Prince Arthur of Connaught
|Prince Arthur of Connaught and Strathearn|
|Prince Arthur in the robes of the Order of the Garter|
|Spouse||Princess Alexandra, Duchess of Fife|
|Prince Alastair, Duke of Connaught|
|Arthur Frederick Patrick Albert|
|Father||Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn|
|Mother||Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia|
13 January 1883|
Windsor Castle, Berkshire
|Died||12 September 1938
|Occupation||Governor-General of South Africa; Military|
|His Royal Highness
Prince Arthur of Connaught and Strathearn
KG KT PC CB GCMG GCVO GCStJ
|3rd Governor-General of South Africa|
1920 – 20 January 1924
|Preceded by||The Viscount Buxton|
|Succeeded by||The Earl of Athlone|
|Years of service||1901-1922|
|Unit||Royal Scots Greys|
Prince Arthur of Connaught and Strathearn (Arthur Frederick Patrick Albert; 13 January 1883–12 September 1938) was a grandson of Queen Victoria. Prince Arthur held the title of a British prince with the style His Royal Highness. He also served as Governor-General of the Union of South Africa from 20 November 1920 to 21 January 1924.
Prince Arthur was born on 13 January 1883 at Windsor Castle. His father was Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, third son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. His mother was Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia. The Prince was baptised in the Private Chapel of Windsor Castle on 16 February 1883 and his godparents were: Queen Victoria (his paternal grandmother); the German Empress (his great-great-aunt, for whom his paternal aunt Princess Beatrice stood proxy); Prince Friedrich Leopold of Prussia (his maternal uncle, who was represented by the German Ambassador Count Münster) and Princess Henry of the Netherlands (his maternal aunt, who was represented by Countess Münster); the Duke of Cambridge (the Queen's cousin); and the Duke of Edinburgh (his paternal uncle, whose brother the Prince of Wales represented him).
Prince Arthur was the first royal prince to be educated at Eton College.
After attending finishing school, Prince Arthur was educated at the Royal Military College Sandhurst and commissioned into the 7th (Queen's Own) Hussars. During the Second Boer War, he saw active duty with the 7th Hussars and spent several months stationed at Krugersdorp. In 1907, he was promoted to the rank of captain in the 2nd Dragoons (Royal Scots Greys). He became the honorary Colonel-in-Chief of this regiment in 1920.
During World War I, Prince Arthur served as aide-de-camp to Generals Sir John French and Sir Douglas Haig, the successive commanders of the British Expeditionary Force in France and Belgium. He was promoted to lieutenant colonel in 1919 and became a colonel in the reserves in 1922. In October 1922, Prince Arthur was promoted to the honorary rank of major general and became an aide-de-camp to his first cousin, King George V.
Since George V's children were too young to undertake public duties until after World War I, Prince Arthur attended a variety of ceremonial duties at home and abroad.
On 15 October 1913, Prince Arthur married Princess Alexandra, 2nd Duchess of Fife (17 May 1891 – 26 February 1959) at the Chapel Royal, St. James's Palace, London. Princess Alexandra was the eldest daughter of Alexander Duff, 1st Duke of Fife and Princess Louise, the Princess Royal, the eldest daughter of King Edward VII. As such, the couple were first cousins once removed. Princess Alexandra held the title of Duchess of Fife in her own right. After their marriage, Arthur and Alexandra were styled Their Royal Highnesses Prince and Princess Arthur of Connaught.
Together they had one child:
- Prince Alastair of Connaught (9 August 1914 – 26 April 1943). Alastair was styled from 1917 by the courtesy title of Earl of Macduff until he succeeded at his grandfather's death as 2nd Duke of Connaught.
|House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha|
|Descendants of Victoria & Albert|
After the accession of his cousin, King George V, Prince Arthur and his aging father were the most senior male members of the Royal Family over the age of 18 to reside in the United Kingdom. As such, he undertook a wide variety of royal duties on behalf of the King, and acted as a Counsellor of State during periods of the King's absence abroad.
