Grandchildren of Victoria and Albert

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"Her Majesty Queen Victoria and the members of the royal family", illustration from Frank Leslie's illustrated newspaper, v. 44, no. 1137 (14 July 1877).

This is a list of the 42 grandchildren of the British Queen Victoria (1819–1901, queen from 1837, married 1840) and her husband Prince Albert (the Prince Consort, 1819–1861), each of whom was therefore either a sibling or a first cousin to each of the others. It also lists Victoria and Albert's 9 children and 87 great-grandchildren, as well as the spouses of those children and grandchildren who married.

Overview[edit]

Victoria and Albert had 20 grandsons and 22 granddaughters, of whom two (the youngest sons of Prince Alfred and Princess Helena) were stillborn, and two more (Prince Alexander John of Wales and Prince Harald of Schleswig-Holstein) died shortly after birth. Their first grandchild was the future German Emperor William II, who was born to their eldest child, Victoria, on 27 January 1859; the youngest was Prince Maurice of Battenberg, born on 3 October 1891 to Princess Beatrice (1857–1944), who was herself the last child born to Victoria and Albert and the last child to die. The last of Victoria and Albert's grandchildren to die (almost exactly 80 years after Queen Victoria herself) was Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone (25 February 1883 - 3 January 1981).

Just as Victoria and Albert shared one grandfather (Duke Francis of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld) and one grandmother (Countess Augusta Reuss) in common, two pairs of their grandchildren married each other. In 1888, Princess Irene of Hesse and by Rhine, whose mother was Queen Victoria's daughter Alice, married Prince Henry of Prussia, a son of Victoria's daughter Victoria. Another of Alice's children, Grand Duke Ernest Louis of Hesse, married Princess Victoria Melita, a daughter of Alice's brother Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1894, but divorced in 1901.

From left to right: Alice, Arthur, the Prince Consort, the Prince of Wales (later Edward VII), Leopold (in front of the Prince of Wales), Louise, the Queen with Beatrice, Alfred, the Princess Royal and Helena.

Prince Albert, the Prince Consort (26 August 1819 – 14 December 1861), lived long enough to see only one of his children (the Princess Royal) married and two of his grandchildren born (William II, 1859–1941, and his sister Princess Charlotte of Prussia, 1860–1919), while Queen Victoria (24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) lived long enough to see not only all her grandchildren, but many of her 87 great-grandchildren as well. (Three of Victoria's 56 great-grandsons were stillborn, and one of her 31 great-granddaughters was born out of wedlock.)

Victoria, the Princess Royal and first child of Victoria and Albert (21 November 1840 – 5 August 1901), known as "Vicky", was not only mother to their first grandchild, William II, she was also the first of Victoria and Albert's children to become a grandparent, with the birth in 1879 of Princess Feodora of Saxe-Meiningen, who was the daughter of Princess Charlotte (Queen Victoria's first granddaughter). She was also the grandmother of the last of Victoria and Albert's great-granddaughters to die, Lady Katherine Brandram (4 May 1913 – 2 October 2007), daughter of Vicky's fourth daughter, Queen Sophia of Greece. After Lady Katherine's death in 2007, the only surviving great-grandchild of Queen Victoria was Count Carl Johan Bernadotte of Wisborg (31 October 1916 – 5 May 2012), born to Crown Princess Margaret of Sweden, daughter of Victoria and Albert's third son, Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught.

With the death of Count Carl Johan Bernadotte a generation of royalty that began in 1879 with the birth of Princess Feodora and included the British Kings Edward VIII and George VI, the Norwegian King Olav V, the Romanian King Carol II and the Greek Kings George II, Alexander I and Paul, as well as six uncrowned victims of political assassination: Earl Mountbatten of Burma (last Viceroy of India), Tsarevich Alexei of Russia and Alexei's sisters the Grand Duchesses Olga, Tatiana, Maria and Anastasia is finally gone.

Queen Victoria's own death in January 1901 was preceded by the deaths of three of her own children (Princess Alice in December 1878, Prince Leopold in March 1884, and Prince Alfred in July 1900) and soon followed by the Princess Royal's death in August 1901. Aside from the four boys who died as infants, Queen Victoria had survived seven of her grandchildren:

Victoria, Albert and their children[edit]

Ancestors of Victoria and Albert[edit]

Victoria and Albert had one pair of grandparents in common, Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, and Countess Augusta Reuss of Ebersdorf, who were parents both of Albert's father Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, and of Victoria's mother (and Ernest I's sister), Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld.

Duke Francis & Countess Augusta → Duke Ernest I → Prince Albert
Duke Francis & Countess Augusta → Princess Victoria → Queen Victoria

Another of Victoria's (but not Albert's) grandfathers was King George III, father of Victoria's father, the Duke of Kent, and his brothers King George IV and King William IV.

Marriage of Victoria and Albert[edit]

Queen Victoria (who had ascended to the throne on 20 June 1837 and been crowned on 28 June 1838) was married to Prince Albert on 10 February 1840 by William Howley, the Archbishop of Canterbury, in the Chapel Royal of St James's Palace in Westminster (London).[1] (Albert died fourteen-and-a-half years before Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India on 1 May 1876.)

