Cloud on Their Journeys (1984 illustration by Jim Padgett, courtesy of Sweet Publishing)

Rabbi Zerika asked about an apparent contradiction of Scriptural passages in the presence of Rabbi Eleazar, or, according to another version, he asked in the name of Rabbi Eleazar. Exodus 40:35 reads: “And Moses was not able to enter into the tent of meeting because the cloud abode thereon,” whereas Exodus 24:18 says: “And Moses entered into the midst of the cloud.” The Gemara concluded that this teaches us that God took hold of Moses and brought him into the cloud. Alternatively, the school of Rabbi Ishmael taught in a Baraita that in Exodus 24:18, the word for “in the midst” (בְּתוֹךְ, be-tokh) appears, and it also appears in Exodus 14:22: “And the children of Israel went into the midst of the sea.” Just as in Exodus 14:22, the word “in the midst” (בְּתוֹךְ, be-tokh) implies a path, as Exodus 14:22 says, “And the waters were a wall unto them,” so here too in Exodus 24:18, there was a path (for Moses through the cloud).[51]

Reading the words of Exodus 40:38, “For over the Mishkan a cloud of God rested by day, and fire would appear in it by night,” a Midrash taught that when the Israelites saw the pillar of cloud resting on the Mishkan, they rejoiced, thinking that God had been reconciled with them. But when night came, the pillar of fire descended and surrounded the Mishkan. All the Israelites saw it as one flame of fire and began to weep in sorrow, feeling that they had labored (building the Mishkan) for nothing, as all their work appeared to have been burnt up in a moment. When they arose early the next morning and saw the pillar of cloud encompassing the Mishkan, they immediately rejoiced with an inordinate joy.[52]

In modern interpretation[edit]

Exodus chapter 38[edit]

Exodus 38:24 reports that Bezalel and Oholiab used roughly a ton of gold in making the Tabernacle. According to one estimate, the metal listed in Exodus 38:24–29 amounted to 2,210 pounds of gold, 7,601 pounds of silver, and 5,350 pounds of copper.[53] By comparison, an inscription from Bubastis reports that the Ancient Egyptian king Osorkon I dedicated more than 391 tons of gold and silver objects to Egyptian temples in the first four years of his reign.[54] This table translates units of weight used in the Bible:[55]

Weight Measurements in the Bible
Unit Texts Ancient Equivalent Modern Equivalent
gerah (גֵּרָה) Exodus 30:13; Leviticus 27:25; Numbers 3:47; 18:16; Ezekiel 45:12 1/20 shekel 0.6 gram; 0.02 ounce
bekah (בֶּקַע) Genesis 24:22; Exodus 38:26 10 gerahs; half shekel 6 grams; 0.21 ounce
pim (פִים) 1 Samuel 13:21 2/3 shekel 8 grams; 0.28 ounce
shekel (שֶּׁקֶל) Exodus 21:32; 30:13, 15, 24; 38:24, 25, 26, 29 20 gerahs; 2 bekahs 12 grams; 0.42 ounce
mina (maneh, מָּנֶה) 1 Kings 10:17; Ezekiel 45:12; Ezra 2:69; Nehemiah 7:70 50 shekels 0.6 kilogram; 1.32 pounds
talent (kikar, כִּכָּר) Exodus 25:39; 37:24; 38:24, 25, 27, 29 3,000 shekels; 60 minas 36 kilograms; 79.4 pounds

Commandments[edit]

According to Maimonides and Sefer ha-Chinuch, there are no commandments in the parashah.[56]

In the liturgy[edit]

A Midrash taught that on the day that Moses completed construction of the Tabernacle (as reported in Exodus 40:33), he composed Psalm 91, which Jews read in the Pesukei D’Zimrah section of the morning Shacharit prayer service.[57]

Solomon Dedicates the Temple at Jerusalem (watercolor circa 1896–1902 by James Tissot)

Haftarah[edit]

Generally[edit]

The haftarah for the parashah is:

Sephardi — 1 Kings 7:40–50[edit]

Both the parashah and the haftarah in 1 Kings 7:40–50 report the leader’s erection of the holy place — Moses’ setting up the Tabernacle in the parashah,[58] and Solomon’s building of the Temple in Jerusalem in the haftarah.[59] Both the parashah and the haftarah report that the builders finished the work: “Moses finished the work” (וַיְכַל מֹשֶׁה, אֶת-הַמְּלָאכָה, vayechal Mosheh et ha-melachah) in Exodus 40:33, and “so Hiram made an end of doing all the work” (וַיְכַל חִירָם, לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת-כָּל-הַמְּלָאכָה, vayechal Chiram la’asot et kol ha-melachah) in 1 Kings 7:40.

