History of India

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the history of the Indian subcontinent with India in focus prior to the partition of India in 1947. For the modern Republic of India(post 1947), see History of the Republic of India. For Pakistan and Bangladesh in focus, see History of Pakistan and History of Bangladesh.
"Indian history" redirects here. For other uses, see Native American history.
Part of a series on the
History of India
Ajanta Padmapani.jpg
Ancient India
Medieval India
Modern India

The history of the Indian subcontinent begins with evidence of human activity of Homo sapiens, as long as 75,000 years ago, or with earlier hominids including Homo erectus from about 500,000 years ago.[1]

The Indus Valley Civilization, which spread and flourished in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent from c. 3300 to 1300 BCE in present-day Pakistan and northwest India, was the first major civilization in South Asia.[2] A sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture developed in the Mature Harappan period, from 2600 to 1900 BCE.[3] This civilization collapsed at the start of the second millennium BCE and was later followed by the Iron Age Vedic Civilization, which extended over much of the Indo-Gangetic plain and which witness the rise of major polities known as the Mahajanapadas. In one of these kingdoms, Magadha, Mahavira and Gautama Buddha were born in the 6th or 5th century BCE and propagated their Shramanic philosophies.

Most of the subcontinent was conquered by the Maurya Empire during the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE. Various parts of India were ruled by numerous Middle kingdoms for the next 1,500 years, among which the Gupta Empire stands out. This period, witnessing a Hindu religious and intellectual resurgence, is known as the classical or "Golden Age of India". During this period, aspects of Indian civilization, administration, culture, and religion (Hinduism and Buddhism) spread to much of Asia, while kingdoms in southern India had maritime business links with the Roman Empire from around 77 CE. During this period Indian cultural influence spread over many parts of Southeast Asia which led to the establishment of Indianized kingdoms in Southeast Asia.[4]

7th-11th centuries saw the Tripartite struggle between the Pala Empire, Rashtrakuta Empire, and Gurjara Pratihara Empire centered on Kannauj. Southern India saw the rule of the Chalukya Empire, Chola Empire, Pallava Empire, Pandyan Empire, and Western Chalukya Empire. The Chola dynasty conquered southern India and successfully invaded parts of Southeast Asia and Sri Lanka in the 11th century.[5][6] The early medieval period Indian mathematics influenced the development of mathematics and astronomy in the Arab world and the Hindu numerals were introduced.[7]

Muslim rule started in some parts of north India in the 13th century when the Delhi Sultanate was established in 1206 CE.[8] The Delhi Sultanate ruled the major part of northern India in the early 14th century, but declined in the late 14th century, which saw the emergence of several powerful Hindu states like the Vijayanagara Empire, Gajapati Kingdom, Ahom Kingdom and Mewar dynasty. In the 16th century Mughals came from Central Asia and covered most of India gradually. The Mughal Empire suffered a gradual decline in the early 18th century, which provided opportunities for the Maratha Empire, Sikh Empire and Mysore Kingdom to exercise control over large areas in the subcontinent.[9][10]

Beginning in the late 18th century and over the next century, large areas of India were annexed by the British East India Company. Dissatisfaction with Company rule led to the Indian Rebellion of 1857, after which the British provinces of India were directly administered by the British Crown and witnessed a period of both rapid development of infrastructure and economic stagnation. During the first half of the 20th century, a nationwide struggle for independence was launched with the leading party involved being the Indian National Congress which was later joined by Muslim League as well.

The subcontinent gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1947, after the British provinces were partitioned into the dominions of India and Pakistan and the princely states all acceded to one of the new states.

Contents

Periodisation of Indian history[edit]

James Mill (1773–1836), in his The History of British India (1817), distinguished three phases in the history of India, namely Hindu, Muslim and British civilisations. This periodisation has been criticised, for the misconceptions it has given rise to. Another periodisation is the division into "ancient, classical, medieval and modern periods". Smart and Michaels seem to follow Mill's periodisation, while Flood and Muesse follow the "ancient, classical, mediaeval and modern periods" periodisation. However, both the periodizations are also criticized.[11]

Prehistoric era[edit]

Stone Age[edit]

Main article: South Asian Stone Age
Bhimbetka rock painting, Madhya Pradesh, India (c. 30,000 years old)
Stone age (5000 BCE) writings of Edakkal Caves in Kerala, India.

Isolated remains of Homo erectus in Hathnora in the Narmada Valley in central India indicate that India might have been inhabited since at least the Middle Pleistocene era, somewhere between 500,000 and 200,000 years ago.[12][13] Tools crafted by proto-humans that have been dated back two million years have been discovered in the northwestern part of the subcontinent.[14][15] The ancient history of the region includes some of South Asia's oldest settlements[16] and some of its major civilisations.[17][18] The earliest archaeological site in the subcontinent is the palaeolithic hominid site in the Soan River valley.[19] Soanian sites are found in the Sivalik region across what are now India, Pakistan, and Nepal.[20]

The Mesolithic period in the Indian subcontinent was followed by the Neolithic period, when more extensive settlement of the subcontinent occurred after the end of the last Ice Age approximately 12,000 years ago. The first confirmed semipermanent settlements appeared 9,000 years ago in the Bhimbetka rock shelters in modern Madhya Pradesh, India. Early Neolithic culture in South Asia is represented by the Bhirrana findings (7500 BCE) in Haryana, India & Mehrgarh findings (7000 BCE onwards) in Balochistan, Pakistan.[21][22]

Traces of a Neolithic culture have been alleged to be submerged in the Gulf of Khambat in India, radiocarbon dated to 7500 BCE.[23] However, the one dredged piece of wood in question was found in an area of strong ocean currents. Neolithic agriculture cultures sprang up in the Indus Valley region around 5000 BCE, in the lower Gangetic valley around 3000 BCE, and in later South India, spreading southwards and also northwards into Malwa around 1800 BCE. The first urban civilisation of the region began with the Indus Valley Civilisation.[24]

Bronze Age[edit]

"Priest King" of Indus Valley Civilisation

The Bronze Age in the Indian subcontinent began around 3300 BCE with the early Indus Valley Civilisation. It was centred on the Indus River and its tributaries which extended into the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley,[17] the Ganges-Yamuna Doab,[25] Gujarat,[26] and southeastern Afghanistan.[27]

The civilisation is primarily located in modern-day India (Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan provinces) and Pakistan (Sindh, Punjab, and Balochistan provinces). Historically part of Ancient India, it is one of the world's earliest urban civilisations, along with Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt.[28] Inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley, the Harappans, developed new techniques in metallurgy and handicraft (carneol products, seal carving), and produced copper, bronze, lead, and tin.

The Mature Indus civilisation flourished from about 2600 to 1900 BCE, marking the beginning of urban civilisation on the subcontinent. The civilisation included urban centres such as Dholavira, Kalibangan, Ropar, Rakhigarhi, and Lothal in modern-day India, and Harappa, Ganeriwala, and Mohenjo-daro in modern-day Pakistan. The civilisation is noted for its cities built of brick, roadside drainage system, and multistoried houses.

During the late period of this civilisation, signs of a gradual decline began to emerge, and by around 1700 BCE, most of the cities were abandoned. However, the Indus Valley Civilisation did not disappear suddenly, and some elements of the Indus Civilization may have survived, especially in the smaller villages and isolated farms. The Indian Copper Hoard Culture is attributed to this time, associated in the Doab region with the Ochre Coloured Pottery.

Vedic period (1750 BCE - 500 BCE)[edit]

Scheme of Indo-European migrations from ca. 4000 to 1000 BCE according to the Kurgan hypothesis.[note 1]
Archaeological cultures associated with Indo-Iranian migrations (after EIEC).[note 2]
A map of North India in the late Vedic period.

The Vedic period is characterised by Indo-Aryan culture associated with the texts of Vedas, sacred to Hindus, which were orally composed in Vedic Sanskrit. The Vedas are some of the oldest extant texts in India.[29] The Vedic period, lasting from about 1750 to 500 BCE,[30][31] contributed the foundations of Hinduism and other cultural aspects of Indian subcontinent. In terms of culture, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic to the Iron Age in this period.[32]

Vedic society[edit]

Historians have analysed the Vedas to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.[32] Most historians also consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west.[33][34] Vedic people believed in the transmigration of the soul, and the peepal tree and cow were sanctified by the time of the Atharva Veda.[35] Many of the concepts of Indian philosophy espoused later like Dharma, Karma etc. trace their root to the Vedas.[36]

The swastika is a major element of Hindu iconography.

Early Vedic society is described in the Rigveda, the oldest Vedic text, believed to have been composed c. 1500–1200 BCE in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent.[37] At this time, Aryan society consisted of largely tribal and pastoral groups, distinct from the Harappan urbanisation which had been abandoned.[38] The early Indo-Aryan presence probably corresponds, in part, to the Ochre Coloured Pottery culture in archaeological contexts.[39][40]

At the end of the Rigvedic period, the Aryan society began to expand from the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent, into the western Ganges plain. It became increasingly agricultural and was socially organised around the hierarchy of the four varnas, or social classes. This social structure was characterized both by syncretising with the native cultures of northern India,[41] but also eventually by the excluding of indigenous peoples by labelling their occupations impure.[42] During this period, many of the previous small tribal units and chiefdoms began to coalesce into monarchical, state-level polities.[43]

Sanskritization[edit]

Main article: Sanskritization

Since Vedic times, "people from many strata of society throughout the subcontinent tended to adapt their religious and social life to Brahmanic norms", a process sometimes called Sanskritization.[44] It is reflected in the tendency to identify local deities with the gods of the Sanskrit texts.[44]

The Kuru kingdom was the first state-level society of the Vedic period, corresponding to the beginning of the Iron Age in northwestern India, around 1000 BCE, as well as with the composition of the Atharvaveda (the first Indian text to mention iron, as śyāma ayas, literally "black metal").[45] The Kuru state organized the Vedic hymns into collections, and developed the orthodox srauta ritual to uphold the social order.[46] When the Kuru kingdom declined, the center of Vedic culture shifted to their eastern neighbours, the Panchala kingdom.[46] The archaeological Painted Grey Ware culture, which flourished in the Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh regions of northern India from about 1100 to 600 BCE,[39] is believed to correspond to the Kuru and Panchala kingdoms.[46][47]

During the Late Vedic Period, the kingdom of Videha emerged as a new center of Vedic culture, situated even farther to the East (in what is today Nepal and Bihar state in India).[48] The later part of this period corresponds with a consolidation of increasingly large states and kingdoms, called mahajanapadas, all across Northern India.