The Marriage of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert
  Name Birth Death Marriage and children[2][3]
Queen Victoria by Bassano.jpg [Alexandrina] Victoria,
Queen of
the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
,
later Empress of India
24 May
1819
Kensington Palace,
London
22 January
1901
Osborne House,
Isle of Wight
Married 10 February 1840
at St. James' Palace, Westminster (London)

4 sons, 5 daughters
(including British King Edward VII
and German Empress Victoria);

20 grandsons (of whom 2 were still-born), 22 granddaughters
(including British King George V,
German Emperor Wilhelm II, Russian Empress Alexandra,
and the Queens of Norway, Greece, Romania and Spain.)
Prince Albert 405130.jpg Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
(The Prince Consort)
26 August
1819
Rosenau Castle,
Coburg (Germany)
14 December
1861
Windsor Castle,
Berkshire

Children of Victoria and Albert[edit]

Queen Victoria, at times, had contentious relations with her children. She had trouble relating to her children when they were young, some of this possibly owing to her own isolated childhood.[4] She also, occasionally, resented that they interfered with time that she would prefer to spend with Albert.[5] Both Victoria and Albert weren't above playing favourites with their children, and unfortunately did little to hide their favouritism.[5] Both Vicky and Alfred were the favorites of Albert, and Arthur enjoyed the favouritism of both his parents.[5] Victoria initially was jealous of the time that Albert had been spent with Vicky, but in her widowhood Victoria made Vicky something of her confidante,[6] and for her part, Vicky had accrued hundreds of letters from her mother, to the point that shortly before her death, she had them smuggled out of Germany by her brother's secretary, Sir Frederick Ponsonby.[7] Of her sons, Victoria had the most trouble with her eldest, the Prince of Wales, and her youngest, Leopold.[6] Amongst her daughters, Victoria clashed often with Louise.[6] She also had an awkward relationship with her second eldest daughter, Alice, who the queen, despite praising her thoughtfulness, also criticized her as being too melancholy and self-absorbed.[6] In her widowhood, Victoria expected Beatrice, who was only four when her father died, to remain at home with her, and only permitted to marry on the condition that she and her husband remain in England.[8]

  Name Birth Death Spouse (dates of birth & death) and children[2][9]
Vicky.jpg The Princess Victoria,
Princess Royal
184021 November
1840
19015 August
1901
Married 1858 (January 25),
Prussian Crown Prince Frederick (1831–1888),
later Frederick III, German Emperor and King of Prussia
4 sons, 4 daughters
(including German Emperor William II
and Sophia, Queen of the Hellenes)
Edward VII in coronation robes.jpg The Prince Albert Edward,
Prince of Wales,
later Edward VII
18419 November
1841
19106 May
1910
Married 1863 (March 10),
Princess Alexandra of Denmark (1844–1925);
3 sons, 3 daughters
(including King George V
and Maud, Queen of Norway)
Princess Alice reclining.jpg The Princess Alice 184325 April
1843
187814 December
1878
Married 1862 (July 1),
Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine (1837–1892);
2 sons, 5 daughters
(including Alexandra, the last Empress of All the Russias)
Alfred-sachsen-coburg-gotha.jpg The Prince Alfred,
Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
and Duke of Edinburgh;
Admiral of the Fleet
18446 August
1844
190031 July
1900
Married 1874 (January 23),
Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia (1853–1920);
2 sons (1 still-born), 4 daughters
(including Marie, Queen of Romania)
Helena scan.jpg The Princess Helena 184625 May
1846
19239 June
1923
Married 1866 (July 5),
Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg (1831–1917);
4 sons (1 still-born), 2 daughters
Princess Louise 1901 copy.jpg The Princess Louise 184818 March
1848
19393 December
1939
Married 1871 (March 21),
John Douglas Sutherland Campbell (1845–1914),
Marquess of Lorne, later 9th Duke of Argyll and Governor-General of Canada (1878–1883);
no issue
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught.jpg The Prince Arthur,
Duke of Connaught and Strathearn;
Field Marshal,
Governor General of Canada (1911–1916)
18501 May
1850
194216 January
1942
Married 1879 (March 13),
Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia (1860–1917);
1 son, 2 daughters
(including Margaret, Crown Princess of Sweden)
Leopoldalbany.jpg The Prince Leopold,
Duke of Albany
18537 April
1853
188428 March
1884
Married 1882 (April 27),
Princess Helena of Waldeck and Pyrmont (1861–1922);
1 son, 1 daughter
Coloured Princess Beatrice.jpg The Princess Beatrice 185714 April
1857
1944 26 October
1944
Married 1885 (July 23),
Prince Henry of Battenberg (1858–1896);
3 sons, 1 daughter
(incluiding Victoria Eugenie, Queen of Spain)

Children and grandchildren of Victoria and Albert[edit]

Victoria, the Princess Royal[edit]

The eldest child of Victoria and Albert, Princess Victoria (the Princess Royal), called "Vicky" was born on 21 November 1840 and died on 5 August 1901, seven months after her mother's death in January. On 25 January 1858 she married Prince Frederick of Prussia (1831–1888; Crown Prince from 1861, German Emperor March–June 1888). They had eight children and twenty-three grandchildren.

Not only was the Princess Royal the first child of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, she also gave them their first grandchild (the future Emperor Wilhelm II, 27 January 1859 – 4 June 1941) and was grandmother to both the first of their 87 great-grandchildren to be born, Princess Feodora of Saxe-Meiningen (19 May 1879 – 26 August 1945), daughter of Princess Charlotte, and to the last of their 29 great-granddaughters to die, Lady Katherine Brandram (4 May 1913 – 2 October 2007), daughter of Princess Sophie.

