Queen Máxima of the Netherlands
|Queen Máxima in Wiesbaden, 2013|
|Tenure||30 April 2013 – present|
|Spouse||Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands|
|Catharina-Amalia, Princess of Orange
|House||House of Orange-Nassau (by marriage)|
|Mother||María del Carmen Cerruti Carricart|
17 May 1971 |
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Queen Máxima of the Netherlands (née Máxima Zorreguieta; born 17 May 1971) is the wife of King Willem-Alexander. On 30 April 2013, she became the first Dutch queen consort since Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont who held that title until 1890.
Early life and education
Máxima Zorreguieta Cerruti was born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, on 17 May 1971. Queen Máxima is the daughter of Jorge Zorreguieta (born 1928) and his second wife, María del Carmen Cerruti Carricart (born 1944). She has two brothers, a sister and three half-sisters by her father's first wife, Marta López Gil. She is named after her paternal great-grandmother Máxima Bonorino Gonzalez (1874–1965), whose mother Máxima González y de Islas belonged to the family of Justo José de Urquiza († 1870), the first Constitutional President of Argentina.
She studied at Northlands School in Argentina and worked as an investment banker before graduating with a degree in Economics from the Universidad Católica Argentina in 1995. She subsequently worked for large international finance companies in Argentina, New York and Brussels.
Relationship with Willem-Alexander
Máxima met Willem-Alexander, who was at the time the Prince of Orange, in April 1999 in Seville, Spain, during the Seville Spring Fair. In an interview, they stated that he introduced himself only as "Alexander", so that she did not know he was a prince. She thought he was joking when he later told her who he was. They agreed to meet again two weeks later in New York, where Máxima was working for Dresdner Kleinwort Benson. Their relationship apparently began in New York, but she did not meet his parents, Queen Beatrix and Prince Claus, for some time.
The news of the couple's relationship and eventual marriage plans caused controversy in the Netherlands, due to the involvement of Máxima's father as a cabinet minister during the regime of Argentine President Jorge Rafael Videla. At the request of the Dutch Parliament, Michiel Baud, a Dutch professor in Latin American studies, carried out an inquiry into the involvement of Zorreguieta in the Dirty War. Although Zorreguieta claimed that, as a civilian, he was unaware of the Dirty War while he was a cabinet minister, Baud concluded that it would have been unlikely for a person in such a powerful position in the government to be unaware of it. However, Baud's research determined that Máxima's father had not been directly involved with the many deaths during that period. Even so, his possible presence at the royal wedding was debated for several months.
Approval for the marriage was granted by the Dutch parliament (as necessary by law for the Prince of Orange to remain heir to the throne), but Máxima's parents were not invited to attend the wedding.
Marriage and family
The couple announced their engagement on 30 March 2001; Máxima addressed the nation in fluent Dutch during the live televised broadcast. Máxima was granted Dutch citizenship by Royal Decree on 17 May 2001 and now has dual citizenship: Argentine and Dutch.
Máxima and Willem-Alexander were married on 2 February 2002 in a civil ceremony in the Beurs van Berlage, Amsterdam, which was then followed by a religious ceremony at Amsterdam's Nieuwe Kerk ("New Church"). She remained a Roman Catholic after her marriage. Máxima's parents were not present at the wedding; her father was told he could not attend due to his role as a government minister during the Argentinian National Reorganization Process, and her mother chose not to attend without her husband.
The couple has three daughters:
- The Princess of Orange (Catharina-Amalia Beatrix Carmen Victoria), born 7 December 2003
- Princess Alexia Juliana Marcela Laurentien of the Netherlands, born 26 June 2005
- Princess Ariane Wilhelmina Máxima Inés of the Netherlands, born 10 April 2007
Queen Máxima focuses on the issue of integration of immigrants into Dutch culture. She was a member of a special parliamentary commission which sought to recommend ways to increase the participation of female immigrants in the workforce. Máxima stresses the importance for immigrants of learning the Dutch language (as she did) in order to fully participate in Dutch society. Dutch is actually the Queen's third language; she is also fluent in Spanish (her native language) and English. She speaks French to a conversational level.