Sanskrit Epics[edit]

Main articles: Mahabharata and Ramayana

In addition to the Vedas, the principal texts of Hinduism, the core themes of the Sanskrit epics Ramayana and Mahabharata are said to have their ultimate origins during this period.[49] The Mahabharata remains, today, the longest single poem in the world.[50] Historians formerly postulated an "epic age" as the milieu of these two epic poems, but now recognize that the texts (which are both familiar with each other) went through multiple stages of development over centuries. For instance, the Mahabharata may have been based on a small-scale conflict (possibly about 1000 BCE) which was eventually "transformed into a gigantic epic war by bards and poets."[51] The existing texts of these epics are believed to belong to the post-Vedic age, between c. 400 BCE and 400 CE.[51][52] There is no conclusive proof from archaeology as to whether the specific events described therein have any historical basis.[51]

"Second urbanisation" (800-200 BCE)[edit]

During the time between 800 and 200 BCE the Shramana-movement formed, from which originated Jainism and Buddhism. In the same period the first Upanishads were written. After 500 BCE, the so-called "Second urbanisation" started, with new urban settlements arising at the Ganges plain, especially the Central Ganges plain.[53] The Central Ganges Plain, where Magadha gained prominence, forming the base of the Mauryan Empire, was a distinct cultural area,[54] with new states arising after 500 BCE[web 1] during the so-called "Second urbanisation".[55][note 3] It was influenced by the Vedic culture,[56] but differed markedly from the Kuru-Panchala region.[54] It "was the area of the earliest known cultivation of rice in South Asia and by 1800 BCE was the location of an advanced neolithic population associated with the sites of Chirand and Chechar".[57] In this region the Shramanic movements flourished, and Jainism and Buddhism originated.[53]

Mahajanapadas (600-300 B.C.E)[edit]

The Mahajanapadas were the sixteen most powerful kingdoms and republics of the era, located mainly across the fertile Indo-Gangetic plains, there were a number of smaller kingdoms stretching the length and breadth of Ancient India.
Main articles: Mahajanapadas and Haryanka dynasty

In the later Vedic Age, a number of small kingdoms or city states had covered the subcontinent, many mentioned in Vedic, early Buddhist and Jaina literature as far back as 500 BCE. sixteen monarchies and "republics" known as the MahajanapadasKashi, Kosala, Anga, Magadha, Vajji (or Vriji), Malla, Chedi, Vatsa (or Vamsa), Kuru, Panchala, Matsya (or Machcha), Shurasena, Assaka, Avanti, Gandhara, and Kamboja—stretched across the Indo-Gangetic Plain from modern-day Afghanistan to Bengal and Maharastra. This period saw the second major rise of urbanism in India after the Indus Valley Civilisation.[58]

Many smaller clans mentioned within early literature seem to have been present across the rest of the subcontinent. Some of these kings were hereditary; other states elected their rulers. Early "republics" such as the Vajji (or Vriji) confederation centered in the city of Vaishali, existed as early as the 6th century BCE and persisted in some areas until the 4th century CE. The educated speech at that time was Sanskrit, while the languages of the general population of northern India are referred to as Prakrits. Many of the sixteen kingdoms had coalesced to four major ones by 500/400 BCE, by the time of Gautama Buddha. These four were Vatsa, Avanti, Kosala, and Magadha.The Life of Gautam Budhha was mainly associated with these four kingdoms.[58]

This period corresponds in an archaeological context to the Northern Black Polished Ware culture.

Upanishads and Shramana movements[edit]

Nalanda is considered one of the first great universities in recorded history. It was the centre of Buddhist learning and research in the world from 450 to 1193 CE.
See also: Gautama Buddha and Mahavira

The 7th and 6th centuries BCE witnessed the composition of the earliest Upanishads.[59][60] Upanishads form the theoretical basis of classical Hinduism and are known as Vedanta (conclusion of the Vedas).[61] The older Upanishads launched attacks of increasing intensity on the ritual. Anyone who worships a divinity other than the Self is called a domestic animal of the gods in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad. The Mundaka launches the most scathing attack on the ritual by comparing those who value sacrifice with an unsafe boat that is endlessly overtaken by old age and death.[62]

Increasing urbanisation of India in 7th and 6th centuries BCE led to the rise of new ascetic or shramana movements which challenged the orthodoxy of rituals.[59] Mahavira (c. 549–477 BCE), proponent of Jainism, and Buddha (c. 563-483), founder of Buddhism were the most prominent icons of this movement. Shramana gave rise to the concept of the cycle of birth and death, the concept of samsara, and the concept of liberation.[63] Buddha found a Middle Way that ameliorated the extreme asceticism found in the Sramana religions.[64]

Around the same time, Mahavira (the 24th Tirthankara in Jainism) propagated a theology that was to later become Jainism.[65] However, Jain orthodoxy believes the teachings of the Tirthankaras predates all known time and scholars believe Parshva, accorded status as the 23rd Tirthankara, was a historical figure. The Vedas are believed to have documented a few Tirthankaras and an ascetic order similar to the shramana movement.[66]

Magadha Empire[edit]

Main article: Magadha

Magadha (Sanskrit: मगध) formed one of the sixteen Mahā-Janapadas (Sanskrit: "Great Countries") or kingdoms in ancient India. The core of the kingdom was the area of Bihar south of the Ganges; its first capital was Rajagriha (modern Rajgir) then Pataliputra (modern Patna). Magadha expanded to include most of Bihar and Bengal with the conquest of Licchavi and Anga respectively,[67] followed by much of eastern Uttar Pradesh and Orissa. The ancient kingdom of Magadha is heavily mentioned in Jain and Buddhist texts. It is also mentioned in the Ramayana, Mahabharata, Puranas.[68] A state of Magadha, possibly a tribal kingdom, is recorded in Vedic texts much earlier in time than 600BCE.

The earliest reference to the Magadha people occurs in the Atharva-Veda where they are found listed along with the Angas, Gandharis, and Mujavats. Magadha played an important role in the development of Jainism and Buddhism, and two of India's greatest empires, the Maurya Empire and Gupta Empire, originated from Magadha. These empires saw advancements in ancient India's science, mathematics, astronomy, religion, and philosophy and were considered the Indian "Golden Age". The Magadha kingdom included republican communities such as the community of Rajakumara. Villages had their own assemblies under their local chiefs called Gramakas. Their administrations were divided into executive, judicial, and military functions.

Persian and Greek conquests[edit]

Asia in 323 BCE, the Nanda Empire and the Gangaridai in relation to Alexander's Empire and neighbors.

In 530 BCE Cyrus the Great, King of the Persian Achaemenid Empire crossed the Hindu-Kush mountains to seek tribute from the tribes of Kamboja, Gandhara and the trans-India region (modern Afghanistan and Pakistan).[69] By 520 BCE, during the reign of Darius I of Persia, much of the northwestern subcontinent (present-day eastern Afghanistan and Pakistan) came under the rule of the Persian Achaemenid Empire. The area remained under Persian control for two centuries.[70] During this time India supplied mercenaries to the Persian army then fighting in Greece.[69]

Under Persian rule the famous city of Takshashila became a centre where both Vedic and Iranian learning were mingled.[71] The impact of Persian ideas was felt in many areas of Indian life. Persian coinage and rock inscriptions were adopted by India. However, Persian ascendency in northern India ended with Alexander the Great's conquest of Persia in 327 BCE.[72]

By 326 BCE, Alexander the Great had conquered Asia Minor and the Achaemenid Empire and had reached the northwest frontiers of the Indian subcontinent. There he defeated King Porus in the Battle of the Hydaspes (near modern-day Jhelum, Pakistan) and conquered much of the Punjab.[73] Alexander's march east put him in confrontation with the Nanda Empire of Magadha and the Gangaridai of Bengal. His army, exhausted and frightened by the prospect of facing larger Indian armies at the Ganges River, mutinied at the Hyphasis (modern Beas River) and refused to march further East. Alexander, after the meeting with his officer, Coenus, and learning about the might of Nanda Empire, was convinced that it was better to return.

The Persian and Greek invasions had important repercussions on Indian civilisation. The political systems of the Persians were to influence future forms of governance on the subcontinent, including the administration of the Mauryan dynasty. In addition, the region of Gandhara, or present-day eastern Afghanistan and northwest Pakistan, became a melting pot of Indian, Persian, Central Asian, and Greek cultures and gave rise to a hybrid culture, Greco-Buddhism, which lasted until the 5th century CE and influenced the artistic development of Mahayana Buddhism.

Maurya Empire (322–185 BCE)[edit]

Main article: Maurya Empire
Ashokan pillar at Vaishali, 3rd century BCE.

The Maurya Empire (322–185 BCE), ruled by the Maurya dynasty, was a geographically extensive and powerful political and military empire in ancient India. It was the first empire to unify India into one state, and the largest on the Indian subcontinent. The empire was established by Chandragupta Maurya in Magadha (in modern Bihar) when he overthrew the Nanda Dynasty.[74] He went on to conquer the northwestern parts of the subcontinent that had been conquered by Alexander the Great. The empire flourished under the reign of Chandragupta's grandson, Ashoka the Great.[75]

At its greatest extent, it stretched to the north to the natural boundaries of the Himalayas and to the east into what is now Assam. To the west, it reached beyond modern Pakistan, to the Hindu Kush mountains in what is now Afghanistan. The empire was expanded into India's central and southern regions by the emperors Chandragupta and Bindusara, but it excluded extensive unexplored tribal and forested regions near Kalinga which were subsequently taken by Ashoka.[76]

Ashoka ruled the Maurya Empire for 37 years from 268 BCE until he died in 232 BCE.[76] During that time, Ashoka pursued an active foreign policy aimed at setting up a unified state.[77] However, Ashoka became involved in a war with the state of Kalinga which is located on the western shore of the Bay of Bengal.[78] This war forced Ashoka to abandon his attempt at a foreign policy which would unify the Maurya Empire.[77]

During the Mauryan Empire slavery developed rapidly and a significant amount of written records on slavery are found.[79] The Mauryan Empire was based on a modern and efficient economy and society. However, the sale of merchandise was closely regulated by the government.[80] Although there was no banking in the Mauryan society, usury was customary with loans made at the recognized interest rate of 15% per annum.

Ashoka's reign propagated Buddhism. In this regard Ashoka established many Buddhist monuments. Indeed, Ashoka put a strain on the economy and the government by his strong support of Buddhism. towards the end of his reign he "bled the state coffers white with his generous gifts to promote the promulgation of Buddha's teaching.[77] As might be expected, this policy caused considerable opposition within the government. This opposition rallied around Sampadi, Ashoka's grandson and heir to the throne.[81] Religious opposition to Ashoka also arose among the orthodox Brahmanists and the adherents of Jainism.[82]

Chandragupta's minister Chanakya is traditionally credited with authorship of the Arthashastra, a treatise on economics, politics, foreign affairs, administration, military arts, war, and religion. Archaeologically, the period of Mauryan rule in South Asia falls into the era of Northern Black Polished Ware (NBPW). The Arthashastra and the Edicts of Ashoka are primary written records of the Mauryan times. The Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath, is the national emblem of India.

During this period the high quality steel called Wootz steel was developed in south India and was later exported to China and Arabia.[83]

Epic and Early Puranic Period - Early Classical Period & Golden Age (ca. 200 BCE–700 CE)[edit]

The time between 200 BCE and ca. 1100 CE is the "Classical Age" of India. It can be divided in various sub-periods, depending on the chosen periodisation. The Gupta Empire (4th-6th century) is regarded as the "Golden Age" of Hinduism, although a host of kingdoms ruled over India in these centuries.

The Satavahana dynasty, also known as the Andhras, ruled in southern and central India after around 230 BCE. Satakarni, the sixth ruler of the Satvahana dynasty, defeated the Sunga Empire of north India. Afterwards, Kharavela, the warrior king of Kalinga,[84] ruled a vast empire and was responsible for the propagation of Jainism in the Indian subcontinent.[84]

The Kharavelan Jain empire included a maritime empire with trading routes linking it to Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Borneo, Bali, Sumatra, and Java. Colonists from Kalinga settled in Sri Lanka, Burma, as well as the Maldives and Maritime Southeast Asia. The Kuninda Kingdom was a small Himalayan state that survived from around the 2nd century BCE to the 3rd century CE.

The Kushanas migrated from Central Asia into northwestern India in the middle of the 1st century CE and founded an empire that stretched from Tajikistan to the middle Ganges. The Western Satraps (35-405 CE) were Saka rulers of the western and central part of India. They were the successors of the Indo-Scythians and contemporaries of the Kushans who ruled the northern part of the Indian subcontinent and the Satavahana (Andhra) who ruled in central and southern India.

Different dynasties such as the Pandyans, Cholas, Cheras, Kadambas, Western Gangas, Pallavas, and Chalukyas, dominated the southern part of the Indian peninsula at different periods of time. Several southern kingdoms formed overseas empires that stretched into Southeast Asia. The kingdoms warred with each other and the Deccan states for domination of the south. The Kalabras, a Buddhist dynasty, briefly interrupted the usual domination of the Cholas, Cheras, and Pandyas in the south.

Southern India[edit]

During this period the southern peninsular of India was at first ruled by the Satavahana dynasty and by the 3 Tamil kingdoms the Chola dynasty, Pandyan Dynasty and Chera dynasty. The Tamil Sangam literature flourished during this period. After the collapse of the Satavahana Dynasty in the 3rd century the Vakataka dynasty, the Pallava dynasty, the Western Ganga dynasty and the Kadamba dynasty emerged and dominated the major part of southern peninsular of India until the 6th century. In the 6th century the famous Chalukya dynasty was established and dominated the major part of southern India until the 8th century.