Both the German Emperor Wilhelm II and the British King-Emperor George V (son of the Princess Royal's younger brother Edward VII) were grandchildren of Queen Victoria, as was Alexandra, daughter of Princess Alice and wife of the Russian Tsar Nicholas II.

Queen Victoria → Princess Victoria → German Emperor William II
Queen Victoria → King Edward VII → King George V
Queen Victoria → Princess Alice → Empress Alexandra

The Marriage of Princess Victoria and Crown Prince Frederick of Prussia
Name Birth Death Notes[2]
Vicky.jpg Princess Victoria,
the Princess Royal
21 November
1840
Buckingham Palace,
Westminster (London)
5 August
1901
Friedrichshof, Potsdam, Prussia, (Germany)
Married 25 January 1858
in St James' Palace, Westminster (London).

4 sons, 4 daughters
(including German Emperor William II
and Sophia, Queen of the Greeks);

18 grandsons, 5 granddaughters
(including Kings George II, Alexander I and Paul I of Greece and
Queen Helen of Romania)

¶ Crown Prince Frederick succeeded his father Emperor Wilhelm I on 9 March 1888, but died in June.
Friedrich III as Kronprinz - in GdK uniform by Heinrich von Angeli 1874.jpg Crown Prince Frederick of Prussia,
later Frederick III,
German Emperor and King of Prussia
18 October
1831
Potsdam, Prussia
15 June
1888
Potsdam, Prussia

Children of the Princess Royal and Crown Prince Frederick of Prussia[edit]

The portrait below shows the Princess Royal with her husband Frederick and with Victoria and Albert's first two grandchildren, the future Kaiser Wilhelm II (1859–1941) and Princess Charlotte (1860–1919), who were the only grandchildren born during Albert's lifetime.

Picture Name Birth Death Notes[3]
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R95251, Kaiser Wilhelm II..jpg Crown Prince Wilhelm, later Wilhelm II,
German Emperor and King of Prussia
27 January
1859

Berlin,
Prussia
3 June
1941

Doorn,
Netherlands
Reigned from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918 (abdicated)
Married (1) 1881, Princess Augusta Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg (1858–1921)
with issue (6 sons, 1 daughter):
Crown Prince William (1882–1951),
Prince Eitel Friedrich (1883–1942),
Prince Adalbert (1884–1948),
Prince August Wilhelm (1887–1949),
Prince Oskar (1888–1958),
Prince Joachim (1890–1920) and
Princess Victoria Louise (1892–1980)
Married (2) 1922 Princess Hermine Reuss of Greiz (1887–1947), no issue.
Laslo - Princess Charlotte of Saxe-Meiningen.jpg Princess Charlotte of Prussia 24 July
1860

Potsdam, Prussia
19 October
1919

Baden-Baden, German Republic
Married 1878 Bernhard of Saxe-Meiningen, (1851–1928),
later Duke Bernhard III (1914–1918), with issue (1 daughter):
Princess Feodora (19 May 1879 – 26 August 1945),
— Queen Victoria's first great-grandchild.

Modern medical tests revealed that both Charlotte and her daughter suffered from porphyria, which afflicted their ancestor George III.[10]
Prince Albert Wilhelm Heinrich of Prussia.jpg Prince Henry of Prussia 14 August
1862

Potsdam, Prussia
20 April
1929

Hemmelmark, German Republic
Married 1888 Princess Irene of Hesse and by Rhine (1866–1953), daughter of his aunt Princess Alice (see below)
and had issue (3 sons):
Prince Waldemar (1889–1945),
Prince Sigismund (1896–1978) and
Prince Heinrich (1900–1904).
Sigismund (1).jpg Prince Sigismund of Prussia 15 September
1864

Potsdam, Prussia
18 June
1866

Potsdam, Prussia
Died young from meningitis.
Princess Viktoria of Prussia (Frederica Amalia Wilhelmine Viktoria) (April 12, 1866 – November 13, 1929).jpg Princess Viktoria of Prussia 12 April
1866

Potsdam, Prussia
13 November
1929

Bonn,
German Republic
Married (1) 1890 Prince Adolf of Schaumburg-Lippe (1859–1917),
no issue
Married (2) 1927 Alexander Zoubkoff, no issue.
Prince Waldemar of Prussia.jpg Prince Waldemar of Prussia 10 February
1868

Berlin,
Prussia
27 March
1879

Potsdam, Prussia
Died young from diphtheria.
Sophia of Prussia.jpg Princess Sophie of Prussia,
later Queen of the Hellenes [Greeks]
14 June
1870

Berlin,
Prussia
13 January
1932

Frankfurt-
am-Main
, German Republic
Married 1889 King Constantine I of Greece (1868–1923)
and had issue (3 sons, 3 daughters):
Crown Prince George (1890–1947), later King George II,
Prince Alexander (1893–1920), later King Alexander I and
   father of Princess Alexandra of Greece and Denmark,
   later Queen Alexandra of Yugoslavia
Princess Helen (1896–1982), later Queen of Romania and
   mother of King Michael of Romania,
Prince Paul (1901–1964), later King Paul I and father of
   King Constantine II of Greece and Queen Sofía of Spain
Princess Irene (1904–1974), and
Princess Katherine (Lady Katherine Brandram) (1913–2007).
Margit of Prussia.jpg Princess Margaret of Prussia 22 April
1872

Potsdam, Prussia
22 January
1954

Kronberg, West Germany
Married 1893 Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse (1868–1940),
later elected King of Finland (October–December 1918),
and had issue (6 sons):
Prince Friedrich Wilhelm (1893–1916),
Prince Maximilian (1894–1914),
Prince Philipp (1896–1980)
and Prince Wolfgang (1896–1989) (twins),
Prince Christoph (1901–1943)
and Prince Richard (1901–1969) (twins).