Ashkenazi — 1 Kings 7:51–8:21[edit]

Similarly, both the parashah and the haftarah in 1 Kings 7:51–8:21 report the finishing of the leaders’ work: “Moses finished the work” (וַיְכַל מֹשֶׁה, אֶת-הַמְּלָאכָה, vayechal Mosheh et ha-melachah) in Exodus 40:33, and “all the work that king Solomon wrought . . . was finished” (וַתִּשְׁלַם, כָּל-הַמְּלָאכָה, אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה הַמֶּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה, vatishlam kol ha-melachah asher asah ha-melech Shlomoh) in 1 Kings 7:51. And in both the parashah and the haftarah, a cloud and the Presence of the Lord fill the Sanctuary, indicating God’s approval.[60]

On Shabbat Shekalim[edit]

When the parashah coincides with the special Sabbath Shabbat Shekalim (as it does in 2014), the haftarah is 2 Kings 12:1–17.

On Shabbat Rosh Chodesh[edit]

When the parashah coincides with Shabbat Rosh Chodesh (as it did in 2008), the haftarah is Isaiah 66:1–24.

Parashah Vayakhel–Pekudei[edit]

When parashah Vayakhel is combined with parashah Pekudei, the haftarah is:

Ezekiel (1510 fresco by Michelangelo at the Sistine Chapel)

On Shabbat HaChodesh[edit]

When the parashah coincides with Shabbat HaChodesh ("Sabbath [of] the month," the special Sabbath preceding the Hebrew month of Nissan — as it does in 2017), the haftarah is:

On Shabbat HaChodesh, Jews read Exodus 12:1–20, in which God commands that “This month [Nissan] shall be the beginning of months; it shall be the first month of the year,”[61] and in which God issued the commandments of Passover.[62] Similarly, the haftarah in Ezekiel 45:21–25 discusses Passover. In both the parashah and the haftarah, God instructs the Israelites to apply blood to doorposts.[63]

On Shabbat Parah[edit]

When the parashah coincides with Shabbat Parah (the special Sabbath prior to Passover — as it does in 2015 and 2018), the haftarah is:

On Shabbat Parah, the Sabbath of the red heifer, Jews read Numbers 19:1–22, which describes the rites of purification using the red heifer (פָרָה אֲדֻמָּה, parah adumah). Similarly, the haftarah in Ezekiel 36 also describes purification. In both the special reading and the haftarah in Ezekiel 36, sprinkled water cleansed the Israelites.[64]

Further reading[edit]

The parashah has parallels or is discussed in these sources:

Biblical[edit]

Philo

Early nonrabbinic[edit]

Classical rabbinic[edit]

  • Tosefta: Zevachim 1:8; Menachot 7:7–8. Land of Israel, circa 300 C.E. Reprinted in, e.g., The Tosefta: Translated from the Hebrew, with a New Introduction. Translated by Jacob Neusner, 2:1310, 1434–35. Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers, 2002. ISBN 1-56563-642-2.
  • Genesis Rabbah 3:9; 4:2; 84:18. Land of Israel, 5th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Genesis. Translated by H. Freedman and Maurice Simon, volume 1, pages 25, 27; volume 2, page 783. London: Soncino Press, 1939. ISBN 0-900689-38-2.
Talmud

Medieval[edit]