Sunga Empire[edit]

Main article: Sunga Empire

The Sunga Empire(Sanskrit: शुंग राजवंश) or Shunga Empire was an ancient Indian dynasty from Magadha that controlled vast areas of the Indian Subcontinent from around 187 to 78 BCE. The dynasty was established by Pushyamitra Sunga, after the fall of the Maurya Empire. Its capital was Pataliputra, but later emperors such as Bhagabhadra also held court at Besnagar, modern Vidisha in Eastern Malwa.[85] Pushyamitra Sunga ruled for 36 years and was succeeded by his son Agnimitra. There were ten Sunga rulers. The empire is noted for its numerous wars with both foreign and indigenous powers. They fought battles with the Kalingas, Satavahanas, the Indo-Greeks, and possibly the Panchalas and Mathuras. Art, education, philosophy, and other forms of learning flowered during this period including small terracotta images, larger stone sculptures, and architectural monuments such as the Stupa at Bharhut, and the renowned Great Stupa at Sanchi. The Sunga rulers helped to establish the tradition of royal sponsorship of learning and art. The script used by the empire was a variant of Brahmi and was used to write the Sanskrit language. The Sunga Empire played an imperative role in patronizing Indian culture at a time when some of the most important developments in Hindu thought were taking place.

Northwestern hybrid cultures[edit]

The founder of the Indo-Greek Kingdom, Demetrius I "the Invincible" (205–171 BCE).

The northwestern hybrid cultures of the subcontinent included the Indo-Greeks, the Indo-Scythians, the Indo-Parthians, and the Indo-Sassinids. The first of these, the Indo-Greek Kingdom, was founded when the Greco-Bactrian king Demetrius invaded the region in 180 BCE, extending his rule over various parts of present-day Afghanistan and Pakistan. Lasting for almost two centuries, the kingdom was ruled by a succession of more than 30 Greek kings, who were often in conflict with each other.

The Indo-Scythians were a branch of the Indo-European Sakas (Scythians) who migrated from southern Siberia, first into Bactria, subsequently into Sogdiana, Kashmir, Arachosia, and Gandhara, and finally into India. Their kingdom lasted from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century BCE.

Yet another kingdom, the Indo-Parthians (also known as the Pahlavas), came to control most of present-day Afghanistan and northern Pakistan, after fighting many local rulers such as the Kushan ruler Kujula Kadphises, in the Gandhara region. The Sassanid empire of Persia, who was contemporaneous with the Gupta Empire, expanded into the region of present-day Balochistan in Pakistan, where the mingling of Indian culture and the culture of Iran gave birth to a hybrid culture under the Indo-Sassanids.

Satavahana Dynasty[edit]

Main article: Satavahana Dynasty

The Śātavāhana Empire (Teluguశాతవాహన సామ్రాజ్యము, Śātavāhana Sāmrājyaṁ ?, Maharashtri: शालिवाहन, Śālivāhana[86]) was a royal Indian dynasty based from Amaravati in Andhra Pradesh as well as Junnar (Pune) and Prathisthan (Paithan) in Maharashtra. The territory of the empire covered much of India from 230 BCE onward. Sātavāhanas started out as feudatories to the Mauryan dynasty, but declared independence with its decline. They are known for their patronage of Hinduism and Buddhism which resulted in Buddhist monuments from Ellora (a UNESCO World Heritage Site) to Amaravati. The Sātavāhanas were one of the first Indian states to issue coins struck with their rulers embossed. They formed a cultural bridge and played a vital role in trade as well as the transfer of ideas and culture to and from the Indo-Gangetic Plain to the southern tip of India. They had to compete with the Sunga Empire and then the Kanva dynasty of Magadha to establish their rule. Later, they played a crucial role to protect a huge part of India against foreign invaders like the Sakas, Yavanas and Pahlavas. In particular their struggles with the Western Kshatrapas went on for a long time. The great rulers of the Satavahana Dynasty Gautamiputra Satakarni and Sri Yajna Sātakarni were able to defeat the foreign invaders like the Western Kshatrapas and to stop their expansion. In the 3rd century CE the empire was split into smaller states.

Kushan Empire[edit]

Main article: Kushan Empire

The Kushan Empire expanded out of what is now Afghanistan into the northwest of the subcontinent under the leadership of their first emperor, Kujula Kadphises, about the middle of the 1st century CE. By the time of his grandson, Kanishka, (whose era is thought to have begun c. 127 CE), they had conquered most of northern India, at least as far as Saketa and Pataliputra, in the middle Ganges Valley, and probably as far as the Bay of Bengal.[87]

They played an important role in the establishment of Buddhism in India and its spread to Central Asia and China. By the 3rd century, their empire in India was disintegrating; their last known great emperor being Vasudeva I (c. 190-225 CE).

Roman trade with India[edit]

Coin of the Roman emperor Augustus found at the Pudukottai, South India.

Roman trade with India started around 1 CE, during the reign of Augustus and following his conquest of Egypt, which had been India's biggest trade partner in the West.

The trade started by Eudoxus of Cyzicus in 130 BCE kept increasing, and according to Strabo (II.5.12.[88]), by the time of Augustus, up to 120 ships set sail every year from Myos Hormos on the Red Sea to India. So much gold was used for this trade, and apparently recycled by the Kushans for their own coinage, that Pliny the Elder (NH VI.101) complained about the drain of specie to India:

"India, China and the Arabian peninsula take one hundred million sesterces from our empire per annum at a conservative estimate: that is what our luxuries and women cost us. For what percentage of these imports is intended for sacrifices to the gods or the spirits of the dead?"

—Pliny, Historia Naturae 12.41.84.[89]

The maritime (but not the overland) trade routes, harbours, and trade items are described in detail in the 1st century CE Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.

Gupta rule - Golden Age[edit]

Main article: Gupta Empire
Queen Kumaradevi and King Chandragupta I, depicted on a coin of their son Samudragupta, 335–380 CE.

Classical India refers to the period when much of the Indian subcontinent was reunited under the Gupta Empire (c. 320–550 CE).[90][91] This period has been called the Golden Age of India[92] and was marked by extensive achievements in science, technology, engineering, art, dialectic, literature, logic, mathematics, astronomy, religion, and philosophy that crystallized the elements of what is generally known as Hindu culture.[93] The Hindu-Arabic numerals, a positional numeral system, originated in India and was later transmitted to the West through the Arabs. Early Hindu numerals had only nine symbols, until 600 to 800 CE, when a symbol for zero was developed for the numeral system.[94] The peace and prosperity created under leadership of Guptas enabled the pursuit of scientific and artistic endeavors in India.[95]

The high points of this cultural creativity are magnificent architecture, sculpture, and painting.[96] The Gupta period produced scholars such as Kalidasa, Aryabhata, Varahamihira, Vishnu Sharma, and Vatsyayana who made great advancements in many academic fields.[97] Science and political administration reached new heights during the Gupta era. Strong trade ties also made the region an important cultural centre and established it as a base that would influence nearby kingdoms and regions in Burma, Sri Lanka, Maritime Southeast Asia, and Indochina.

The Gupta period marked a watershed of Indian culture: the Guptas performed Vedic sacrifices to legitimize their rule, but they also patronized Buddhism, which continued to provide an alternative to Brahmanical orthodoxy. The military exploits of the first three rulers—Chandragupta I (c. 319–335), Samudragupta (c. 335–376), and Chandragupta II (c. 376–415) —brought much of India under their leadership.[98] They successfully resisted the northwestern kingdoms until the arrival of the Hunas, who established themselves in Afghanistan by the first half of the 5th century, with their capital at Bamiyan.[99] However, much of the Deccan and southern India were largely unaffected by these events in the north.[100][101]

Vakataka Dynasty[edit]

Main article: Vakataka Dynasty

The Vākāṭaka Empire(Marathi: वाकाटक) was a royal Indian dynasty that originated from the Deccan in the mid-third century CE. Their state is believed to have extended from the southern edges of Malwa and Gujarat in the north to the Tungabhadra River in the south as well as from the Arabian Sea in the western to the edges of Chhattisgarh in the east. They were the most important successors of the Satavahanas in the Deccan and contemporaneous with the Guptas in northern India.

Empire of Harsha[edit]

Main article: Empire of Harsha

Harsha Vardhana (Sanskrit: हर्षवर्धन) (c. 590–647), commonly called Harsha, was an Indian emperor who ruled northern India from 606 to 647 from his capital Kannauj. He was the son of Prabhakara Vardhana and the younger brother of Rajya Vardhana, a king of Thanesar, Haryana. At the height of his power his kingdom spanned the Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Bengal, Odisha and the entire Indo-Gangetic plain north of the Narmada River.

After the downfall of the prior Gupta Empire in the middle of the 6th century, North India reverted to small republics and small monarchical states ruled by Gupta rulers. Harsha was a convert to Buddhism.[102] He united the small republics from Punjab to central India, and their representatives crowned Harsha king at an assembly in April 606 giving him the title of Maharaja when he was merely 16 years old. Harsha belonged to Kanojia.[103] He brought all of northern India under his control.[104] The peace and prosperity that prevailed made his court a center of cosmopolitanism, attracting scholars, artists and religious visitors from far and wide.[104] The Chinese traveler Xuan Zang visited the court of Harsha and wrote a very favorable account of him, praising his justice and generosity.[104]

Chalukya Empire[edit]

Main article: Chalukya dynasty

The Chalukya Empire (Kannada: ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯರು [tʃaːɭukjə]) was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. During this period, they ruled as three related yet individual dynasties. The earliest dynasty, known as the "Badami Chalukyas", ruled from Vatapi (modern Badami) from the middle of the 6th century. The Badami Chalukyas began to assert their independence at the decline of the Kadamba kingdom of Banavasi and rapidly rose to prominence during the reign of Pulakesi II. The rule of the Chalukyas marks an important milestone in the history of South India and a golden age in the history of Karnataka. The political atmosphere in South India shifted from smaller kingdoms to large empires with the ascendancy of Badami Chalukyas. A Southern India based kingdom took control and consolidated the entire region between the Kaveri and the Narmada rivers. The rise of this empire saw the birth of efficient administration, overseas trade and commerce and the development of new style of architecture called "Chalukyan architecture".

Medieval and Late Puranic Period - Late-Classical Age (500–1500 CE)[edit]

Chola Empire under Rajendra Chola c. 1030 C.E.
The Kanauj Triangle was the focal point of empires - the Rashtrakutas of Deccan, the Gurjara Pratiharas of Malwa, and the Palas of Bengal.

The "Late-Classical Age"[105] in India began after the end of the Gupta Empire[105] and the collapse of the Harsha Empire in the 7th century CE,[105] and ended with the fall of the Vijayanagara Empire in the south in the 16th century, due to pressure from Islamic invaders[106] to the north.

This period produced some of India's finest art, considered the epitome of classical development, and the development of the main spiritual and philosophical systems which continued to be in Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. King Harsha of Kannauj succeeded in reuniting northern India during his reign in the 7th century, after the collapse of the Gupta dynasty. His kingdom collapsed after his death.

