Pritilata Waddedar

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Pritilata Waddedar
Original Archived photo of Pritilata Waddedar.jpg
Native name প্রীতিলতা ওয়াদ্দেদার
Born (1911-05-05)5 May 1911
Dhalghat, Chittagong, Bengal Presidency, British India
(now in Bangladesh)
Died 23 September 1932(1932-09-23) (aged 21)
Chittagong, Bengal Presidency, British India
(now in Bangladesh)
Cause of death
Suicide by consuming potassium cyanide
Other names Rani (nickname)
Ethnicity Bengali
Alma mater Bethune College
Occupation School teacher
Known for Pahartali European Club attack (1932)
Relatives Madhusduan (brother)
Kanaklata (sister)
Shantilata (sister)
Ashalata (sister)
Santosh (brother)

Pritilata Waddedar (5 May 1911 – 23 September 1932)[1] was a Bengali revolutionary nationalist.[2][3] She was very studious. After completing her education in Chittagong, she attended Bethune College in Kolkata. Pritilata graduated in Philosophy with distinction.

After a brief stint as a school teacher, Pritilata joined a revolutionary group headed by Surya Sen. She led a 15 man team of revolutionaries[4] in a 1932 attack on the Pahartali European Club,[5][6] which had a sign board that read "Dogs and Indians not allowed".[2] The revolutionaries torched the club and were later caught by the British police. To avoid getting arrested, Pritilata consumed cyanide and died.[7]

Early life[edit]

Matriculation examination certificate of Pritilata

Pritilata was born in a middle-class Vaidya-Brahmin family on 5 May 1911[8] in Dhalghat village in Patiya upazila of Chittagong (now in Bangladesh).[9] Her parents were Jagabandhu Waddedar (father) and Pratibhamayi Devi (mother). Jagabandhu was a clerk in the Chittagong Municipality.[2] Her mother Pratibhamayi Devi was a housewife.[10] The couple had six children– Madhusduan, Pritilata, Kanaklata, Shantilata, Ashalata and Santosh. Pritilata was nicknamed Rani.[10] Waddedar was a title conferred to an ancestor of the family who originally had the surname Dasgupta.

Jagabandhu tried to arrange best possible education for their children.[11] He got Pritilata admitted in Dr. Khastagir Government Girls' School of Chittagong. Pritilata was a meritorious student.[12] A teacher in the school, whom students affectionately used called Usha Di, used stories of Rani Lakshmibai to inspire nationalism in her students. Kalpana Datta, a classmate of Pritilata, writes in the biography Chittagong Armoury raiders– "We had no clear idea in our school days about our future. Then the Rani of Jhansi fired our imagination with her example. Sometimes we used to think of ourselves as fearless...".[13] Arts and literature were Pritilata's favourite subjects.[14] She passed out of Dr. Khastagir Government Girls' School in 1928 and in 1929, got admitted to the Eden College, Dhaka. In the Intermediate examinations, she stood first among all students who appeared in that year's examination from the Dhaka Board.[2][11] As a student in Eden College, she participated in various social activities. She joined the group Sree Sangha, headed by Leela Nag, under the banner Dipali Sangha.[15]

In Calcutta[edit]

To pursue higher education, Pritilata went to Calcutta (now Kolkata) and got admitted to the Bethune College. Two years later, she graduated in Philosophy from the college with a distinction.[16] However, her degree was withheld by British authorities at Calcutta University. In 2012, she (and Bina Das) were conferred their certificates of merit posthumously.[3]

As a school teacher[edit]

After completing her education in Calcutta, Pritilata returned to Chittagong. In Chittagong, she took up the job of a school teacher at a local English medium secondary school called Nandankanan Aparnacharan School. She was appointed as the first Headmistress of the school.[2][11][17]

Revolutionary activities[edit]

Joining Surya Sen's revolutionary group[edit]

"Pritilata was young and courageous. She would work with a lot of zeal and was determined to drive the British away."

Binod Bihari Chowdhury, a contemporary revolutionary[18]

Pritilata decided to join the Indian independence movement. Surya Sen had heard about her and wanted her to join their revolutionary group.[18] On 13 June 1932, Pritilata met Surya Sen and Nirmal Sen in their Dhalghat camp.[10] A contemporary revolutionary, Binod Bihari Chowdhury, objected that they did not allow women to join their group. However, Pritalata was allowed to join the group because the revolutionaries reasoned that women transporting weapons would not attract as much suspicion as men.[18]

Inspiration from Ramkrishna Biswas[edit]

Surya Sen and his revolutionary group decided to kill Mr. Craig, Inspector General of Chittagong. Ramakrishna Biswas and Kalipada Chakravarty were assigned for this task. But they mistakenly killed SP of Chandpur and Traini Mukherjee instead of Craig. Ramakrishna Biswas and Kalipada Chakravarty were arrested on 2 December 1931.[19] After the trial Biswas was ordered to be hanged till death and Chakravarty to be exiled to Cellular Jail.[20]

The family and friends lacked the amount of money required to travel to Chittagong to Alipore Jail of Calcutta. Since at that time Pritilata was staying in Kolkata, she was asked to go to Alipore Jail and meet Ramkrishna Biswas.[20]

Activities in Surya Sen's group[edit]

Along with the revolutionary group of Surya Sen, Pritilata took part in many raids like attacks on the Telephone & Telegraph offices[8] and the capture of the reserve police line. In the Jalalabad battle, she took the responsibility to supply explosives to the revolutionaries.[2]

Pahartali European Club attack (1932)[edit]

Pahartali European Club (current image), which was torched by the group of revolutionaries