Rashi
  • Exodus Rabbah 51:1–52:5. 10th Century. 10th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Exodus. Translated by S. M. Lehrman, 3:562–81. London: Soncino Press, 1939. ISBN 0-900689-38-2.
  • Rashi. Commentary. Exodus 38–40. Troyes, France, late 11th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., Rashi. The Torah: With Rashi’s Commentary Translated, Annotated, and Elucidated. Translated and annotated by Yisrael Isser Zvi Herczeg, volume 2, pages 507–24. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 1994. ISBN 0-89906-027-7.
  • Rashbam. Commentary on the Torah. Troyes, early 12th century. Reprinted in, e.g., Rashbam’s Commentary on Exodus: An Annotated Translation. Edited and translated by Martin I. Lockshin, pages 431–38. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1997. ISBN 0-7885-0225-5.
  • Judah Halevi. Kuzari. 3:23. Toledo, Spain, 1130–1140. Reprinted in, e.g., Jehuda Halevi. Kuzari: An Argument for the Faith of Israel. Introduction by Henry Slonimsky, page 162. New York: Schocken, 1964. ISBN 0-8052-0075-4.
Nachmanides
  • Abraham ibn Ezra. Commentary on the Torah. France, 1153. Reprinted in, e.g., Ibn Ezra's Commentary on the Pentateuch: Exodus (Shemot). Translated and annotated by H. Norman Strickman and Arthur M. Silver, volume 2, pages 747–66. New York: Menorah Publishing Company, 1996. ISBN 0-932232-08-6.
  • Hezekiah ben Manoah. Hizkuni. France, circa 1240. Reprinted in, e.g., Chizkiyahu ben Manoach. Chizkuni: Torah Commentary. Translated and annotated by Eliyahu Munk, volume 3, pages 651–55. Jerusalem: Ktav Publishers, 2013. ISBN 978-1-60280-261-2.
  • Nachmanides. Commentary on the Torah. Jerusalem, circa 1270. Reprinted in, e.g., Ramban (Nachmanides): Commentary on the Torah. Translated by Charles B. Chavel, volume 2, pages 609–26. New York: Shilo Publishing House, 1973. ISBN 0-88328-007-8.
The Zohar
  • Zohar 2:220a–269a. Spain, late 13th Century.
  • Bahya ben Asher. Commentary on the Torah. Spain, early 14th century. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbeinu Bachya: Torah Commentary by Rabbi Bachya ben Asher. Translated and annotated by Eliyahu Munk, volume 4, pages 1438–62. Jerusalem: Lambda Publishers, 2003. ISBN 965-7108-45-4.
  • Jacob ben Asher (Baal Ha-Turim). Commentary on the Torah. Early 14th century. Reprinted in, e.g., Baal Haturim Chumash: Shemos/Exodus. Translated by Eliyahu Touger; edited and annotated by Avie Gold, volume 2, pages 959–83. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 2000. ISBN 1-57819-129-7.
  • Isaac ben Moses Arama. Akedat Yizhak (The Binding of Isaac). Late 15th century. Reprinted in, e.g., Yitzchak Arama. Akeydat Yitzchak: Commentary of Rabbi Yitzchak Arama on the Torah. Translated and condensed by Eliyahu Munk, volume 1, pages 535–44. New York, Lambda Publishers, 2001. ISBN 965-7108-30-6.

Modern[edit]