North Western Indian Buddhism weakened in the 6th century after the White Hun invasion, who followed their own religions such as Tengri, and Manichaeism. Muhammad bin Qasim's invasion of Sindh(modern Pakistan) in 711 CE witnessed further decline of Buddhism. The Chach Nama records many instances of conversion of stupas to mosques such as at Nerun[107]

In 7th century CE, Kumārila Bhaṭṭa formulated his school of Mimamsa philosophy and defended the position on Vedic rituals against Buddhist attacks. Scholars note Bhaṭṭa's contribution to the decline of Buddhism.[108] His dialectical success against the Buddhists is confirmed by Buddhist historian Tathagata, who reports that Kumārila defeated disciples of Buddhapalkita, Bhavya, Dharmadasa, Dignaga and others.[109]

Ronald Inden writes that by 8th century CE symbols of Hindu gods "replaced the Buddha at the imperial centre and pinnacle of the cosmo-political system, the image or symbol of the Hindu god comes to be housed in a monumental temple and given increasingly elaborate imperial-style puja worship".[110] Although Buddhism did not disappear from India for several centuries after the eighth, royal proclivities for the cults of Vishnu and Shiva weakened Buddhism's position within the sociopolitical context and helped make possible its decline.[111]

Northern India[edit]

From the 8th to the 10th century, three dynasties contested for control of northern India: the Gurjara Pratiharas of Malwa, the Palas of Bengal, and the Rashtrakutas of the Deccan. During this period, Indian rulers in spite for internal struggle, were able to avert the Islamic conquest of India, for example: In Battle of Rajasthan, alliance of Gurjar Emperor Nagabhata I of the Pratihara Dynasty with the south Indian Emperor Vikramaditya II of the Chalukya dynasty and many small kingdoms defeated armies of Umayyad Caliphate, thus maintaining kingdom of Hindu rulers till the end of millennium in India

The Sena dynasty would later assume control of the Pala Empire, and the Gurjara Pratiharas fragmented into various states. These were the first of the Rajput states, a series of kingdoms which managed to survive in some form for almost a millennium, until Indian independence from the British. The first recorded Rajput kingdoms emerged in Rajasthan in the 6th century, and small Rajput dynasties later ruled much of northern India. One Gurjar[112][113] Rajput of the Chauhan clan, Prithvi Raj Chauhan, was known for bloody conflicts against the advancing Islamic sultanates. Lalitaditya Muktapida (r. 724 CE–760 CE) was an emperor of the Kashmiri Karkoṭa dynasty, which exercised influence in northwestern India from 625 CE until 1003, and was followed by Lohara dynasty. He is known primarily for his successful battles against the Muslim and Tibetan advances into Kashmiri-dominated regions. Kalhana in his Rajatarangini credits king Lalitaditya with leading an aggressive military campaign in Northern India and Central Asia. He broke into the Uttarapatha and defeated the rebellious tribes of the Kambojas, Tukharas (Turks in Turkmenistan and Tocharians in Badakhshan), Bhautas (Tibetans in Baltistan and Tibet) and Daradas (Dards). His campaign then led him to subjugate the kingdoms of Pragjyotisha, Strirajya and the Uttarakurus.[114][115][116][117] The Shahi dynasty ruled portions of eastern Afghanistan, northern Pakistan, and Kashmir from the mid-7th century to the early 11th century.

Southern India[edit]

The Chalukya dynasty ruled parts of southern and central India from Badami in Karnataka between 550 and 750, and then again from Kalyani between 970 and 1190. The Pallavas of Kanchipuram were their contemporaries further to the south. With the decline of the Chalukya empire, their feudatories, the Hoysalas of Halebidu, Kakatiyas of Warangal, Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri, and a southern branch of the Kalachuri, divided the vast Chalukya empire amongst themselves around the middle of 12th century.

The Chola Empire at its peak covered much of the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. Rajaraja Chola I conquered all of peninsular south India and parts of Sri Lanka in the 11th century. Rajendra Chola I's navies went even further, occupying coasts from Burma to Vietnam,[118] the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, the Lakshadweep (Laccadive) islands, Sumatra, and the Malay Peninsula in Southeast Asia and the Pegu islands. Later during the middle period, the Pandyan Empire emerged in Tamil Nadu, as well as the Chera Kingdom in parts of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. By 1343, last of these dynasties had ceased to exist, giving rise to the Vijayanagar empire.

The ports of south India were engaged in the Indian Ocean trade, chiefly involving spices, with the Roman Empire to the west and Southeast Asia to the east.[119][120] Literature in local vernaculars and spectacular architecture flourished until about the beginning of the 14th century, when southern expeditions of the sultan of Delhi took their toll on these kingdoms. The Hindu Vijayanagar Empire came into conflict with the Islamic Bahmani Sultanate, and the clashing of the two systems caused a mingling of the indigenous and foreign cultures that left lasting cultural influences on each other.

Rashtrakuta Empire (8th-10th century)[edit]

Main article: Rashtrakuta dynasty

At its peak the Rashtrakuta Empire ruled from the Ganges River and Yamuna River doab in the north to Cape Comorin in the south, a fruitful time of political expansion, architectural achievements and famous literary contributions.[121] The early kings of this dynasty were Hindu but the later kings were strongly influenced by Jainism.[122] During their rule, Jain mathematicians and scholars contributed important works in Kannada and Sanskrit.[123] Amoghavarsha was the most famous king of this dynasty and wrote Kavirajamarga, a landmark literary work in the Kannada language.[123] Architecture reached a milestone in the Dravidian style, the finest example of which is seen in the Kailasanath Temple at Ellora. Other important contributions are the sculptures of Elephanta Caves in modern Maharashtra as well as the Kashivishvanatha temple and the Jain Narayana temple at Pattadakal in modern Karnataka, all of which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The Arab traveler Suleiman described the Rashtrakuta Empire as one of the four great Empires of the world.[124] The Rashtrakuta period marked the beginning of the golden age of southern Indian mathematics. The great south Indian mathematician Mahāvīra (mathematician) lived in the Rashtrakuta Empire and his text had a huge impact on the medieval south Indian mathematicians who lived after him.[125]

Pala Empire (8th-12th century)[edit]

Main article: Pala Empire

The Pala Empire (Bengali: পাল সাম্রাজ্য Pal Samrajyô) was an Indian imperial power, during the Classical period of India, that existed from 750–1174 CE. It was ruled by a Buddhist dynasty from Bengal in the eastern region of the Indian subcontinent, all the rulers bearing names ending with the suffix Pala (Modern Bengali: পাল pāl), which means protector. The Palas were often described by opponents as the Lords of Gauda. The Palas were followers of the Mahayana and Tantric schools of Buddhism.[126] Gopala was the first ruler from the dynasty.[127][128][129] The empire reached its peak under Dharmapala and Devapala. Dharmapala extended the empire into the northern parts of the Indian Subcontinent. The Pala Empire can be considered as the golden era of Bengal. Never had the Bengali people reached such height of power and glory to that extent.[130] The rulers of the Pala Empire supported the Universities of Vikramashila and Nalanda which became the premier seats of learning in Asia. The Nalanda University which is considered one of the first great universities in recorded history, reached its height under the patronage of the Pala Empire.[130][131]

Chola Empire (9th-13th century)[edit]

Main article: Chola dynasty

Medieval Cholas rose to prominence during the middle of the 9th century C.E. and established the greatest empire South India had seen.[132] They successfully united the South India under their rule and through their naval strength extended their influence in the Southeast Asian countries such as Srivijaya.[133] Under Rajaraja Chola I and his successors Rajendra Chola I, Rajadhiraja Chola, Virarajendra Chola and Kulothunga Chola I the dynasty became a military, economic and cultural power in South Asia and South-East Asia.[134][135] The power of the new empire was proclaimed to the eastern world by the expedition to the Ganges which Rajendra Chola I undertook and by the occupation of cities of the maritime empire of Srivijaya in Southeast Asia, as well as by the repeated embassies to China.[136] They dominated the political affairs of Lanka for over two centuries through repeated invasions and occupation. They also had continuing trade contacts with the Arabs in the west and with the Chinese empire in the east.[137]Rajaraja Chola I and his equally distinguished son Rajendra Chola I gave political unity to the whole of Southern India and established the Chola Empire as a respected sea power.[138] Under the Cholas, the South India reached new heights of excellence in art, religion and literature. In all of these spheres, the Chola period marked the culmination of movements that had begun in an earlier age under the Pallavas. Monumental architecture in the form of majestic temples and sculpture in stone and bronze reached a finesse never before achieved in India.[139]

Western Chalukya Empire[edit]

The Western Chalukya Empire (Kannada:ಪಶ್ಚಿಮ ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯ ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ paśchima chālukya sāmrājya) ruled most of the western Deccan, South India, between the 10th and 12th centuries.[140] Vast areas between the Narmada River in the north and Kaveri River in the south came under Chalukya control.[140] During this period the other major ruling families of the Deccan, the Hoysalas, the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri, the Kakatiya dynasty and the Southern Kalachuri, were subordinates of the Western Chalukyas and gained their independence only when the power of the Chalukya waned during the later half of the 12th century.[141] The Western Chalukyas developed an architectural style known today as a transitional style, an architectural link between the style of the early Chalukya dynasty and that of the later Hoysala empire. Most of its monuments are in the districts bordering the Tungabhadra River in central Karnataka. Well known examples are the Kasivisvesvara Temple at Lakkundi, the Mallikarjuna Temple at Kuruvatti, the Kallesvara Temple at Bagali and the Mahadeva Temple at Itagi.[142] This was an important period in the development of fine arts in Southern India, especially in literature as the Western Chalukya kings encouraged writers in the native language of Kannada, and Sanskrit like the philosopher and statesman Basava and the great mathematician Bhāskara II.[143][144]

The Islamic Sultanates[edit]

Gol Gumbaz at Bijapur, has the second largest pre-modern dome in the world after the Byzantine Hagia Sophia.

After conquering Persia, the Arab Umayyad Caliphate incorporated parts of what is now Afghanistan and Pakistan around 720. The Muslim rulers were keen to invade India,[145] a rich region with a flourishing international trade and the only known diamond mines in the world.[146] In 712, Arab Muslim general Muhammad bin Qasim conquered most of the Indus region in modern day Pakistan for the Umayyad empire, incorporating it as the "As-Sindh" province with its capital at Al-Mansurah, 72 km (45 mi) north of modern Hyderabad in Sindh, Pakistan. After several wars, the Hindu Rajas defeated the Arabs at the Battle of Rajasthan, halting their expansion and containing them at Sindh in Pakistan.[147] The north Indian Emperor Nagabhata of the Pratihara Dynasty and the south Indian Emperor Vikramaditya II of the Chalukya dynasty defeated the Arab invaders in the early 8th century and protected whole India. Many short-lived Islamic kingdoms (sultanates) under foreign rulers were established across the north western subcontinent (Afghanistan and Pakistan) over a period of a few centuries. Additionally, Muslim trading communities flourished throughout coastal south India, particularly on the western coast where Muslim traders arrived in small numbers, mainly from the Arabian peninsula. This marked the introduction of a third Abrahamic Middle Eastern religion, following Judaism and Christianity, often in puritanical form. Mahmud of Ghazni of Afghanistan in the early 11th century raided mainly the north-western parts of the Indian sub-continent 17 times, but he did not seek to establish “permanent dominion” in those areas.[148] Later, the Bahmani Sultanate and Deccan sultanates, founded by Turkic rulers, flourished in the south.

The Vijayanagara Empire rose to prominence by the end of the 13th century as a culmination of attempts by the southern powers to ward off Islamic invasions. The empire dominated all of Southern India and fought off invasions from the five established Deccan Sultanates.[149] The empire reached its peak during the rule of Krishnadevaraya when Vijayanagara armies were consistently victorious.[150] The empire annexed areas formerly under the Sultanates in the northern Deccan and the territories in the eastern Deccan, including Kalinga, while simultaneously maintaining control over all its subordinates in the south.[151] It lasted until 1646, though its power declined after a major military defeat in 1565 by the Deccan sultanates. As a result, much of the territory of the former Vijaynagar Empire were captured by Deccan Sultanates, and the remainder was divided into many states ruled by Hindu rulers.

Delhi Sultanate[edit]

Qutub Minar is the world's tallest brick minaret, commenced by Qutb-ud-din Aybak of the Slave dynasty.
Main article: Delhi Sultanate

In the 12th and 13th centuries, Turks and Afghans invaded parts of northern India and established the Delhi Sultanate in the former Hindu holdings.[152] The subsequent Slave dynasty of Delhi managed to conquer large areas of northern India, approximately equal in extent to the ancient Gupta Empire, while the Khilji dynasty conquered most of central India but were ultimately unsuccessful in conquering and uniting the subcontinent. The Sultanate ushered in a period of Indian cultural renaissance. The resulting "Indo-Muslim" fusion of cultures left lasting syncretic monuments in architecture, music, literature, religion, and clothing. It is surmised that the language of Urdu (literally meaning "horde" or "camp" in various Turkic dialects) was born during the Delhi Sultanate period as a result of the intermingling of the local speakers of Sanskritic Prakrits with immigrants speaking Persian, Turkic, and Arabic under the Muslim rulers. The Delhi Sultanate is the only Indo-Islamic empire to enthrone one of the few female rulers in India, Razia Sultana (1236–1240).

