Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester
|Photographic Portrait as Governor-General|
|Tenure||30 January 1945 – 11 March 1947|
|Successor||Sir William McKell|
|Spouse||Lady Alice Montagu Douglas Scott|
|Prince William of Gloucester
Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester
|Henry William Frederick Albert|
|House||House of Windsor
House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
|Mother||Mary of Teck|
31 March 1900|
York Cottage, Sandringham, United Kingdom
|Died||10 June 1974
Barnwell Manor, Northamptonshire, United Kingdom
|Burial||14 June 1974
Royal Burial Ground, Frogmore
|Occupation||Governor-General of Australia, Military|
Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester KG KT KP GCB GCMG GCVO (Henry William Frederick Albert; 31 March 1900 – 10 June 1974) was a soldier and member of the British Royal Family, the third son of King George V and Queen Mary.
He was appointed potential regent for his niece, Princess Elizabeth (later Queen Elizabeth II), when his brother, King George VI, came to the throne in 1936, and was required to stay in the United Kingdom until she came of age in case her father died and she ascended the throne as a minor.
The Duke served as a soldier for most of his life. He was also the 11th Governor-General of Australia, from 1945 to 1947. At his death in 1974, he was the last surviving knight of the Order of St. Patrick as well as the last surviving child of King George V and Queen Mary.
Prince Henry was born on 31 March 1900, at York Cottage, on the Sandringham Estate. His father was the Duke of York (later King George V), the eldest surviving son of the Prince of Wales, (later King Edward VII). His mother was Mary of Teck, the only daughter of Prince Francis, Duke of Teck and Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge. In 1898, Queen Victoria issued letters patent granting the children of the Duke and Duchess of York the style Royal Highness. Thus he was styled His Royal Highness Prince Henry of York from birth.
He was baptised at the private chapel of Windsor Castle on 17 May 1900, by Randall Thomas Davidson, Bishop of Winchester, and his godparents were: Queen Victoria (his great-grandmother); the German Emperor (his cousin, for whom Prince Albert of Prussia stood proxy); Princess Henry of Battenberg (his paternal great-aunt); the Duchess of Cumberland (his paternal great-aunt, whose sister, his grandmother the Princess of Wales represented her); Prince George of Greece (his cousin, for whom Prince Henry's paternal grandfather the Prince of Wales stood proxy); Princess Carl of Denmark (his paternal aunt, for whom her sister Princess Victoria of Wales stood proxy); Prince Alexander of Teck (his maternal uncle, for whom Prince Henry's great-uncle the Duke of Cambridge stood proxy); and Field Marshal The Earl Roberts (for whom General Sir Dighton Probyn stood proxy). He was informally known to his family as Harry.
Prince Henry attended St Peter's Court in Broadstairs and Eton College from September 1913 and during the First World War the house in which he lived, Mr. Lubbock's, was also home to Crown Prince Leopold of Belgium (later Leopold III).
Unlike his brothers, Prince Henry joined the Army instead of the Royal Navy. He attended the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst in 1919. He later served with The King's Royal Rifle Corps and the 10th Royal Hussars before retiring from the active list in 1937. Following the outbreak of World War II, he joined the British Expeditionary Force, serving as a Chief Liaison Officer. He was slightly wounded in 1940 when his staff car was attacked from the air. In 1940 he became second-in-command of 20th Armoured Brigade. He was appointed a Field Marshal in 1955 and a Marshal of the Royal Air Force in 1958.
Duke of Gloucester
On 31 March 1928, his father created him Duke of Gloucester, Earl of Ulster, and Baron Culloden, three titles that linked him with three parts of the United Kingdom, namely England, Northern Ireland and Scotland. On 2 November 1930 he attended the coronation of Haile Selassie of Ethiopia in Addis Ababa. In 1934 George V (as King of Ireland) made him a Knight of St Patrick, Ireland's chivalric order. It was the second to last time this order was awarded (the last appointment being the Duke of York, later George VI, in 1936); at the time of his death the Duke of Gloucester was the only remaining knight.
On 6 November 1935, Henry married Lady Alice Christabel Montagu Douglas Scott, a daughter of John Montagu Douglas Scott, 7th Duke of Buccleuch. The marriage was originally planned to take place at Westminster Abbey, but was moved to the more low key Chapel Royal at St James's Palace owing to the death of Lady Alice's father shortly before the wedding.
Following their wedding, Alice was known as HRH The Duchess of Gloucester. Together they had two sons:
- Prince William Henry Andrew Frederick of Gloucester (born 18 December 1941; died 28 August 1972).