  • Joseph Garçon. “Sermon on Elleh Fequde.” Salonika, 1500. In Marc Saperstein. Jewish Preaching, 1200–1800: An Anthology, pages 199–216. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989. ISBN 0-300-04355-4.
  • Obadiah ben Jacob Sforno. Commentary on the Torah. Venice, 1567. Reprinted in, e.g., Sforno: Commentary on the Torah. Translation and explanatory notes by Raphael Pelcovitz, pages 486–95. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 1997. ISBN 0-89906-268-7.
  • Moses Almosnino. “Sermon on Elleh Fequde.” Salonika, 1568. In Marc Saperstein. Jewish Preaching, 1200–1800: An Anthology, pages 217–39. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989. ISBN 0-300-04355-4.
Hobbes
Hirsch
Luzzatto
Cassuto
  • Umberto Cassuto. A Commentary on the Book of Exodus. Jerusalem, 1951. Translated by Israel Abrahams, pages 468–85. Jerusalem: The Magnes Press, The Hebrew University, 1967.
  • Elie Munk. The Call of the Torah: An Anthology of Interpretation and Commentary on the Five Books of Moses. Translated by E.S. Mazer, volume 2, pages 530–51. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 1995. ISBN 0-89906-042-0. Originally published as La Voix de la Thora. Paris: Fondation Samuel et Odette Levy, 1981.
  • Richard Elliott Friedman. “A Brilliant Mistake” and “The Sacred Tent.” In Who Wrote the Bible?, pages 161–87. New York: Summit Books, 1987. ISBN 0-671-63161-6.
  • Gabriel Josipovici. “Building the Tabernacle.” In The Book of God: A Response to the Bible, pages 90–107. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988. ISBN 0-300-04320-1.
  • Jon D. Levenson. “Cosmos and Microcosm.” In Creation and the Persistence of Evil: The Jewish Drama of Divine Omnipotence, pages 78–99. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1988. ISBN 0-06-254845-X.
  • Craig R. Koester. Dwelling of God: The Tabernacle in the Old Testament, Intertestamental Jewish Literature, and the New Testament. Washington: Catholic Biblical Association of America, 1989. ISBN 0-915170-21-3.
  • Nahum M. Sarna. The JPS Torah Commentary: Exodus: The Traditional Hebrew Text with the New JPS Translation, pages 231–37. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1991. ISBN 0-8276-0327-4.
  • Nehama Leibowitz. New Studies in Shemot (Exodus), volume 2, pages 644–53, 689–709. Jerusalem: Haomanim Press, 1993. Reprinted as New Studies in the Weekly Parasha. Lambda Publishers, 2010. ISBN 965-524-038-X.
  • Judith S. Antonelli. “Women’s Wisdom.” In In the Image of God: A Feminist Commentary on the Torah, pages 221–30. Northvale, New Jersey: Jason Aronson, 1995. ISBN 1-56821-438-3.
  • Elana Zaiman. “The Birthing of the Mishkan (Tabernacle).” In The Women's Torah Commentary: New Insights from Women Rabbis on the 54 Weekly Torah Portions. Edited by Elyse Goldstein, pages 179–82. Woodstock, Vermont: Jewish Lights Publishing, 2000. ISBN 1-58023-076-8.
  • Alan Lew. This Is Real and You Are Completely Unprepared: The Days of Awe as a Journey of Transformation, pages 53–55. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 2003. ISBN 0-316-73908-1.
Plaut
Sacks
  • Jonathan Sacks. Covenant & Conversation: A Weekly Reading of the Jewish Bible: Exodus: The Book of Redemption, pages 303–57. Jerusalem: Maggid Books, 2010. ISBN 1-59264-021-4.
  • Torah MiEtzion: New Readings in Tanach: Shemot. Edited by Ezra Bick and Yaakov Beasley, pages 480–530. Jerusalem: Maggid Books, 2012. ISBN 1-61329-007-1.

External links[edit]

Old book bindings.jpg

Texts[edit]