Timur defeats the Sultan of Delhi, Nasir Al-Din Mahmum Tughluq, in the winter of 1397-1398

A Turco-Mongol conqueror in Central Asia, Timur (Tamerlane), attacked the reigning Sultan Nasir-u Din Mehmud of the Tughlaq Dynasty in the north Indian city of Delhi.[153] The Sultan's army was defeated on 17 December 1398. Timur entered Delhi and the city was sacked, destroyed, and left in ruins, after Timur's army had killed and plundered for three days and nights. He ordered the whole city to be sacked except for the sayyids, scholars, and the other Muslims; 100,000 war prisoners were put to death in one day.[154]

Vijayanagara Empire (14th-16th century)[edit]

Main articles: Vijayanagara Empire

The Empire was established in 1336 by Harihara I and his brother Bukka Raya I of Sangama Dynasty.[155] The empire rose to prominence as a culmination of attempts by the southern powers to ward off Islamic invasions by the end of the 13th century.[156] The empire is named after its capital city of Vijayanagara, whose ruins surround present day Hampi, now a World Heritage Site in Karnataka, India.[157] The empire's legacy includes many monuments spread over South India, the best known of which is the group at Hampi. The previous temple building traditions in South India came together in the Vijayanagara Architecture style. The mingling of all faiths and vernaculars inspired architectural innovation of Hindu temple construction, first in the Deccan and later in the Dravidian idioms using the local granite. South Indian mathematics flourished under the protection of the Vijayanagara Empire in Kerala. The south Indian mathematician Madhava of Sangamagrama founded the famous Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics in the 14th century which produced a lot of great south Indian mathematicians like Parameshvara, Nilakantha Somayaji and Jyeṣṭhadeva in medieval south India.[158] Efficient administration and vigorous overseas trade brought new technologies such as water management systems for irrigation.[159] The empire's patronage enabled fine arts and literature to reach new heights in Kannada, Telugu, Tamil and Sanskrit, while Carnatic music evolved into its current form.[160] The Vijayanagara Empire created an epoch in South Indian history that transcended regionalism by promoting Hinduism as a unifying factor. The empire reached its peak during the rule of Sri Krishnadevaraya when Vijayanagara armies were consistently victorious. The empire annexed areas formerly under the Sultanates in the northern Deccan and the territories in the eastern Deccan, including Kalinga, while simultaneously maintaining control over all its subordinates in the south.[161] Many important monuments were either completed or commissioned during the time of Krishna Deva Raya.

Taj Mahal, built by the Mughals

Mughal Empire[edit]

Main article: Mughal Empire

In 1526, Babur, a Timurid descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan from Fergana Valley (modern day Uzbekistan), swept across the Khyber Pass and established the Mughal Empire, covering modern day Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Bangladesh.[162] However, his son Humayun was defeated by the Afghan warrior Sher Shah Suri in the year 1540, and Humayun was forced to retreat to Kabul. After Sher Shah's death, his son Islam Shah Suri and the Hindu king Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, who had won 22 battles against Afghan rebels and forces of Akbar, from Punjab to Bengal and had established a secular Hindu rule in North India from Delhi till 1556. Akbar's forces defeated and killed Hemu in the Second Battle of Panipat on 6 November 1556.

The Maharana of Mewar submitting to Prince Khurram, later known as Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, c. 1615.

The Mughal dynasty ruled most of the Indian subcontinent by 1600; it went into a slow decline after 1707. The Mughals suffered several blows due to invasions from Marathas and Afghans, causing the Mughal dynasty to be reduced to puppet rulers by 1757. The remnants of the Mughal dynasty were finally defeated during the Indian Rebellion of 1857, also called the 1857 War of Independence. This period marked vast social change in the subcontinent as the Hindu majority were ruled over by the Mughal emperors, most of whom showed religious tolerance, liberally patronising Hindu culture. The famous emperor Akbar, who was the grandson of Babar, tried to establish a good relationship with the Hindus. However, later emperors such as Aurangazeb tried to establish complete Muslim dominance, and as a result several historical temples were destroyed during this period and taxes imposed on non-Muslims. During the decline of the Mughal Empire, several smaller states rose to fill the power vacuum and themselves were contributing factors to the decline. In 1737, the Maratha general Bajirao of the Maratha Empire invaded and plundered Delhi. Under the general Amir Khan Umrao Al Udat, the Mughal Emperor sent 8,000 troops to drive away the 5,000 Maratha cavalry soldiers. Baji Rao, however, easily routed the novice Mughal general and the rest of the imperial Mughal army fled. In 1737, in the final defeat of Mughal Empire, the commander-in-chief of the Mughal Army, Nizam-ul-mulk, was routed at Bhopal by the Maratha army. This essentially brought an end to the Mughal Empire. In 1739, Nader Shah, emperor of Iran, defeated the Mughal army at the huge Battle of Karnal. After this victory, Nader captured and sacked Delhi, carrying away many treasures, including the Peacock Throne.[163]

The Mughals were perhaps the richest single dynasty to have ever existed. During the Mughal era, the dominant political forces consisted of the Mughal Empire and its tributaries and, later on, the rising successor states - including the Maratha Empire - which fought an increasingly weak Mughal dynasty. The Mughals, while often employing brutal tactics to subjugate their empire, had a policy of integration with Indian culture, which is what made them successful where the short-lived Sultanates of Delhi had failed. Akbar the Great was particularly famed for this. Akbar declared "Amari" or non-killing of animals in the holy days of Jainism. He rolled back the jizya tax for non-Muslims. The Mughal emperors married local royalty, allied themselves with local maharajas, and attempted to fuse their Turko-Persian culture with ancient Indian styles, creating a unique Indo-Saracenic architecture. It was the erosion of this tradition coupled with increased brutality and centralization that played a large part in the dynasty's downfall after Aurangzeb, who unlike previous emperors, imposed relatively non-pluralistic policies on the general population, which often inflamed the majority Hindu population.

Post-Mughal period[edit]

Political map of Indian subcontinent in 1758. The Maratha Empire (orange) was the last Hindu empire of India.

Maratha Empire[edit]

Main article: Maratha Empire

The post-Mughal era was dominated by the rise of the Maratha suzerainty as other small regional states (mostly late Mughal tributary states) emerged, and also by the increasing activities of European powers (see colonial era below). There is no doubt that the single most important power to emerge in the long twilight of the Mughal dynasty was the Maratha confederacy.[164] The Maratha kingdom was founded and consolidated by Shivaji, a Maratha aristocrat of the Bhonsle clan who was determined to establish Hindavi Swarajya (self-rule of Hindu people). By the 18th century, it had transformed itself into the Maratha Empire under the rule of the Peshwas (prime ministers). Gordon explains how the Maratha systematically took control over the Malwa plateau in 1720-1760. They started with annual raids, collecting ransom from villages and towns while the declining Mughal Empire retained nominal control. However, in 1737, the Marathas defeated a Mughal army in their capital, Delhi itself, and as a result, the Mughal emperor ceded Malwa to them. The Marathas continued their military campaigns against Mughals, Nizam, Nawab of Bengal and Durrani Empire to further extend their boundaries. They built an efficient system of public administration known for its attention to detail. It succeeded in raising revenue in districts that recovered from years of raids, up to levels previously enjoyed by the Mughals. The cornerstone of the Maratha rule in Malwa rested on the 60 or so local tax collectors (kamavisdars) who advanced the Maratha ruler '(Peshwa)' a portion of their district revenues at interest.[165] By 1760, the domain of the Marathas stretched across practically the entire subcontinent.[166] The north-western expansion of the Marathas was stopped after the Third Battle of Panipat(1761). However, the Maratha authority in the north was re-established within a decade under Peshwa Madhavrao I.[167] The defeat of Marathas by British in three Anglo-Maratha Wars brought end to the empire by 1820. The last peshwa, Baji Rao II, was defeated by the British in the Third Anglo-Maratha War.

Sikh Empire (North-west)[edit]

Harmandir Sahib or The Golden Temple is culturally the most significant place of worship for the Sikhs.
Main article: Sikh Empire

The Punjabi kingdom, ruled by members of the Sikh religion, was a political entity that governed the region of modern-day Punjab. The empire, based around the Punjab region, existed from 1799 to 1849. It was forged, on the foundations of the Khalsa, under the leadership of Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1780–1839) from an array of autonomous Punjabi Misls. He consolidated many parts of northern India into a kingdom. He primarily used his highly disciplined Sikh army that he trained and equipped to be the equal of a European force. Ranjit Singh proved himself to be a master strategist and selected well qualified generals for his army. In stages, he added the central Punjab, the provinces of Multan and Kashmir, the Peshawar Valley, and the Derajat to his kingdom. This came in the face of the powerful British East India Company.[168][169] At its peak, in the 19th century, the empire extended from the Khyber Pass in the west, to Kashmir in the north, to Sindh in the south, running along Sutlej river to Himachal in the east. This was among the last areas of the subcontinent to be conquered by the British. The first Anglo-Sikh war and second Anglo-Sikh war marked the downfall of the Sikh Empire.

Other kingdoms[edit]

There were several other kingdoms which ruled over parts of India in the later medieval period prior to the British occupation. However, most of them were bound to pay regular tribute to the Marathas.[166] The rule of Wodeyar dynasty which established the Kingdom of Mysore in southern India in around 1400 CE by was interrupted by Hyder Ali and his son Tipu Sultan in the later half of 18th century. Under their rule, Mysore fought a series of wars sometimes against the combined forces of the British and Marathas, but mostly against the British, with Mysore receiving some aid or promise of aid from the French.

The Nawabs of Bengal had become the de facto rulers of Bengal following the decline of Mughal Empire. However, their rule was interrupted by Marathas who carried six expeditions in Bengal from 1741 to 1748 as a result of which Bengal became a vassal state of Marathas.

Hyderabad was founded by the Qutb Shahi dynasty of Golconda in 1591. Following a brief Mughal rule, Asif Jah, a Mughal official, seized control of Hyderabad and declared himself Nizam-al-Mulk of Hyderabad in 1724. It was ruled by a hereditary Nizam from 1724 until 1948. Both Kingdom of Mysore and Hyderabad State became princely states in British India in 1799 and 1798 respectively.

After the First Anglo-Sikh War in 1846, under the terms of the Treaty of Amritsar, the British government sold Kashmir to Maharaja Gulab Singh and the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, the second largest princely state in British India, was created by the Dogra dynasty.[170][171]

Around the 18th century, the modern state of Nepal was formed by Gurkha rulers.

Colonial era (1500-1947)[edit]

Main articles: Colonial India and British Raj
The route followed in Vasco da Gama's first voyage (1497–1499)

In 1498, a Portuguese fleet under Vasco da Gama successfully discovered a new sea route from Europe to India, which paved the way for direct Indo-European commerce. The Portuguese soon set up trading posts in Goa, Daman, Diu and Bombay. Goa became the main Portuguese base until it was seized by India in 1961.[172]

The next to arrive were the Dutch, with their main base in Ceylon. The British—who set up a trading post in the west coast port of Surat[173] in 1619—and the French. The internal conflicts among Indian kingdoms gave opportunities to the European traders to gradually establish political influence and appropriate lands. Although these continental European powers controlled various coastal regions of southern and eastern India during the ensuing century, they eventually lost all their territories in India to the British islanders, with the exception of the French outposts of Pondichéry and Chandernagore, the Dutch port of Travancore, and the Portuguese colonies of Goa, Daman and Diu.

Company rule in India[edit]

Map of India in 1857 at the end of Company rule.

In 1617 the British East India Company was given permission by Mughal Emperor Jahangir to trade in India.[174] Gradually their increasing influence led the de jure Mughal emperor Farrukh Siyar to grant them dastaks or permits for duty-free trade in Bengal in 1717.[175] The Nawab of Bengal Siraj Ud Daulah, the de facto ruler of the Bengal province, opposed British attempts to use these permits.