The Queen participates in conferences around the world representing the Netherlands. She was granted a seat in the Dutch Council of State on 20 October 2004, the highest advisory body and court of administration. She became a member of the Committee for Ethnic Minority Women’s Participation;[when?] has a seat on the board of governors of the Chair on the Management of Diversity and Integration at the Free University of Amsterdam; she (along with her husband) is a patron of the Orange Fund (established to promote social welfare and cohesion in the Netherlands); and she also chairs the Board of Trustees of the Prince Claus Chair in Development and Equity of the International Institute of Social Studies  and the University of Utrecht.
Queen Máxima currently serves as the United Nations Secretary General’s Special Advocate for Inclusive Finance for Development (UNSGSA). The UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon designated her to this role in September 2009 in order to raise awareness on the importance of inclusive financial systems for achieving economic and development goals such as poverty alleviation, food security and education. In her work as UNSGSA, the Queen focuses on how formal financial services such as savings, insurance, credit can prevent people from falling into poverty due to expenditures on healthcare, and people who are not able to protect themselves against rising food prices and poverty because they do not have access to basic savings accounts. The role of the UNSGSA is to foster action by governments, private sector, financial system standard setters, and others towards a more inclusive financial system that works for the poor.
Máxima is also the Honorary Patron of the G20 Global Partnership for Financial Inclusion (GPFI) since June 2011. In this role she works with governments and partners to advance the G20 Action Plan on Financial Inclusion, and the G20 Financial Inclusion Peer Learning Program. Previously, the Queen was a member of the Advisors Group for the United Nations' International Year of Microcredit 2005. and until 2009, was a member of UN Advisors Group on Inclusive Financial Sectors.
Titles, honours and arms
Titles and styles
|Dutch Royal Family|
HM The King *
HRH Princess Beatrix *
- 17 May 1971 – 2 February 2002: Miss Máxima Zorreguieta Cerruti
- 2 February 2002 – 30 April 2013: Her Royal Highness Princess Máxima of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau, Mevrouw van Amsberg
- 30 April 2013 – present: Her Majesty The Queen of the Netherlands, Princess of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau 
By Royal Decree nr. 41 of 25 January 2002, upon the solemnization of marriage, Máxima Zorreguieta was taken up into the Dutch nobility and the titles Princess of the Netherlands and Princess of Orange-Nassau, and the predicate Royal Highness, were formally conferred upon her.
On 28 January 2013, it was announced that Queen Beatrix would abdicate on 30 April in favour of Willem-Alexander. On 13 May 2011, the Dutch parliament confirmed that Máxima would become queen upon her husband's accession, after a debate over her future title and style. Máxima is the Kingdom's first queen consort since Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont, the second wife of William III. She is the first Dutch queen consort to have been born as a commoner. She is also the first Dutch queen to be born outside Europe.
- Netherlands : Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Netherlands Lion
- Netherlands : Royal Wedding Medal 2002 (2 February 2002)
- Netherlands : King Willem-Alexander Investiture Medal (30 April 2013)
- Belgium : Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown (2006)
- Brazil: Grand Cross of the Order of the Southern Cross
- Brunei: Senior (Dato Laila Utama) of the Most Esteemed Family Order of Brunei (DK I, January 2013) 
- Chile: Grand Cross of the Order of the Merit of Chile
- France: Grand Cross of the National Order of Merit (20 January 2014)
- Luxembourg: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Adolphe of Nassau (2006)
- Mexico: Sash of the Order of the Aztec Eagle (2009)
- Norway: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St. Olav (2 October 2013)
- Oman: Member 1st Class of the Order of Sultan Qaboos (10 January 2012)
- Spain: Dame Grand Cross of the Order of Isabella the Catholic (19/10/2001)
- Sweden: Commander Grand Cross of the Order of the Polar Star (2010)
- UAE: Member 1st Class of the Union Order (9 January 2012)
- Reitwiesner, William Addams. "Ancestry of Maxima Zorreguieta". WARGS. Retrieved 28 January 2013.