Edward VII[edit]

Prince Albert Edward (1841–1910), then the Prince of Wales, married Princess Princess Alexandra of Denmark (1844–1925), later Queen Alexandra of the United Kingdom, on 10 March 1863. They had 3 sons (one of whom died within a day), 3 daughters, 7 grandsons (one stillborn) and 3 granddaughters. The Prince of Wales became King Edward VII and Emperor of India at the death of his mother Queen Victoria on 22 January 1901.

Edward's and Alexandra's son King George V (reigned 1910–1936) was the father of Kings Edward VIII (reigned 1936) and George VI (1936–1952), and the grandfather of the present Queen Elizabeth II (acceded to the throne February 1952) and her sister Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon (1930–2002). As the only children of George VI and Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon (the Queen Mother, 1900–2002), Elizabeth and Margaret were thus great-granddaughters of Edward VII, great-great-granddaughters of Queen Victoria, and great-great-great-great-granddaughters of Victoria's grandfather, King George III.

George III → Edward, Duke of Kent → Queen Victoria → Edward VII → George V → George VI → Elizabeth II

Edward's and Alexandra's daughter Princess Maud of Wales became Queen of Norway when her husband, Prince Carl of Denmark, became King Haakon VII (1905–1957) upon the dissolution of Norway's union with Sweden in 1905. Their son, and Edward's grandson, became King Olav V (1957–1991); and Olav's children, King Harald V (since 1991), Princess Ragnhild and Princess Astrid, are thus great-grandchildren of Edward VII and great-great-grandchildren of Victoria and Albert.

Queen Victoria → King Edward VII → Princess Maud of Wales → King Olav V → King Harald V

The Marriage of Edward, Prince of Wales, and Princess Alexandra of Denmark
  Name Birth Death Marriage and children
Edward VII in coronation robes.jpg Prince Albert Edward,
Prince of Wales,
later King Edward VII and Emperor of India
9 November
1841
Buckingham Palace, Westminster (London)
6 May
1910
Buckingham Palace, Westminster (London)
Married 10 March 1863
in St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.

3 sons, 3 daughters
(including King George V
and Maud, Queen of Norway);
7 grandsons, 3 granddaughters
(including British Kings Edward VIII & George VI,
and Norwegian King Olav V)

¶ Edward acceded to the throne when his mother Queen Victoria died on 22 January 1901.
He and Princess Alexandra were crowned King and Queen on 2 August 1902 in Westminster Abbey (London) by Frederick Temple, the Archbishop of Canterbury
Alexandra of Denmark02.jpg Princess Alexandra
of Denmark

later Queen Alexandra
of the United Kingdom
and Empress of India
1 December
1844
Yellow Palace, near
Amalienborg Palace,
Copenhagen,
Denmark
20 November
1925
Sandringham House,
Norfolk, England

Children of King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra[edit]

  Name Birth Death Notes[3]
Albert Victor late 1880s.jpg Prince Albert Victor,
Duke of Clarence
8 January
1864

Frogmore House,
Windsor, Berkshire
14 January
1892

Sandringham House,
Norfolk
Created Duke of Clarence and Avondale in 1890;
died of influenza just after his 28th birthday
Kinggeorgev1928.jpg Prince George,
Prince of Wales,
later
King George V
3 June
1865

Marlborough House,
London
20 January
1936

Sandringham House,
Norfolk
Reigned from 6 May 1910 to 20 January 1936;
married 1893 (July 6) Princess Mary of Teck,
   (26 May 1867 – 24 March 1953), later Queen Mary,
and had issue (5 sons, 1 daughter):
Edward, Prince of Wales (23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972)
later King Edward VIII (20 January – 11 December 1936),
later Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor (8 March 1937),
Prince Albert, Duke of York (14 Dec. 1895 – 6 Feb. 1952)
later King George VI (11 Dec. 1936) and
    father of Queen Elizabeth II (born 21 April 1926,
       acceded 6 Feb. 1952, crowned 2 June 1953),
Mary, Princess Royal (25 April 1897 – 28 March 1965),
later Countess of Harewood
Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester
    (31 March 1900 – 10 June 1974), Field Marshal,
    Marshal of the RAF
, & Governor-General of Australia
Prince George, Duke of Kent
   (20 Dec. 1902 – 25 August 1942, killed on active duty) and
Prince John (12 July 1905 – 19 January 1919).
Louise Princess Royal.jpg Princess Louise,
The Princess Royal
20 February
1867