The First Carnatic War extended from 1746 until 1748 and was the result of colonial competition between France and Britain, two of the countries involved in the War of Austrian Succession. Following the capture of a few French ships by the British fleet in India, French troops attacked and captured the British city of Madras located on the east coast of India on 21 September 1746. Among the prisoners captured at Madras was Robert Clive himself. The war was eventually ended by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle which ended the War of Austrian Succession in 1748.

In 1749, the Second Carnatic War broke out as the result of a war between a son, Nasir Jung, and a grandson, Muzaffer Jung, of the deceased Nizam-ul-Mulk of Hyderabad to take over Nizam's throne in Hyderabad. The French supported Muzaffer Jung in this civil war. Consequently, the British supported Nasir Jung in this conflict.

Meanwhile, however, the conflict in Hyderabad provided Chanda Sahib with an opportunity to take power as the new Nawab of the territory of Arcot. In this conflict, the French supported Chanda Sahib in his attempt to become the new Nawab of Arcot. The British supported the son of the deposed incumbent Nawab, Anwaruddin Muhammad Khan, against Chanda Sahib. In 1751, Robert Clive led a British armed force and captured Arcot to reinstate the incumbent Nawab. The Second Carnatic War finally came to an end in 1754 with the Treaty of Pondicherry.

In 1756, the Seven Years' War broke out between the great powers of Europe, and India became a theatre of action, where it was called the Third Carnatic War. Early in this war, armed forces under the French East India Company captured the British base of Calcutta in north-eastern India. However, armed forces under Robert Clive later recaptured Calcutta and then pressed on to capture the French settlement of Chandannagar in 1757. This led to the Battle of Plassey on 23 June 1757, in which the Bengal Army of the East India Company, led by Robert Clive, defeated the French-supported Nawab's forces. This was the first real political foothold with territorial implications that the British acquired in India. Clive was appointed by the company as its first 'Governor of Bengal' in 1757.[176] This was combined with British victories over the French at Madras, Wandiwash and Pondichéry that, along with wider British successes during the Seven Years' War, reduced French influence in India. Thus as a result of the three Carnatic Wars, the British East India Company gained exclusive control over the entire Carnatic region of India.[177] The British East India Company extended its control over the whole of Bengal. After the Battle of Buxar in 1764, the company acquired the rights of administration in Bengal from Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II; this marked the beginning of its formal rule, which within the next century engulfed most of India and extinguished the Moghul rule and dynasty.[178] The East India Company monopolized the trade of Bengal. They introduced a land taxation system called the Permanent Settlement which introduced a feudal-like structure in Bengal, often with zamindars set in place. By the 1850s, the East India Company controlled most of the Indian sub-continent, which included present-day Pakistan and Bangladesh. Their policy was sometimes summed up as Divide and Rule, taking advantage of the enmity festering between various princely states and social and religious groups.[179]

The Hindu Ahom Kingdom of North-east India first fell to Burmese invasion and then to British after Treaty of Yandabo in 1826.

The rebellion of 1857 and its consequences[edit]

Viceroy Lord Canning meets Maharaja Ranbir Singh of Jammu and Kashmir, 9 March 1860

The Indian rebellion of 1857 was a large-scale rebellion by soldiers employed by the British East India in northern and central India against the Company's rule. The rebels were disorganized, had differing goals, and were poorly equipped, led, and trained, and had no outside support or funding. They were brutally suppressed and the British government took control of the Company and eliminated many of the grievances that caused it. The government also was determined to keep full control so that no rebellion of such size would ever happen again.[180]

In the aftermath, all power was transferred from the East India Company to the British Crown, which began to administer most of India as a number of provinces. The Crown controlled the Company's lands directly and had considerable indirect influence over the rest of India, which consisted of the Princely states ruled by local royal families. There were officially 565 princely states in 1947, but only 21 had actual state governments, and only three were large (Mysore, Hyderabad and Kashmir). They were absorbed into the independent nation in 1947-48.[181]

British Raj (1858-1947)[edit]

Main article: British Raj
The British Indian Empire at its greatest extent (in a map of 1909). The princely states under British suzerainty are in yellow.

Reforms[edit]

Lord Curzon (Viceroy 1899-1905) took control of higher education and then split the large province of Bengal into a largely Hindu western half and "Eastern Bengal and Assam," a largely Muslim eastern half. The British goal was efficient administration but the people of Bengal were outraged at the apparent "divide and rule" strategy. When the Liberal party in Britain came to power in 1906 he was removed. The new Viceroy Gilbert Minto and the new Secretary of State for India John Morley consulted with Congress leader Gopal Krishna Gokhale. The Morley-Minto reforms of 1909 provided for Indian membership of the provincial executive councils as well as the Viceroy's executive council. The Imperial Legislative Council was enlarged from 25 to 60 members and separate communal representation for Muslims was established in a dramatic step towards representative and responsible government. Bengal was reunified in 1911.[182] Meanwhile the Muslims for the first time began to organise, setting up the All India Muslim League in 1906. It was not a mass party but was designed to protect the interests of the aristocratic Muslims, especially in the north west. It was internally divided by conflicting loyalties to Islam, the British, and India, and by distrust of Hindus.[183]

Swami Vivekananda was a key figure in introducing Vedanta and Yoga in Europe and USA,[184] raising interfaith awareness and making Hinduism a world religion.[185]

Famines[edit]

During the British Raj, famines in India, often attributed to failed government policies, were some of the worst ever recorded, including the Great Famine of 1876–78 in which 6.1 million to 10.3 million people died[186] and the Indian famine of 1899–1900 in which 1.25 to 10 million people died.[186] The Third Plague Pandemic in the mid-19th century killed 10 million people in India.[187] Despite persistent diseases and famines, the population of the Indian subcontinent, which stood at about 125 million in 1750, had reached 389 million by 1941.[188]

The Indian independence movement[edit]

The numbers of British in India were small, yet they were able to rule two-thirds of the subcontinent directly and exercise considerable leverage over the princely states that accounted for the remaining one-third of the area. There were 674 of the these states in 1900, with a population of 73 million, or one person in five. In general, the princely states were strong supporters of the British regime, and the Raj left them alone. They were finally closed down in 1947-48.[189]

The first step toward Indian self-rule was the appointment of councillors to advise the British viceroy, in 1861; the first Indian was appointed in 1909. Provincial Councils with Indian members were also set up. The councillors' participation was subsequently widened into legislative councils. The British built a large British Indian Army, with the senior officers all British, and many of the troops from small minority groups such as Gurkhas from Nepal and Sikhs. The civil service was increasingly filled with natives at the lower levels, with the British holding the more senior positions.[190]

From 1920 leaders such as Mahatma Gandhi began highly popular mass movements to campaign against the British Raj using largely peaceful methods. Some others adopted a militant approach that sought to overthrow British rule by armed struggle; revolutionary activities against the British rule took place throughout the Indian sub-continent. The Gandhi-led independence movement opposed the British rule using non-violent methods like non-cooperation, civil disobedience and economic resistance. These movements succeeded in bringing independence to the new dominions of India and Pakistan in 15 August 1947.

Independence and partition (1947-present)[edit]

Along with the desire for independence, tensions between Hindus and Muslims had also been developing over the years. The Muslims had always been a minority within the subcontinent, and the prospect of an exclusively Hindu government made them wary of independence; they were as inclined to mistrust Hindu rule as they were to resist the foreign Raj, although Gandhi called for unity between the two groups in an astonishing display of leadership. The British, extremely weakened by the Second World War, promised that they would leave and participated in the formation of an interim government. The British Indian territories gained independence in 1947, after being partitioned into the Union of India and Dominion of Pakistan. Following the controversial division of pre-partition Punjab and Bengal, rioting broke out between Sikhs, Hindus and Muslims in these provinces and spread to several other parts of India, leaving some 500,000 dead.[191] Also, this period saw one of the largest mass migrations ever recorded in modern history, with a total of 12 million Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims moving between the newly created nations of India and Pakistan (which gained independence on 15 and 14 August 1947 respectively).[191] In 1971, Bangladesh, formerly East Pakistan and East Bengal, seceded from Pakistan.

Historiography[edit]

In recent decades there have been four main schools of historiography regarding India: Cambridge, Nationalist, Marxist, and subaltern. The once common "Orientalist" approach, with its the image of a sensuous, inscrutable, and wholly spiritual India, has died out in serious scholarship.[192]

The "Cambridge School," led by Anil Seal,[193] Gordon Johnson,[194] Richard Gordon, and David A. Washbrook,[195] downplays ideology.[196]

The Nationalist school has focused on Congress, Gandhi, Nehru and high level politics. It highlighted the Mutiny of 1857 as a war of liberation, and Gandhi's 'Quit India' begun in 1942, as defining historical events.

More recently, Hindu nationalists have created a version of history for the schools to support their demands for "Hindutva" ("Hinduness") in Indian society.[197]

The Marxists have focused on studies of economic development, landownership, and class conflict in precolonial India and of deindustrialization during the colonial period. The Marxists portrayed Gandhi's movement as a device for the bourgeois elite to harness popular, potentially revolutionary forces for its own ends.[198]

The "subaltern school," was begun in the 1980s by Ranajit Guha and Gyan Prakash.[199] It focuses attention away from the elites and politicians to "history from below," looking at the peasants using folklore, poetry, riddles, proverbs, songs, oral history and methods inspired by anthropology. It focuses on the colonial era before 1947 and typically emphasizes caste and downplays class, to the annoyance of the Marxist school.[200]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The magenta area corresponds to the assumed Urheimat (Samara culture, Sredny Stog culture). The red area corresponds to the area which may have been settled by Indo-European-speaking peoples up to ca. 2500 BCE; the orange area to 1000 BCE.
  2. ^ The Andronovo, BMAC and Yaz cultures have often been associated with Indo-Iranian migrations. The GGC, Cemetery H, Copper Hoard and PGW cultures are candidates for cultures associated with Indo-Aryan movements.
  3. ^ The "First urbanisation" was the Indus Valley Civilisation.[53]

References[edit]