Commentaries[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Torah Stats — Shemoth". Akhlah Inc. Retrieved February 23, 2013. 
  2. ^ See, e.g., The Schottenstein Edition Interlinear Chumash: Shemos/Exodus. Edited by Menachem Davis, pages 281–95. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 2008. ISBN 1-4226-0204-4.
  3. ^ Exodus 38:21–31.
  4. ^ Exodus 38:25–26.
  5. ^ Exodus 39:2–21.
  6. ^ Exodus 39:22–32.
  7. ^ Exodus 39:33–43.
  8. ^ Exodus 40:1–16.
  9. ^ Exodus 40:17–27.
  10. ^ Exodus 40:33–34.
  11. ^ Exodus 40:35–37.
  12. ^ Exodus 40:38.
  13. ^ For more on inner-Biblical interpretation, see, e.g., Benjamin D. Sommer. “Inner-biblical Interpretation.” In The Jewish Study Bible. Edited by Adele Berlin and Marc Zvi Brettler, pages 1829–35. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-19-529751-2.
  14. ^ See Sorel Goldberg Loeb and Barbara Binder Kadden. Teaching Torah: A Treasury of Insights and Activities, page 157. Denver: A.R.E. Publishing, 1997. ISBN 0-86705-041-1.
  15. ^ Josephus. Antiquities of the Jews book 3, chapter 6, paragraph 1, clause 104. Circa 93–94. Reprinted in, e.g., The Works of Josephus: Complete and Unabridged, New Updated Edition. Translated by William Whiston, page 86. Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers, 1987. ISBN 0-913573-86-8.
  16. ^ Mishnah Shekalim 5:2. Land of Israel, circa 200 CE. Reprinted in, e.g., The Mishnah: A New Translation. Translated by Jacob Neusner, page 259. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988. ISBN 0-300-05022-4.
  17. ^ Exodus Rabbah 51:1. 10th century. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Exodus. Translated by S.M. Lehrman, volume 3, page 562. London: Soncino Press, 1939. ISBN 0-900689-38-2.
  18. ^ Exodus Rabbah 51:4. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Exodus. Translated by S.M. Lehrman, volume 3, pages 564–65.
  19. ^ Jerusalem Talmud Peah 5a. Land of Israel, circa 400 CE. Reprinted in, e.g., Talmud Yerushalmi. Elucidated by Feivel Wahl, Henoch Moshe Levin, Menachem Goldberger, Avrohom Neuberger, Mendy Wachsman, Michoel Weiner, and Abba Zvi Naiman; edited by Chaim Malinowitz, Yisroel Simcha Schorr, and Mordechai Marcus, volume 3, page 5a2. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 2006. ISBN 1-4226-0236-2.
  20. ^ Agadat Shir ha-Shirim 5, 36–37. 10th century. Quoted in Louis Ginzberg. Legends of the Jews, volume 6, page 63. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1928.
  21. ^ Exodus Rabbah 48:5. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Exodus. Translated by S.M. Lehrman, volume 3, pages 551–52.
  22. ^ Babylonian Talmud Sotah 11b.
  23. ^ Exodus Rabbah 48:3. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Exodus. Translated by S.M. Lehrman, volume 3, page 549.
  24. ^ Babylonian Talmud Berakhot 55a. Reprinted in, e.g., Koren Talmud Bavli: Berakhot. Commentary by Adin Even-Israel (Steinsaltz), volume 1, pages 356–57. Jerusalem: Koren Publishers, 2012. ISBN 965-301-563-0.
  25. ^ Babylonian Talmud Sanhedrin 69b.
  26. ^ Genesis Rabbah 84:18. Land of Israel, 5th century. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Genesis. Translated by H. Freedman and Maurice Simon, volume 2, page 783. London: Soncino Press, 1939. ISBN 0-900689-38-2.
  27. ^ See Exodus 38:22; 39:1, 5, 7, 21, 26, 29, 31, 32, 42, and 43; and 40:16, 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, 29, and 32.
  28. ^ Leviticus Rabbah 1:7. Land of Israel, 5th century. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Leviticus. Translated by H. Freedman and Maurice Simon, volume 4, page 11. London: Soncino Press, 1939. ISBN 0-900689-38-2.
  29. ^ Leviticus Rabbah 1:8. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Leviticus. Translated by H. Freedman and Maurice Simon, volume 4, pages 11–12.
  30. ^ Jerusalem Talmud Berakhot 6a.
  31. ^ Genesis Rabbah 4:2. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Genesis. Translated by H. Freedman and Maurice Simon, volume 1, page 27.