Marlborough House,
London
4 January
1931

Portman Square,
London
Married 1889 Alexander Duff, 1st Duke of Fife (1849–1912)
and had issue (1 son, 2 daughters):
Alastair Duff, Earl of Macduff (stillborn, 1890),
Princess Alexandra, 2nd Duchess of Fife (1891–1959) and
Princess Maud, Countess of Southesk (1893–1945).
Victoria Alexandra with Mac.jpg Princess Victoria 6 July
1868

Marlborough House,
London
3 December
1935

Coppins, Buckinghamshire
Died unmarried.
1869 Maud.jpg Princess Maud of Wales
later Queen of Norway
26 November
1869

Marlborough House,
London
20 November
1938

London
Married 1896 Prince Carl of Denmark (1872–1957),
later King Haakon VII of Norway (1905–1957)
and had issue (1 son):
Prince Alexander (1903–1991),
later Crown Prince and King Olav V of Norway (1957–1991).
UK Arms 1837.svg Prince Alexander John of Wales 6 April
1871

Sandringham House,
Norfolk
7 April
1871

Sandringham House,
Norfolk
Born prematurely at 2:45 p.m., and died twenty-four hours later. He was christened privately by Reverend W. Lake Onslow in the evening after his birth. The christening was attended by the Prince and Princess of Wales, a lady-in-waiting and a doctor who had been at the birth.[11]

Princess Alice[edit]

Princess Alice of the United Kingdom (1843–1878) married Prince Ludwig of Hesse (1837–1892), later Grand Duke Louis IV of Hesse, on 1 July 1862. They had 2 sons (one of which, "Frittie", Prince Friedrich of Hesse, was a haemophiliac and died from bleeding out after a fall out of his mother's bedroom window), 5 daughters (one of whom died of diphtheria) and 15 grandchildren (two of whom died at a young age). Prince Ludwig succeeded to the Grand Duchy of Hesse as Grand Duke Louis IV of Hesse, and Princess Alice as the Grand Duchess of Hesse, on 13 July 1877.

Alice and Louis's daughter, Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine, married Prince Louis of Battenberg, and was the mother of Princess Alice of Battenberg (1885–1969), who became Alice, Princess Andrew of Greece and Denmark when she married Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark on 6 October 1903. Princess Alice was the mother of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh the current prince consort of the United Kingdom as the husband of Queen Elizabeth II. Princess Victoria was also the mother of Queen Louise of Sweden.

Queen Victoria → Princess Alice → Princess Victoria of Hesse → Princess Alice of Greece and Denmark → Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.

Alice and Louis's second daughter, Princess Elisabeth of Hesse and by Rhine, married, in 1884, the Russian Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich, the fifth son of Tsar Alexander II and Empress Maria Alexandrovna, and younger brother of the then reigning Tsar Alexander III. They had no children. Following Sergei's assassination in 1905, she eventually became a nun and was killed by the Bolsheviks on July 18, 1918. She was canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia in 1981 and in 1992 by the Moscow Patriarchate.

Prince Ernest Louis became Ernest Louis, Grand Duke of Hesse upon his father's death in 1892. He married his first cousin, Princess Victoria Melita of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1894 and had one daughter, Princess Elisabeth of Hesse who died of typhoid fever, aged eight. The couple were divorced 21 December 1901. The Grand Duke married for a second time to Princess Eleonore of Solms-Hohensolms-Lich (1871–1947), and had two sons: Georg Donatus, Hereditary Grand Duke of Hesse who married Princess Cecilie of Greece, a sister of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh and had issue, and Prince Louis of Hesse and by Rhine.

Princess Alix of Hesse, the youngest surviving child of the Grand Ducal pair, became the Last Empress of All the Russias through her marriage to Nicholas II of Russia in 1894. They had 5 children, 4 girls, the Grand Duchesses Olga, Tatiana, Maria and Anastasia, and one boy, the Tsarevich Alexei, who was a haemophiliac. The Russian Imperial Family was executed on 17 July 1918 by a detachment of Bolsheviks in the basement of Ipatiev House. The entire family was canonized by the Russian Orthodox church in 2000.

Queen Victoria → Princess Alice → Princess Alix, Tsarina Alexandra Feodorovna of Russia

The Marriage of Princess Alice and Louis IV of Hesse
  Name Birth Death Marriage and children
Princess Alice reclining.jpg Princess Alice of the United Kingdom 25 April
1843
Buckingham Palace,
London,
England
14 December
1878
New Palace,
Darmstadt,
Hesse (Germany)
Married privately on 1 July 1862
(six months after the death of Alice's father Prince Albert),
in the dining room of Osborne House,
East Cowes (Isle of Wight), England

2 sons, 5 daughters
(including Alexandra, the last Empress of Russia);

9 grandsons (1 stillborn), 7 granddaughters
(including Queen Louise of Sweden and
Earl Mountbatten of Burma, the last Viceroy of India)

¶ Prince Louis became Grand Duke of Hesse on 13 June 1877, less than two years before Princess Alice's death.
LudwigIVHeRhein.jpg Prince Louis of Hesse, later Louis IV,
Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine
12 September
1837
Darmstadt,
Hesse
13 March
1892

Children of Princess Alice and Louis IV of Hesse[edit]

Picture Name Birth Death Notes[3]
Victoria Hesse 1863.jpg Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine 5 April
1863