  1. ^ G. Bongard-Levin, A History of India (Progress Publishers: Moscow, 1979) p. 11.
  2. ^ Romila Thapar, A History of India (Penguin Books: New York, 1966) p. 23.
  3. ^ Romila Thapar, A History of India, p. 24.
  4. ^ The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia: From early times to c. 1800, Band 1 by Nicholas Tarling p.281
  5. ^ Societies, Networks, and Transitions, Volume B: From 600 to 1750 by Craig Lockard p.333
  6. ^ Power and Plenty: Trade, War, and the World Economy in the Second Millennium by Ronald Findlay,Kevin H. O'Rourke p.67
  7. ^ Essays on Ancient India by Raj Kumar p.199
  8. ^ The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought: page 340
  9. ^ A History of State and Religion in India by Ian Copland, Ian Mabbett, Asim Roy, Kate Brittlebank, Adam Bowles: p. 161
  10. ^ History of Mysore Under Hyder Ali and Tippoo Sultan by Joseph Michaud p.143
  11. ^ Ancient Indian Social History: Some Interpretations. 
  12. ^ Mudur, G.S (21 March 2005). "Still a mystery". KnowHow (The Telegraph). Retrieved 7 May 2007. 
  13. ^ "The Hathnora Skull Fossil from Madhya Pradesh, India". Multi Disciplinary Geoscientific Studies. Geological Survey of India. 20 September 2005. Archived from the original on 19 June 2007. Retrieved 7 May 2007. 
  14. ^ "Palaeolithic and Pleistocene of Pakistan". Department of Archaeology, University of Sheffield. Retrieved 1 December 2007. 
  15. ^ Murray, Tim (1999). Time and archaeology. London; New York: Routledge. p. 84. ISBN 0-415-11762-3. 
  16. ^ Coppa, A.; L. Bondioli; A. Cucina; D. W. Frayer; C. Jarrige; J. F. Jarrige; G. Quivron; M. Rossi; M. Vidale; R. Macchiarelli (6 April 2006). "Palaeontology: Early Neolithic tradition of dentistry" (PDF). Nature 440 (7085): 755–756. doi:10.1038/440755a. PMID 16598247. Retrieved 22 November 2007. 
  17. ^ a b Possehl, G. L. (October 1990). "Revolution in the Urban Revolution: The Emergence of Indus Urbanisation". Annual Review of Anthropology 19 (1): 261–282. doi:10.1146/annurev.an.19.100190.001401. Retrieved 6 May 2007. 
  18. ^ Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark; Kimberley Heuston (May 2005). The Ancient South Asian World. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517422-4. OCLC 56413341. 
  19. ^ Rendell, H. R.; Dennell, R. W. and Halim, M. (1989). Pleistocene and Palaeolithic Investigations in the Soan Valley, Northern Pakistan. British Archaeological Reports International Series. Cambridge University Press. p. 364. ISBN 0-86054-691-8. OCLC 29222688. 
  20. ^ Parth R. Chauhan. Distribution of Acheulian sites in the Siwalik region. An Overview of the Siwalik Acheulian & Reconsidering Its Chronological Relationship with the Soanian – A Theoretical Perspective.
  21. ^ Jarrige, C.; J.-F. Jarrige, R. H. Meadow and G. Quivron (1995). Mehrgarh Field Reports 1975 to 1985 - from the Neolithic to the Indus Civilisation. Dept. of Culture and Tourism, Govt. of Sindh, and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, France. 
  22. ^ Indus Valley 2,000 years older than thought. Hindustan Times (4 November 2012). Retrieved on 12 July 2013.
  23. ^ Gaur, A. S.; K. H. Vora (10 July 1999). "Ancient shorelines of Gujarat, India, during the Indus civilisation (Late Mid-Holocene): A study based on archaeological evidences". Current India Science 77 (1): 180–185. ISSN 0011-3891. Retrieved 6 May 2007. 
  24. ^ Kenoyer, J. Mark (1998). The Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilisation. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-577940-1. OCLC 231832104 38469514. 
  25. ^ Indian Archaeology, A Review. 1958-1959. Excavations at Alamgirpur. Delhi: Archaeol. Surv. India, pp. 51–52.
  26. ^ Leshnik, Lawrence S. (October 1968). "The Harappan "Port" at Lothal: Another View". American Anthropologist, New Series, 70 (5): 911–922. doi:10.1525/aa.1968.70.5.02a00070. JSTOR 196810. 
  27. ^ Kenoyer, Jonathan (15 September 1998). Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilisation. USA: Oxford University Press. p. 96. ISBN 0-19-577940-1. 
  28. ^ "History". Incredible India. Retrieved 16 May 2010. 
  29. ^ G. Bongard-Levin, A History of India: Part 1 (Progressive Books: Moscow, 1979) p. 51.
  30. ^ Lynn MacKenzie (1995). Non-Western Art: A Brief Guide. Prentice Hall. p. 151. 
  31. ^ Romila Thapar, A History of India: Part 1, pp. 29-30.
  32. ^ a b Singh, U. (2009), A History of Ancient and Mediaeval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century, Delhi: Longman, p. 255, ISBN 978-81-317-1677-9 
  33. ^ Stein, B. (27 April 2010), Arnold, D., ed., A History of India (2nd ed.), Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, p. 47, ISBN 978-1-4051-9509-6 
  34. ^ Kulke, H.; Rothermund, D. (1 August 2004), A History of India, 4th, Routledge, p. 31, ISBN 978-0-415-32920-0 
  35. ^ Singhal, K. C; Gupta, Roshan. The Ancient History of India, Vedic Period: A New Interpretation. Atlantic Publishers and Distributors. ISBN 8126902868. P. 150-151.
  36. ^ *Day, Terence P. (1982). The Conception of Punishment in Early Indian Literature. Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press. P. 42-45. ISBN 0-919812-15-5.
  37. ^ Flood, Gavin D. (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press, p. 37, ISBN 978-0-521-43878-0 
  38. ^ India: Reemergence of Urbanisation. Retrieved on 12 May 2007.
  39. ^ a b Krishna Reddy (2003). Indian History. New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill. p. A11. ISBN 0-07-048369-8. 
  40. ^ Michael Witzel (1989), Tracing the Vedic dialects in Dialectes dans les litteratures Indo-Aryennes ed. Caillat, Paris, 97–265.
  41. ^ Samuel 2010, p. 48-51, 61-93.
  42. ^ Kulke & Rothermund 2004, pp. 41–43.
  43. ^ Singh 2009, p. 200.
  44. ^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica, Other sources: the process of "Sanskritization".
  45. ^ M. Witzel, Early Sanskritization. Origins and development of the Kuru State. B. Kölver (ed.), Recht, Staat und Verwaltung im klassischen Indien. The state, the Law, and Administration in Classical India. München : R. Oldenbourg 1997, 27-52 = Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies, vol. 1,4, December 1995, [1]
  46. ^ a b c Witzel 1995
  47. ^ Samuel 2010, p. 45-51.
  48. ^ Witzel 1989
  49. ^ Valmiki (March 1990). Goldman, Robert P, ed. The Ramayana of Valmiki: An Epic of Ancient India, Volume 1: Balakanda. Ramayana of Valmiki. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. p. 23. ISBN 0-691-01485-X. 
  50. ^ Romila Thapar, A History of India Part 1, p. 31.
  51. ^ a b c Singh 2009, p. 18-21.
  52. ^ Brockington, J. L. (1998). The Sanskrit epics, Part 2. Volume 12. BRILL. p. 21. ISBN 90-04-10260-4. 
  53. ^ a b c Samuel 2010.
  54. ^ a b Samuel 2010, p. 48-51.
  55. ^ Samuel 2010, p. 42-48.
  56. ^ Samuel 2010, p. 61.
  57. ^ Samuel 2010, p. 49.
  58. ^ a b Krishna Reddy (2003). Indian History. New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill. p. A107. ISBN 0-07-048369-8. 
  59. ^ a b Flood, Gavin D. (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press, p. 82, ISBN 978-0-521-43878-0 
  60. ^ Olivelle, Patrick (2008), Upaniṣads, Oxford University Press, p. xxiv-xxix, ISBN 9780199540259 
  61. ^ Melton, J. Gordon; Baumann, Martin (2010), Religions of the World, Second Edition: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices, ABC-CLIO, p. 1324, ISBN 978-1-59884-204-3 
  62. ^ Mahadevan, T. M. P (1956), Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, ed., History of Philosophy Eastern and Western, George Allen & Unwin Ltd, p. 57 
  63. ^ Flood, Gavin. Olivelle, Patrick. 2003. The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism. Malden: Blackwell. pg. 273-4. "The second half of the first millennium BCE was the period that created many of the ideological and institutional elements that characterize later Indian religions. The renouncer tradition played a central role during this formative period of Indian religious history. ... Some of the fundamental values and beliefs that we generally associate with Indian religions in general and Hinduism in particular were in part the creation of the renouncer tradition. These include the two pillars of Indian theologies: samsara - the belief that life in this world is one of suffering and subject to repeated deaths and births (rebirth); moksa/nirvana - the goal of human existence....."
  64. ^ Laumakis, Stephen. An Introduction to Buddhist philosophy. 2008. p. 4
  65. ^ Mary Pat Fisher (1997) In: Living Religions: An Encyclopedia of the World's Faiths I.B.Tauris : London ISBN 1-86064-148-2 - Jainism's major teacher is the Mahavira, a contemporary of the Buddha, and who died approximately 526 BCE. Page 114
  66. ^ Mary Pat Fisher (1997) In: Living Religions: An Encyclopedia of the World's Faiths I.B.Tauris : London ISBN 1-86064-148-2 - "The extreme antiquity of Jainism as a non-vedic, indigenous Indian religion is well documented. Ancient Hindu and Buddhist scriptures refer to Jainism as an existing tradition which began long before Mahavira." Page 115
  67. ^ Ramesh Chandra Majumdar (1977). Ancient India. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN 81-208-0436-8. 
  68. ^ "Magadha Empire". 
  69. ^ a b Romila Thapar. A History of India: Part 1. p. 58. 
  70. ^ Department of Ancient Near Eastern Art (October 2004). "The Achaemenid Persian Empire (550–330 B.C.E)". Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 19 May 2007. 
  71. ^ Romila Thapar, A History of India, p. 59.
  72. ^ Carl Roebuck, The World of Ancient Times (Charles Scribner's Sons Publishing: New York, 1966) p. 357.
  73. ^ Fuller, J.F.C. (3 February 2004). "Alexander's Great Battles". The Generalship of Alexander the Great (Reprint ed.). New York: Da Capo Press. pp. 188–199. ISBN 0-306-81330-0. 
  74. ^ Romila Thapar. A History of India: Volume 1. p. 70. 
  75. ^ G. Bongard-Levin. A History of India: Volume 1. p. 66. 
  76. ^ a b Romila Thapar. A History of India: Volume 1. p. 88. 
  77. ^ a b c G. Bongard-Levin. A History of India: Volume 1. p. 67. 
  78. ^ Romila Thapar. A History of India: Volume 1. p. 72. 
  79. ^ G. Bongard-Levin. A History of India: Volume 1. p. 91. 
  80. ^ Romila Thapar. A History of India: Volume 1. p. 78. 
  81. ^ G. Bongard-Levin. A History of India: Volume 1. p. 80. 
  82. ^ G. Bongard-Levin. A History of India: Volume 1. p. 108. 
  83. ^ Technology and Society by Menon R.V.G. p.15
  84. ^ a b Agrawal, Sadananda (2000): Śrī Khāravela, Sri Digambar Jain Samaj, Cuttack
  85. ^ [2]
  86. ^ Woolner, Alfred C. (1928). Introduction to Prakrit. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publ.,. pp. 235 pages(see page:15). ISBN 9788120801899. 
  87. ^ Sims-Williams and Cribb (1995–1996), pp. 175-176.
  88. ^ "At any rate, when Gallus was prefect of Egypt, I accompanied him and ascended the Nile as far as Syene and the frontiers of Ethiopia, and I learned that as many as one hundred and twenty vessels were sailing from Myos Hormos to India, whereas formerly, under the Ptolemies, only a very few ventured to undertake the voyage and to carry on traffic in Indian merchandise." Strabo II.5.12. Source
  89. ^ "minimaque computatione miliens centena milia sestertium annis omnibus India et Seres et paeninsula illa imperio nostro adimunt: tanti nobis deliciae et feminae constant. quota enim portio ex illis ad deos, quaeso, iam vel ad inferos pertinet?" Pliny, Historia Naturae 12.41.84.
  90. ^ Gupta Dynasty - MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009. 
  91. ^ "India - Historical Setting - The Classical Age - Gupta and Harsha". Historymedren.about.com. 2 November 2009. Retrieved 16 May 2010. 
  92. ^ "Gupta Dynasty, Golden Age Of India". Nupam.com. Retrieved 16 May 2010. 
  93. ^ "The Age of the Guptas and After". Wsu.edu. 6 June 1999. Retrieved 16 May 2010. 
  94. ^ Ore, Oystein (1988). Number Theory and Its History. Courier Dover Publications. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-486-65620-5. 