- Andrea Borella "Annuario della Nobiltà Italiana" Edizione XXXI Teglio (SO) 2010 S.A.G.I. Casa Editrice, vol. 1 and Ascendencia de Da. Máxima Zorreguieta, Princesa de la Corona de los Paises Bajos
- Ancestry of Maxima Zorreguieta
- "Studie en werk vóór 2002". Het Koninklij Huis. Retrieved 28 January 2013.
- La Casa de Orange - Nassu y su parentesco político con Doña Máxima Zorroguieta
- Maxima's father, Jorge Zorreguieta, had been the Minister of Agriculture during the regime of former Argentine Dictator Jorge Rafael Videla, a military dictator who ruled Argentina from 1976 to 1981 and who was responsible for many atrocities against civilians. An estimated 10,000–30,000 people disappeared during Videla's and subsequent military regimes before democracy was restored to Argentina in 1983.
- Human rights: Zorreguieta vs.humanrights, March 2001.
- "Crown Princess Maxima of the Netherlands". Hello!. Retrieved 28 January 2013.
- Joyful christening of Catharina-Amalia
- Engagement period, Royal Wedding 2002.
- Ook Beatrix heeft dubbele nationaliteit, (Queen Beatrix also has dual citizenship), Radio Netherlands Worldwide, 6 March 2007.
- Amsterdam Museum toont trouwtafel van Prins Willem-Alexander en Prinses Maxima, Royal Wedding 2002.
- Princess Maxima & Prince Willem-Alexander's Wedding: A Look Back
- We're all princesses now: The rise of the middle-class monarchy
- Dutch abdication: profile of Maxima Zorreguieta, Holland's new Queen consort
- "Prinses Máxima krijgt zitting in Raad van State" (in Dutch). 19 October 2004. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- FreeForm | Chicago Free Press: Judge Not...
- "Landelijke koploperovereenkomst lesbisch". Rijksoverheid. 14 November 2007. Retrieved 28 January 2013.
- Her Royal Highness Princess Máxima of the Netherlands
- "International Year of Microcredit 2005". Year of Microcredit. Retrieved 28 January 2013.
- Royal Decree nr. 41 of 25 January 2002, regarding the royal titles and predicate for Princess Máxima - Official gazette of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
- Royal decree nr. 42 of 25 January 2002, regarding the coat of arms and personal standard for Princess Máxima - Official gazette of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
- , www.nrc.nl
- State visit of Beatrix in Belgium, 2006, Belga Pictures, group photo
- Noblesse et Royautés (French), State visit of Netherlands in Brunei (01/2013), Photo
- Koning krijgt grootkruis van Legioen van Eer - website De Telegraaf
- The royal forums, State visit of Luxembourg to Netherlands, 2006, Photo
- Official decree, 02/11/2009
- His Majesty receives Queen Beatrix - website of the Oman Observer
- Boletín Oficial del Estado
- Mad Hattery, pictures during Princess Victoria of Sweden's wedding
- H.H Sheikh Khalifa welcomes HM Queen Beatrix of Netherlands - website of the UAE Ministry of Foreign Affairs
- (Dutch) Wapens van leden van het Koninklijk Huis, Dutch Royal House. Retrieved on 2013-05-06.
- Besluit van 25 januari 2002, houdende verlening van wapen en onderscheidingsvlag aan Hare Koninklijke Hoogheid Prinses Máxima (original Dutch text of the royal decree)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Queen Máxima of the Netherlands.|
- Queen Máxima at the website of the Royal House
- Queen/Reina Máxima non official website; biography, news and fashion
Title last held byClaus von Amsberg
as prince consort
|Queen consort of the Netherlands
30 April 2013 – present