Windsor Castle, Berkshire, England
24 September
1950

Kensington Palace,
London,
England
Married 1884 Prince Louis of Battenberg (1854–1921),
   Admiral of the Fleet, First Sea Lord
   [later Louis Mountbatten, 1st Marquess of Milford Haven,
   after renouncing German style and titles in July 1917],
and had issue (2 sons, 2 daughters):
Princess Alice (1885–1969),
   later Princess Andrew of Greece & Denmark, and
   mother of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
Princess Louise (1889–1965),
   later Louise Mountbatten, Queen of Sweden and
   stepmother of Queen Ingrid of Denmark
Prince George (1892–1938), later George Mountbatten,
   2nd Marquess of Milford Haven
and
Prince Louis (1900–1979), later Earl Mountbatten of Burma,
   Admiral of the Fleet, last Viceroy of India & First Sea Lord
Elizabeth Fyodorovna of Russia.jpg Princess Elisabeth of Hesse and by Rhine 1 November
1864

Bessungen, Hesse, Germany
18 July
1918

Alapaevsk, Russia
Married 1885 Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich of Russia (1857–1905),
no issue.
Irene hesse1.jpg Princess Irene of Hesse and by Rhine 11 July
1866

Darmstadt, Hesse, Germany
11 November
1953

Hemmelmark, Germany
Married 1888 Prince Henry (1862–1929),
son of her aunt Victoria, the British Princess Royal & German Empress (see above),
and had issue (3 sons):
Prince Waldemar of Prussia (1889–1945),
Prince Sigismund of Prussia (1896–1978) and
Prince Heinrich of Prussia.
ErnstLodewijk.jpg Ernst Ludwig,
later Grand Duke of Hesse
25 November
1868

Darmstadt, Hesse,
Germany
9 October
1937

Langen,
Germany
Succeeded as head of the House of Hesse-Darmstadt in 1892.
Married (1) 1894 Princess Victoria Melita (1876–1936),
daughter of his uncle Prince Alfred of Edinburgh (see below),
and had issue (1 son, 1 daughter):
Princess Elisabeth (1895–1903) and
an unnamed stillborn son (1901);
¶ the marriage ended in divorce in 1901.
Married (2) 1905 Princess Eleonore of Solms-Hohensolms-Lich (1871–1937)
and had issue (2 sons):
Hereditary Grand Duke Georg Donatus (1906–1937) and
Prince Ludwig (1908–1968).
Frittie.jpg Prince Friedrich of Hesse and by Rhine 7 October
1870

Darmstadt, Hesse,
Germany
29 May
1873

Darmstadt, Hesse,
Germany
Suffered from haemophilia and died from a brain haemorrhage after falling from a window.
Alexandra Fyodorovna LOC 01137u.jpg Princess Alix of Hesse and by Rhine,
later Empress Alexandra of All the Russias
6 June
1872

Darmstadt, Hesse,
Germany
17 July
1918

Ekaterinburg, Russia
Married 1894 Tsar Nicholas II of Russia (1868–1918),
taking the name Alexandra Feodorovna,
and had issue (1 son, 4 daughters):
Grand Duchess Olga (1895–1918),
Grand Duchess Tatiana (1897–1918),
Grand Duchess Maria (1899–1918),
Grand Duchess Anastasia (1901–1918),
Tsarevich Alexei (1904–1918).

The entire family was killed in July 1918 in the aftermath of the Bolshevik Revolution, as was Alexandra's sister, the Grand Duchess Elisabeth (Princess Elisabeth of Hesse, see above).

Maria de Hesse.jpeg Princess Marie of Hesse and by Rhine 24 May
1874

Darmstadt, Hesse,
Germany
16 November
1878

Darmstadt,
Hesse, Germany
Died young from diphtheria.

Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh[edit]

Prince Alfred (1844–1900) married the Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia (1853–1920), the only surviving daughter of Tsar Alexander II and his first wife, Empress Marie Alexandrovna, on 23 January 1874 at the Winter Palace in St Petersburg, Russia. They had 2 sons (one stillborn), 4 daughters, 10 grandsons (8 of whom survived their first week of life) and 9 granddaughters. In June 1893, Prince Alfred achieved the Royal Navy rank of Admiral of the Fleet, shortly before succeeding his uncle, Ernest II, as Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in August 1893.

Prince Alfred's daughter (and Queen Victoria's granddaughter) Princess Marie of Edinburgh became Queen of Romania in 1914 after marrying the future King Ferdinand in 1893.

Queen Victoria → Prince Alfred → Queen Marie of Romania → King Carol II → King Michael
Queen Victoria → Prince Alfred → Queen Marie of Romania → Queen Elisabeth of the Hellenes
Queen Victoria → Prince Alfred → Queen Marie of Romania → Queen Marie of Yugoslavia → King Peter II

The Marriage of Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, and Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia
  Name Birth Death Marriage and children
Alfred-sachsen-coburg-gotha.jpg Prince Alfred,
later Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
and Duke of Edinburgh;
Admiral of the Fleet
6 August
1844
Windsor Castle,
Berkshire, England
31 July
1900
Rosenau Castle,
Coburg,
Germany
Married 23 January 1874
at the Winter Palace, St Petersburg, Russia;

2 sons (1 still-born), 4 daughters
(including Marie, Queen of Romania)

10 grandsons (of whom 1 stillborn), 9 granddaughters
(including King Carol II of Romania, Queen Elisabeth of Greece and Queen Marie of Yugoslavia)