  32. ^ Babylonian Talmud Zevachim 19a.
  33. ^ Pesikta Rabbati 5 and 9. Circa 845. Quoted in Sorel Goldberg Loeb and Barbara Binder Kadden. Teaching Torah: A Treasury of Insights and Activities, page 156.
  34. ^ Exodus Rabbah 52:5. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Exodus. Translated by S.M. Lehrman, volume 3, pages 578–81.
  35. ^ Exodus Rabbah 19:4. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Exodus. Translated by S.M. Lehrman, volume 3, pages 232–33.
  36. ^ Exodus Rabbah 52:4. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Exodus. Translated by S.M. Lehrman, volume 3, page 578.
  37. ^ Midrash Tanhuma Pekudei 11. 6th–7th century. Reprinted in, e.g., Metsudah Midrash Tanchuma. Translated and annotated by Avraham Davis; edited by Yaakov Y.H. Pupko, volume 4, pages 443–49. Monsey, New York: Eastern Book Press, 2006.
  38. ^ Babylonian Talmud Shabbat 87b.
  39. ^ See Genesis 1:1–5.
  40. ^ See Numbers 7:10–17.
  41. ^ See Leviticus 9:1–21.
  42. ^ See Leviticus 9:24.
  43. ^ See Exodus 25:8.
  44. ^ See Leviticus 9:22, employing the blessing prescribed by Numbers 6:22–27.
  45. ^ See Leviticus 17:3–4.
  46. ^ See Exodus 12:2.
  47. ^ Babylonian Talmud Nedarim 38a.
  48. ^ Mishnah Zevachim 2:1. Reprinted in, e.g., The Mishnah: A New Translation. Translated by Jacob Neusner, pages 700–01. Babylonian Talmud Zevachim 15b. Reprinted in, e.g., Talmud Bavli. Elucidated by Abba Zvi Naiman, Israel Schneider, and Michoel Weiner; edited by Yisroel Simcha Schorr and Chaim Malinowitz, volume 55, page 15b3. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 1995. ISBN 1-57819-612-4.
  49. ^ Babylonian Talmud Zevachim 19b. Reprinted in, e.g., Talmud Bavli. Elucidated by Abba Zvi Naiman, Israel Schneider, and Michoel Weiner; edited by Yisroel Simcha Schorr and Chaim Malinowitz, volume 55, page 19b2.
  50. ^ Mishnah Yoma 3:10. Reprinted in, e.g., The Mishnah: A New Translation. Translated by Jacob Neusner, page 269. Babylonian Talmud Yoma 37a. Babylonia, 6th century. Reprinted in, e.g., Koren Talmud Bavli: Yoma. Commentary by Adin Even-Israel (Steinsaltz), volume 9, page 174. Jerusalem: Koren Publishers, 2013. ISBN 978-965-301-570-8.
  51. ^ Babylonian Talmud Yoma 4b. Reprinted in, e.g., Talmud Bavli. Elucidated by Abba Zvi Naiman, Michoel Weiner, Yosef Widroff, Moshe Zev Einhorn, Israel Schneider, and Zev Meisels; edited by Yisroel Simcha Schorr and Chaim Malinowitz, volume 13, page 4b3. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 1998. ISBN 1-57819-660-4.
  52. ^ Midrash HaGadol 40:38. Quoted in Avivah Gottlieb Zornberg. The Particulars of Rapture: Reflections on Exodus, page 492. New York: Doubleday, 2001. ISBN 0-385-49152-2.
  53. ^ See John I. Durham. Word Biblical Commentary: Volume 3: Exodus, page 490. Waco, Texas: Word Books, 1987. ISBN 0-8499-0202-9.
  54. ^ John Taylor. "The Third Intermediate Period (1069–664 BC)." In The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Edited by Ian Shaw, page 351. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-19-815034-2.
  55. ^ Bruce Wells. “Exodus.” In Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary. Edited by John H. Walton, volume 1, page 258. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan, 2009. ISBN 978-0-310-25573-4.
  56. ^ Maimonides. The Commandments: Sefer Ha-Mitzvoth of Maimonides. Translated by Charles B. Chavel, 2 volumes. London: Soncino Press, 1967. ISBN 0-900689-71-4. Sefer HaHinnuch: The Book of [Mitzvah] Education. Translated by Charles Wengrov, 1:433. Jerusalem: Feldheim Publishers, 1991. ISBN 0-87306-179-9.
  57. ^ Menachem Davis. The Schottenstein Edition Siddur for the Sabbath and Festivals with an Interlinear Translation, page 272. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 2002. ISBN 1-57819-697-3.
  58. ^ Exodus 40:18.
  59. ^ 1 Kings 7:40–50.
  60. ^ Exodus 40:34–35; 1 Kings 8:10–11.
  61. ^ Exodus 12:2.
  62. ^ Exodus 12:3–20.
  63. ^ Exodus 12:7; Ezekiel 45:19.
  64. ^ Numbers 19:18; Ezekiel 36:25.