In 1932, Surya Sen planned to attack the Pahartali European Club which had a signboard that read "Dogs and Indians not allowed".[21] Surya Sen decided to appoint a woman leader for this mission. Kapana Datta was arrested seven days before the event. Because of this, Pritilata was assigned the leadership of the attack. Pritilata went to Kotowali Sea Side for arms training and made the plan of their attack there.[11]

They decided to attack the club on 23 September 1932. The members of the group were given potassium cyanide and were told to swallow it if they were caught.[2]

On the day of the attack, Pritilata dressed herself as a Punjabi male. Her associates Kalishankar Dey, Bireshwar Roy, Prafulla Das, Shanti Chakraborty wore dhoti and shirt. Mahendra Chowdhury, Sushil Dey and Panna Sen wore lungi and shirt.[20]

They reached the club at around 10:45 PM and attacked the club. There were around 40 people inside the club then. The revolutionaries divided themselves into three separate groups for the attack. In the club, a few police officers who had revolvers started shooting. Pritilata incurred a single bullet wound. According to the police report, in this attack, one woman with a surname of Sullivan died and four men and seven women were injured.[20]

Death[edit]

In this place Pritilata committed suicide. Now there is a plaque there in her memory

An injured Pritilata was trapped by the British police.[2] In order to avoid arrest, she swallowed cyanide and committed suicide.[18] On the next day police found her body and identified her. On searching her dead body police found a few leaflets, photograph of Ramkrishna Biswas, bullets, whistle and the draft of their plan of attack. After the post-mortem it was found that the bullet injury was not very serious and cyanide was the reason of her death.[20]

The chief secretary of Bengal sent a report to British authorities in London. In the report it was written–[22]

Pritilata had been closely associated with, if not actually the mistress of, the terrorist Biswas who was hanged for the murder of Inspector Tarini Mukherjee, and some reports indicate that she was the wife of Nirmal Sen who was killed while attempting to evade arrest of Dhalghat, where Captain Cameron fell.

.

Influence[edit]

A bust of Waddedar Pritilata Waddedar primary school, Chittagong

Bangladeshi writer Selina Hossain calls Pritilata an ideal for every woman.[23] A trust named Birkannya Pritilata Trust (Brave lady Pritilata Trust) has been founded in her memory. Pritilata's birthday is celebrated by the trust in different places of Bangladesh and India every year. The trust considers her to be "a beacon of light for women".[24] The last end of Sahid Abdus Sabur Road to Mukunda Ram Hat of Boalkhali upazila in Chittagong has been named as Pritilata Waddedar Road.[25] In 2012, a bronze sculpture of Pritilata Waddedar and Suya Sen has been planned to be installed in front of Pahartali Railway School, adjacent to the historical European Club.[26]

In popular media[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Pritilata's 100th birthday today". The Daily Star. May 5, 2011. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "Pritilata Waddedar (1911-1932)". News Today. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  3. ^ a b "After 80 yrs, posthumous degrees for revolutionaries". The Times of India. Mar 22, 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  4. ^ Geraldine Forbes (28 April 1999). Women in Modern India. Cambridge University Press. pp. 140–. ISBN 978-0-521-65377-0. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  5. ^ "Remembering the Legendary Heroes of Chittagong". NIC. Retrieved 6 January 2013. 
  6. ^ "Indian Independence". Retrieved 5 January 2013. 
  7. ^ Craig A. Lockard (1 January 2010). Societies, Networks, and Transitions: A Global History: Since 1750. Cengage Learning. pp. 699–. ISBN 978-1-4390-8534-9. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  8. ^ a b "A fearless female freedom-fighter". The Daily Star. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  9. ^ "Pritilata’s birth anniversary observed at CU". New Age. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  10. ^ a b c "Agnijuger Agnikanya Pritilata". BDNews (Bengali). 5 May 2011. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  11. ^ a b c d "The Fire-Brand Woman Of Indian Freedom Struggle.". Towards Freedom. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  12. ^ Pritilata (in Bengali). Prometheus er pothe. 2008. p. 15. 
  13. ^ Kalpana Dutt (1979). Chittagong Armoury raiders: reminiscences. Peoples̕ Pub. House. p. 46. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  14. ^ Manini Chatterjee (1999). Do and die: the Chittagong uprising, 1930-34. Penguin Books. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-14-029067-7. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  15. ^ "Biography of Waddedar, Pritilata". Banglapedia. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  16. ^ S. S. Shashi (1996). Encyclopaedia Indica: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh. Anmol Publications. p. 135. ISBN 978-81-7041-859-7. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  17. ^ "CCC plans to house 2 girls' schools in commercial complex". The Daily Star. January 31, 2009. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  18. ^ a b c d "A Long Walk to Freedom". The Daily Star. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  19. ^ Reva Chatterjee (2000). Netaji Subhas Bose. Ocean Books. pp. 2–. ISBN 978-81-87100-27-0. Retrieved 11 January 2013. 
  20. ^ a b c d e Pal, Rupamay (1986). Surjo Sener Sonali Swapno. Kolkata: Deepayan. p. 162. 
  21. ^ "80th death anniversary of Pritilata observed". News Age. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  22. ^ "Fortnightly Reports on Bengal, for the second half of September 1932, GOI Home Poll No. 18/1932". 1932. 
  23. ^ "Contribution of Pritilata recalled". The Daily Star. June 1, 2011. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  24. ^ "A beacon of light for women". The Daily Star. September 26, 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  25. ^ "Road named after Pritilata in Ctg". New Nation. 18 December 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  26. ^ "Pritilata's bronze sculpture to be installed in port city". The Daily Star. October 2, 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  27. ^ "Young rebels". Business Standard. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  28. ^ "The veer Konna of Chittagong". The Telegraph (Calcutta). Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  29. ^ "Manoj Bajpayee, back in the limelight". Screen India. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 

Further reading[edit]