¶ Prince Alfred was made Duke of Edinburgh on 24 May 1866, and succeeded as Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha on 22 August 1893, living there until his death in 1900.
Maria Alexandrovna of Russia.jpg Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia,
daughter of
Tsar Alexander II
17 October
1853
Tsarskoye Selo,
Russia
24 October
1920
Zürich,
Switzerland

Children of Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, and Grand Duchess Marie[edit]

Picture Name Birth Death Notes[3]
Erbprinz-alfred-von-sachsen-coburg-gotha.jpg Prince Alfred,
later Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
15 October
1874

Buckingham Palace,
London
6 February
1899

Martinnsbrunn Sanatorium, Gratsch,
Meran (Merano),
Austria
Rumoured, but never proven to have married in 1898 Mabel Fitzgerald (with no issue).
¶ Alfred suffered from nervous depression and possibly syphilis. He attempted suicide by shooting himself with a revolver, and was sent to recover at Schloss (Castle) Friedenstein in Gotha, Germany, before being moved, while still badly wounded, to the Martinnsbrunn Sanatorium in Gratsch near Meran (Merano) in the South Tyrol (Austria, now Italy), where he died.
MarieRoumanie.jpg Princess Marie
of Edinburgh
,
later Queen of Romania
29 October
1875

Eastwell Park, Kent
18 July
1938

Sinaia,
Romania
Married 1893 Ferdinand of Romania (1865–1927),
later King Ferdinand (1914–1927),
and had issue (3 sons, 3 daughters):
Crown Prince Carol (1893–1953), later King Carol II (1930–40),
   father of King Michael,
Princess Elisabeta (1894–1956), later Queen of Greece,
Princess Marie (1900–1961), later Queen of Yugoslavia and
   mother of King Peter II of Yugoslavia,
Prince Nicholas (1903–1978),
Princess Ileana (1909–1991), and
Prince Mircea (1913–1916).
Vitoria Melita.JPG Princess Victoria Melita
later Grand Duchess Victoria Feodorovna of Russia
25 November
1876

San Antonio Palace,
Malta
2 March
1936

Amorbach, Bavaria, Germany
Married 1894 (1) her paternal first cousin, Ernest Louis (1862–1937), Grand Duke of Hesse (1892–1918),
the son of her aunt Princess Alice (see above),
and had issue (1 stillborn son, 1 daughter):
Princess Elisabeth (1895–1903) and
an unnamed stillborn son (1901).
¶ The marriage ended in divorce in 1901.
Married (2) 1905, her maternal first cousin, Grand Duke Cyril Vladimirovich of Russia (1876–1938) and had issue (1 son, 2 daughters):
Princess Maria Kirillovna (1907–1951),
Princess Kira Kirillovna (1909–1967) and
Prince Vladimir Kirillovich (1917–1992).
Alexandrabritain1878.jpeg Princess Alexandra 1 September
1878

Rosenau Castle,
Coburg, Germany
16 April
1942

Schwäbisch Hall,
Germany
Married 1896 Prince Ernest II of Hohenlohe-Langenburg (1863–1950) and had issue (2 sons, 3 daughters):
Hereditary Prince Gottfried (1897–1960),
Princess Marie-Melita (1899–1967),
Princess Alexandra Beatrice (1901–1963),
Princess Irma (1902–1986), and
Prince Alfred (16–18 April 1911)
The senior Princess Alexandra joined the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) in 1937.
Alfred Duke of Saxe-Coburg Arms.svg Stillborn son 13 October
1879

Eastwell Park, Kent, England
13 October
1879

Eastwell Park, Kent, England
Died at birth.
Beatriceedinburgh1884.jpg Princess Beatrice 20 April
1884

Eastwell Park, Kent,
England
13 July
1966

Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Spain
Married 1909 Prince Alfonso de Orléans y Borbón, Duke of Galliera (1886–1975), Spanish Air Force chief of staff,
and had issue (3 sons):
Prince Álvaro de Orléans (1910–1997), later Duke of Galliera,
Prince Alonso de Orléans (1912–1936) and
Prince Araulfo de Orléans (1913–1974).

Princess Helena[edit]

Princess Helena (1846–1923) married Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein (1831–1917) in Windsor Castle's private chapel on 5 July 1866. Two sons and two daughters survived childhood; two other sons died within ten days of their birth. Princess Helena and Prince Christian had no legitimate grandchildren and one natural granddaughter who died without having issue of her own. Like other British royal holders of German titles (such as Admiral Louis Battenberg), Princess Helena, Prince Christian, and their two daughters gave up their titles to Schleswig-Holstein in 1917 when the British and German Empires were at war.

The Marriage of Princess Helena and Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
  Name Birth Death Marriage and children
Helena scan.jpg Princess Helena 25 May
1846
Buckingham Palace,
London, England
9 June
1923
Schomberg House, London, England
Married 5 July 1866
in Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire.