- The Duke of Gloucester (Richard Alexander Walter George; born 26 August 1944). Married the Danish Birgitte van Deurs on 8 July 1972. The couple has three children:
Governor-General of Australia
In late 1944 the Duke was unexpectedly appointed Governor-General of Australia. His younger brother, the Duke of Kent, had been offered the position, but he was killed in an air tragedy in Scotland. The Labor Party of the Prime Minister, John Curtin, had a policy of appointing Australians to the vice-regal post. In the circumstances of wartime, Curtin decided that appointing a member of the Royal Family would have three advantages. It would improve the likelihood that Britain would maintain its commitment to the defence of Australia, make the point that Australia had not become a dependency of the United States, and, given the protests that had arisen in conservative circles with the last Labor appointment, the Australian Sir Isaac Isaacs, would be a politically neutral choice.
The Duke had made a successful visit to Australia earlier, in 1934. The Duke was shy and appeared stiff and formal to some. He and the Duchess travelled widely using his own plane during their time in office. When Curtin died in 1945, the Duke appointed Frank Forde as prime minister. Gloucester left Australia in March 1947, after two years in the job, due to the need to act as Regent during the absence in South Africa of his brother, King George VI. As a parting gift he left his own plane for use by the government and people of Australia.
In May 1949, the Duke temporarily served in the office of Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. This appointment afforded him, for its duration, its Scottish precedence (immediately below the King) and style, His Grace The Lord High Commissioner.
The Duke attended the coronation of his niece, Elizabeth II in 1953. Both the Duke and Duchess carried out royal engagements, including several overseas tours. In 1954 the Duke served as the Treasurer of the Honourable Society of Gray's Inn. He suffered a series of strokes in later years, and was too ill to attend the funeral of the Duke of Windsor in 1972, and the wedding of his younger son.
After a series of strokes, the first one being in 1965, he was left in a wheelchair and unable to speak for the last remaining years of his life. His last public appearance was for the unveiling of Queen Mary's plaque at Marlborough House in 1967, where he appeared weak and considerably older than his brother the Duke of Windsor. In 1972, the Duke's elder son, Prince William, died in a plane crash. The Duke was in such poor health that his wife hesitated whether to break the news or not, she later admitted in her memoirs that she didn't and that he probably understood from watching the television. The Duke was the last surviving child of King George V and Queen Mary. He died on 10 June 1974. He was buried in the Royal Burial Ground, Frogmore. His second son, Prince Richard, inherited the title of Duke of Gloucester. The Duke's wife, Alice, received permission from Queen Elizabeth II to be styled "Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester" to distinguish herself from Prince Richard's wife. She survived until 2004, becoming the longest-lived member of the British Royal Family in history.
Titles, styles, honours and arms
Titles and styles
- 31 March 1900 – 22 January 1901: His Royal Highness Prince Henry of York
- 22 January 1901 – 9 November 1901: His Royal Highness Prince Henry of Cornwall and York
- 9 November 1901 – 6 May 1910: His Royal Highness Prince Henry of Wales
- 6 May 1910 – 31 March 1928: His Royal Highness The Prince Henry
- 31 March 1928 – 10 June 1974: His Royal Highness The Duke of Gloucester
- in Scotland: May 1949, May 1961, May 1962, May 1963: His Grace The Lord High Commissioner
- in Australia: 30 January 1945 – 11 March 1947: His Excellency The Duke of Gloucester, Governor-General of Australia
At the time of his death, Prince Henry's full style was: His Royal Highness The Prince Henry William Frederick Albert, Duke of Gloucester, Earl of Ulster and Baron Culloden, Knight of the Most Noble Order of the Garter, Knight of the Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle, Knight of the Most Illustrious Order of Saint Patrick, Grand Master and Principal Knight Grand Cross of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath, Knight Grand Cross of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order, Grand Prior of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem.
- KG: Knight of the Order of the Garter (1921)
- KT: Knight of the Order of the Thistle (1931)
- KP: Knight of the Order of St Patrick (1934)
- GCB: Grand Master and Principal Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (1951)
- GCMG: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George (1935)
- GCVO: Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order (1922)
- GCStJ: Grand Prior of the Order of St John
- Royal Victorian Chain
- Order of the Chrysanthemum, 1929 (Japan).
In 1921, Prince Henry was granted a personal coat of arms, being the royal arms, differenced by a label argent of three points, the centre bearing a lion rampant gules, and the outer points crosses gules.
- Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
- Yvonne's Royalty Home Page – Royal Christenings
- The London Gazette: . 3 June 1958. Retrieved 20 November 2008.
- Yvonne's Royalty: Peerage
- The Memoirs of Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester.
- "Imperial Garter," Time Magazine, 13 May 1929.
- Heraldica – British Royal Cadency
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester.|
Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester
Cadet branch of the House of WettinBorn: 31 March 1900 Died: 10 June 1974
The Lord Gowrie
|Governor-General of Australia
Sir William McKell
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
|Great Master of the Order of the Bath
Charles, Prince of Wales
|Peerage of the United Kingdom|
|New creation||Duke of Gloucester
5th creation, 1st Duke