In 1906, by order of the King, he vested the Meiji Emperor of Japan with the Order of the Garter, as a consequence of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. In 1918, he was a guest aboard the Japanese battlecruiser Kirishima when she voyaged from Japan to Canada. In 1920, Prince Arthur succeeded Viscount Buxton as governor-general and commander-in-chief in South Africa. The Earl of Athlone succeeded him in these posts in 1924. Upon returning to Britain, Prince Arthur became involved in a number of charitable organizations, including serving as chairman of the board of directors of Middlesex Hospital. Like his father, the Duke of Connaught, he was active in the Freemasons, becoming Provincial Grand Master for Berkshire in 1924.
Prince Arthur of Connaught died of stomach cancer at age 55. He is buried in the Royal Burial Ground, Frogmore. One of his last public appearances was at the coronation of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth in May 1937. His father, the Duke of Connaught, survived him by four years. Prince Arthur's only son, who used the courtesy title Earl of MacDuff after 1917, succeeded his paternal grandfather as 2nd Duke of Connaught and Strathearn and Earl of Sussex in 1942.
Titles, styles, honours and arms
Titles and styles
- 13 January 1883 – 12 September 1938: His Royal Highness Prince Arthur of Connaught
- KG: Royal Knight of the Garter (15 July 1902)
- KT: Knight of the Thistle (14 October 1913)
- PC: Privy Counsellor (11 June 1910)
- CB: Companion in the Order of the Bath (18 February 1915)
- Royal Victorian Chain (15 May 1906) - for travelling to Japan and investing Emperor Meiji with the Order of the Garter
- GCMG: Knight Grand Cross of the Most Distinguished Order of St Michael and St George (3 September 1918)
- GCVO: Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order (24 May 1899)
- GCStJ: Bailiff Grand Cross of St John
- KJStJ: Knight of Justice of St John (25 July 1905)
- Knight Grand Cross with Collar of St Olav
- Grand Cordons of the Order of the Chrysanthemum (20 February 1906) 
- Personal Aide-de-Camp to The King
- 2Lt: 2nd Lieutenant, 7th (Queen's Own) Hussars (8 May 1901)
- Lt: Lieutenant, 7th (Queen's Own) Hussars (14 January 1903)
- Capt: Captain, 2nd Dragoons (The Royal Scots Greys) (27 April 1907)
- Bvt Maj: Brevet Major, 2nd Dragoons (The Royal Scots Greys) (14 October 1913)
- Maj: Major, 2nd Dragoons (The Royal Scots Greys) (19 August 1915)
- Bvt LtCol: Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel, 2nd Dragoons (The Royal Scots Greys) (3 June 1919)
- Retired from active service (1 March 1922)
Honorary military appointments
- Colonel-in-Chief: The Royal Scots Greys (2nd Dragoons)
- Colonel-in-Chief: Royal Army Pay Corps, 11 May 1937
As a male-line grandchild of a British Sovereign, Prince Arthur was awarded, for his twenty-first birthday, the use of the royal arms, with an inescutcheon of the shield of Saxony, and differenced by a label argent, of five points, the outer pair and central point bearing crosses gules, and the inner pair fleur-de-lys azure. In 1917, the inescutcheon was dropped by royal warrant from George V.
- Yvonne's Royalty Home Page — Royal Christenings
- "Royal Wedding Group". National Portrait Gallery, London.
- Hackett, Robert; Kingsepp, Sander (2001–2009). "IJN KIRISHIMA: Tabular Record of Movement". Combined Fleet. CombinedFleet.com. Retrieved 14 October 2009.
- The London Gazette: . 15 July 1902. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- The London Gazette: . 14 January 1938. Retrieved 22 June 2013. (Last reference to Prince Arthur's full titles)
- The London Gazette: . 14 June 1910. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- The London Gazette: . 15 October 1918. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- The London Gazette: . 26 May 1899. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- The London Gazette: . 28 July 1905. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- Redesdale, Lord, The Garter Mission to Japan. London: Macmillan, 1906.P. 26.
- Heraldica – British Royalty Cadency
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Prince Arthur of Connaught.|
Prince Arthur of Connaught
Cadet branch of the House of WettinBorn: 13 January 1883 Died: 12 September 1938
The Viscount Buxton
|Governor-General of South Africa
The Earl of Athlone
The Duke of Albany
|Heir to Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
as heir presumptive
30 July 1900 – 2 August 1906
Hereditary Prince Johann Leopold