4 sons (of whom 2 survived their first month), 2 daughters
(including Duke Albert, Princess Helena Victoria,
and Princess Marie Louise of Schleswig-Holstein);

1 natural granddaughter
(Valerie Marie zu Schleswig-Holstein, Duchess of Arenberg)

¶ Princess Helena and Prince Christian have no surviving descendants today; Valerie Marie died childless.
Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein.jpg Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein 22 January
1831
Augustenborg, Denmark
28 October
1917
Schomberg House, London, England

Children of Princess Helena and Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein[edit]

Picture Name Birth Death Notes[3]
ChristianVictor.jpg Prince Christian Victor
of Schleswig-Holstein
14 August
1867

Windsor Castle,
Berkshire, England
29 October
1900

Pretoria,
South Africa
Christian Victor died of malaria while serving as a British officer on active duty in the Boer War.
Albert, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein, 1914.jpg Prince Albert,
later Duke of Schleswig-Holstein
28 February
1869

Frogmore House,
Windsor, Berkshire
13 March
1931

Berlin, Germany
Succeeded as head of the House of Oldenburg in 1921.
Never married, but had a twice-married and childless natural daughter,
Valerie Marie zu Schleswig-Holstein
   (née Schwalb) (1900–1953),
by Baroness Bertha Marie Madeleine of Wernitz (1868–1900).
Pss Helena Victoria.png Princess Helena Victoria,
until 1917: Princess of Schleswig-Holstein
3 May
1870

Frogmore House,
Windsor, Berkshire
13 March
1948

Berkeley Square,
London, England
Died unmarried.
Princess Marie Louise of Schleswig-Holstein.jpg Princess Marie Louise,
until 1917: Princess of Schleswig-Holstein
12 August
1872

Cumberland Lodge,
Windsor, Berkshire
8 December
1956

Berkeley Square,
London, England
Married 1891 to Prince Aribert of Anhalt (1866–1933);
no issue;
marriage was dissolved in 1900.
Coat of arms of Schleswig-Holstein.svg Prince Harald
of Schleswig-Holstein[12]
12 May
1876

Cumberland Lodge,
Windsor, Berkshire
20 May
1876

Cumberland Lodge,
Windsor, Berkshire
Died in infancy.
Coat of arms of Schleswig-Holstein.svg Stillborn son 7 May
1877
7 May
1877
Died at birth.

Princess Louise[edit]

Princess Louise (1848–1939), who married John Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll (1845–1914) in 1871, was the only one of Victoria's nine children who was childless. She was the first British monarch's child since 1515 to marry a subject rather than someone of royal blood.

The Marriage of Princess Louise and John Campbell, Marquess of Lorne
  Name Birth Death Notes
Princess Louise 1901 copy.jpg The Princess Louise 18 March
1848
Buckingham Palace,
Westminster (London)
3 December
1939
Kensington Palace,
London
Married 21 March 1871,
in St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle (Berkshire)

no issue

¶ The Marquess of Lorne was a member of the British House of Commons from 1868 to 1878 and from 1895 to 1900. From 1878 to 1883 he served as Governor General of Canada, representing his mother-in-law, Queen Victoria. In 1900, he succeeded as 9th Duke of Argyll (and thus joined the House of Lords).
Lorne.jpg John Douglas Sutherland Campbell,
M.P., Marquess of Lorne,
later Governor General of Canada,
later 9th Duke of Argyll
6 August
1845
London
2 May
1914
Cowes,
Isle of Wight

Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught[edit]

Prince Arthur (1850–1942) married Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia (1860–1917) on 13 March 1879 at St George's Chapel in Windsor Castle. They had 2 daughters and 1 son.

In March 1911, the Duke of Connaught's nephew, King George V (son of the Duke's recently deceased brother King Edward VII) appointed his uncle to represent him as Governor General of Canada. He thus became the first, and so far only, Governor General of Canada to be of the Blood Royal, although he had been preceded in this office from 1878 to 1883 by the Marquess of Lorne, the non-royal husband of his sister Princess Louise (see above). [King George's son, the Duke of Gloucester, was later Governor-General of Australia, and the Duke of Connaught's own son was later Governor-General of South Africa. See above and below.]

Prince Arthur's elder daughter (and Queen Victoria's granddaughter) Princess Margaret of Connaught became Crown Princess of Sweden in 1907 after marrying the future King Gustaf VI Adolf of Sweden in 1905 (however, Margaret died before Gustav became king).

Queen Victoria → Prince Arthur → Princess Margaret → Prince Gustav Adolf, Duke of Västerbotten → King Carl XVI Gustav
Queen Victoria → Prince Arthur → Princess Margaret → Princess Ingrid → Danish Queen Margrethe II & Greek Queen Anne-Marie
Queen Victoria → Prince Arthur → Princess Margaret → Count Carl Johan Bernadotte

The Marriage of Arthur, Duke of Connaught, and Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia
  Name Birth Death Notes
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught.jpg The Prince Arthur,
Duke of Connaught and Strathearn
Field Marshal,
Governor General of Canada
1 May
1850
Buckingham Palace,
Westminster (London)
16 January
1942
Bagshot Park, Surrey
Married 13 March 1879
in St. George's Chapel of Windsor Castle (Berkshire)

1 son, 2 daughters

6 grandsons, 1 granddaughter
(including Queen Ingrid of Denmark and
Count Carl Johan Bernadotte, the last great-grandchild of Queen Victoria to die)

¶ The Duke of Connaught was made a Field Marshal in 1902 and served as Governor General of Canada (representing his nephew King George V) from 1911 to 1916.
Louise Marguerite Prussia.png Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia 25 July
1860
Potsdam,
Germany
14 March
1917
Clarence House,
Westminster (London)