  95. ^ "Gupta dynasty (Indian dynasty)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 16 May 2010. 
  96. ^ "Gupta dynasty: empire in 4th century". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 16 May 2010. 
  97. ^ "The Gupta Empire of India | Chandragupta I | Samudragupta". Historybits.com. 11 September 2001. Retrieved 16 May 2010. 
  98. ^ "The Story of India - Photo Gallery". PBS. Retrieved 16 May 2010. 
  99. ^ Iaroslav Lebedynsky, "Les Nomades", p172.
  100. ^ Early History of India, p 339, Dr V. A. Smith; See also Early Empire of Central Asia (1939), W. M. McGovern.
  101. ^ Ancient India, 2003, p 650, Dr V. D. Mahajan; History and Culture of Indian People, The Age of Imperial Kanauj, p 50, Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr A. D. Pusalkar.
  102. ^ <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/256065/Harsha>
  103. ^ RN Kundra & SS Bawa, History of Ancient and Meddieval India
  104. ^ a b c International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania by Trudy Ring, Robert M. Salkin, Sharon La Boda p.507
  105. ^ a b c Michaels 2004, p. 41.
  106. ^ Michaels 2004, p. 43.
  107. ^ Schimmel, Annemarie Schimmel, Religionen - Islam in the Indian Subcontinent, Brill Academic Publishers, 1 January 1980, ISBN 978-90-04-06117-0, pg. 4
  108. ^ Sheridan, Daniel P. "Kumarila Bhatta", in Great Thinkers of the Eastern World, ed. Ian McGready, New York: Harper Collins, 1995, pp. 198-201. ISBN 0-06-270085-5.
  109. ^ Arnold, Daniel Anderson. Buddhists, Brahmins, and Belief: Epistemology in South Asian Philosophy of religion, p. 4. Columbia University Press, 2005. ISBN 978-0-231-13281-7.
  110. ^ Inden, Ronald. "Ritual, Authority, And Cycle Time in Hindu Kingship." In JF Richards, ed., Kingship and Authority in South Asia. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1998, p.67, 55
  111. ^ Holt, John. The Buddhist Visnu. Columbia University Press, 2004, p.12,15
  112. ^ Dasharatha Sharma (1975). Early Chauhān dynasties: a study of Chauhān political history, Chauhān political institutions, and life in the Chauhān dominions, from 800 to 1316 A.D.. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 280. ISBN 978-0-8426-0618-9. "According to a number of scholars, the agnikula clas were originally Gurjaras" 
  113. ^ Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (1834). Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Volume 1999. Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland. p. 651. "By that marriage Haarsha had contracted an alliance with the dominant race of the Gurjaras, of whom the chauhans were a prominent clan" 
  114. ^ Kalhana (1147-1149); Rajatarangini.
  115. ^ Sheldon Pollock (2006). The Language of the Gods in the World of Men: Sanskrit, Culture, and Power in Premodern India, pp. 241-242.
  116. ^ Sunil Fotedar (June 1984). The Kashmir Series: Glimpses of Kashmiri Culture - Vivekananda Kendra, Kanyakumari (p. 57).
  117. ^ R.C. Mazumdar, Ancient India, Page 383
  118. ^ "The Last Years of Cholas: The decline and fall of a dynasty". En.articlesgratuits.com. 22 August 2007. Retrieved 23 September 2009. 
  119. ^ Miller, J. Innes. (1969). The Spice Trade of The Roman Empire: 29 B.C. to A.D. 641. Oxford University Press. Special edition for Sandpiper Books. 1998. ISBN 0-19-814264-1.
  120. ^ Search for India's ancient city. BBC News. Retrieved on 22 June 2007.
  121. ^ General Studies History 4 Upsc by Reddy p. B.11
  122. ^ Ancient Indian History and Civilization by Sailendra Nath Sen p.380
  123. ^ a b Ancient Indian History and Civilization by Sailendra Nath Sen p.380-381
  124. ^ A Brief History of India by Alain Daniélou p.170
  125. ^ The Britannica Guide to Algebra and Trigonometry by William L. Hosch p.105
  126. ^ History of Buddhism in India, Translation by A Shiefner
  127. ^ Epigraphia Indica, XXIV, p 43, Dr N. G. Majumdar
  128. ^ Nitish K. Sengupta (1 January 2011). Land of Two Rivers: A History of Bengal from the Mahabharata to Mujib. Penguin Books India. pp. 43–45. ISBN 978-0-14-341678-4. 
  129. ^ Biplab Dasgupta (1 January 2005). European Trade and Colonial Conquest. Anthem Press. pp. 341–. ISBN 978-1-84331-029-7. 
  130. ^ a b Sailendra Nath Sen (1 January 1999). Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age International. ISBN 978-81-224-1198-0. 
  131. ^ PN Chopra, BN Puri, MN Das and AC Pradhan, ed. (2003). A Comprehensive History Of Ancient India (3 Vol. Set). Sterling. pp. 200–202. ISBN 978-81-207-2503-4. 
  132. ^ History of Ancient India: Earliest Times to 1000 A. D. by Radhey Shyam Chaurasia p.237
  133. ^ The Dancing Girl: A History of Early India by Balaji Sadasivan p.129
  134. ^ Kulke and Rothermund, p 115
  135. ^ Keay, p 215
  136. ^ K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, A History of South India, p 158
  137. ^ Buddhism, Diplomacy, and Trade: The Realignment of Sino-Indian Relations by Tansen Sen p.229
  138. ^ History of Asia by B.V. Rao p.297
  139. ^ Indian Civilization and Culture by Suhas Chatterjee p.417
  140. ^ a b A Comprehensive History of Medieval India: by Farooqui Salma Ahmed,Salma Ahmed Farooqui p.24
  141. ^ Ancient Indian History and Civilization by Sailendra Nath Sen p.403-405
  142. ^ World Heritage Monuments and Related Edifices in India, Band 1 by ʻAlī Jāvīd p.132-134
  143. ^ History of Kannada Literature by E.P. Rice p.32
  144. ^ Bilhana by Prabhakar Narayan Kawthekar p.29
  145. ^ "History Sindh, Invasions, Arab contact, trade, civilisation, India, Pakistan, Islam". India_resource.tripod.com. Retrieved 16 May 2010. 
  146. ^ http://www.indianscience.org/essays/22-%20E--Gems%20&%20Minerals%20F.pdf
  147. ^ History
  148. ^ Richard M. Eaton, Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States, Part I, Frontline, December 22, 2000, p.63.[3]
  149. ^ Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (2002) [1955]. A history of South India from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar. New Delhi: Indian Branch, Oxford University Press. p. 239. ISBN 0-19-560686-8. 
  150. ^ From the notes of Portuguese traveler Domingo Paes about Krishnadevaraya: A king who was perfect in all things (Hampi, A Travel Guide 2003, p. 31.)
  151. ^ Kamath, Suryanath U. (2001) [1980]. A concise history of Karnataka: from pre-historic times to the present. Bangalore: Jupiter books. p. 186. LCCN 80905179. OCLC 7796041. 
  152. ^ Battuta's Travels: Delhi, capital of Muslim India
  153. ^ Timur - conquest of India
  154. ^ Elliot & Dawson. The History of India As told By Its Own Historians Vol III. pp. 445–446. 
  155. ^ History of Classical Sanskrit Literature: by M. Srinivasachariar p.211
  156. ^ Decisive Battles India Lost (326 B. C. to 1803 A. D.) by Jaywant Joglekar p.69
  157. ^ South India by Amy Karafin,Anirban Mahapatra p.32
  158. ^ History of Science and Philosophy of Science by Pradip Kumar Sengupta p.91
  159. ^ Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals-Delhi Sultanat (1206-1526 by Satish Chandra p.188-189
  160. ^ Art History, Volume II: 1400-present by Boundless p.243
  161. ^ World and Its Peoples: Eastern and Southern Asia by Marshall Cavendish Corporation p.337
  162. ^ The Islamic World to 1600: Rise of the Great Islamic Empires (The Mughal Empire)
  163. ^ Iran in the Age of the Raj
  164. ^ "Regional states, c. 1700–1850". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 
  165. ^ Stewart N. Gordon, "The Slow Conquest: Administrative Integration of Malwa into the Maratha Empire, 1720-1760," Modern Asian Studies, January 1977, 11#1 pp 1-40
  166. ^ a b The Rediscovery of India: A New Subcontinent Cite: "Swarming up from the Himalayas, the Marathas now ruled from the Indus and Himalayas in the north to the south tip of the peninsula. They were either masters directly or they took tribute."
  167. ^ N. G. Rathod, The Great Maratha Mahadaji Scindia, (Sarup & Sons, 1994), 8:[4]
  168. ^ Gulcharan Singh, "Maharaja Ranjit Singh and the Principles of War," USI Journal, July 1981, Vol. 111 Issue 465, pp 184-192
  169. ^ Grewal, J. S. (1990). "Chapter 6: The Sikh empire (1799–1849)". The Sikh empire (1799–1849). The New Cambridge History of India. The Sikhs of the Punjab. Cambridge University Press. 
  170. ^ http://www.kashmir-issue.com/images3/treatyOfamritsar.pdf
  171. ^ Rai, Mridu (2004). Hindu Rulers, Muslim Subjects: Islam, Rights, and the History of Kashmir. Princeton University Press. pp. 27, 133. ISBN 0-691-11688-1. 
  172. ^ Sanjay Subrahmanyam, The Portuguese empire in Asia, 1500-1700: a political and economic history (2012)
  173. ^ "Indian History - Important events: History of India. An overview". History of India. Indianchild.com. Retrieved 7 May 2007. 
  174. ^ "The Great Moghul Jahangir: Letter to James I, King of England, 1617 A.D.". Indian History Sourcebook: England, India, and The East Indies, 1617 CE. Internet Indian History Sourcebook, Paul Halsall. June 1998. Retrieved 7 May 2007.  From: James Harvey Robinson, ed., Readings in European History, 2 Vols. (Boston: Ginn and Co., 1904-1906), Vol. II: From the opening of the Protestant Revolt to the Present Day, pp. 333–335.
  175. ^ "KOLKATA (CALCUTTA) : HISTORY". Calcuttaweb.com. Retrieved 7 May 2007. 
  176. ^ Rickard, J. (1 November 2000). "Robert Clive, Baron Clive, 'Clive of India', 1725-1774". Military History Encyclopedia on the Web. historyofwar.org. Retrieved 7 May 2007. 
  177. ^ Lawrence James, Raj: The Making and Unmaking of British India (1997) pp 30-44
  178. ^ Prakash, Om. "The Transformation from a Pre-Colonial to a Colonial Order: The Case of India" (PDF). Global Economic History Network. Economic History Department, London School of Economics. pp. 3–40. Retrieved 7 May 2007. 
  179. ^ H. V. Bowen, The Business of Empire: The East India Company and Imperial Britain, 1756-1833 (2008)
  180. ^ Christopher Hibbert, The Great Mutiny: India 1857 (1980)
  181. ^ Wilhelm von Pochhammer, India's road to nationhood: a political history of the subcontinent (1981) ch 57
  182. ^ S. A. Wolpert, Morley and India, 1906-1910, (1967)
  183. ^ Satya Narayan Mishra, "Muslim Backwardness and Birth of the Muslim League," Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society, January 2007, Vol. 55 Issue 1/2, pp 71-83
  184. ^ Georg, Feuerstein (2002). The Yoga Tradition. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 600. ISBN 3-935001-06-1. 
  185. ^ Clarke, Peter Bernard (2006). New Religions in Global Perspective. Routledge. p. 209. ISBN 0-7007-1185-6. 
  186. ^ a b Davis, Mike. Late Victorian Holocausts. 1. Verso, 2000. ISBN 1-85984-739-0 pg 7
  187. ^ Plague at the Wayback Machine (archived February 17, 2009). World Health Organisation.
  188. ^ Reintegrating India with the World Economy. Peterson Institute for International Economics.
  189. ^ Lawrence James, Raj: The Making and Unmaking of British India (2000) pp 322-40
  190. ^ Anil Chandra Banerjee, A Constitutional History of India 1600-1935 (1978) p 171-3
  191. ^ a b Symonds, Richard (1950). The Making of Pakistan. London: Faber and Faber. p. 74. OCLC 1462689. ASIN B0000CHMB1. "at the lowest estimate, half a million people perished and twelve million became homeless" 
  192. ^ Gyan Prakesh, "Writing Post-Orientalist Histories of the Third World: Perspectives from Indian Historiography" Comparative Studies in Society and History (1990), 32 : pp 383-408 doi:10.1017/S0010417500016534
  193. ^ Anil Seal,The Emergence of Indian Nationalism: Competition and Collaboration in the Later Nineteenth Century (1971)
  194. ^ Gordon Johnson, Provincial Politics and Indian Nationalism: Bombay and the Indian National Congress 1880-1915 (2005)
  195. ^ Rosalind O'Hanlon and David Washbrook, eds. Religious Cultures in Early Modern India: New Perspectives (2011)
  196. ^ Aravind Ganachari, "Studies in Indian Historiography: 'The Cambridge School,'" Indica, March 2010, 47#1, pp 70-93
  197. ^ Latha Menon, "Coming to Terms with the Past: India," History Today, August 2004, 54#8 pp 28-30
  198. ^ Amiya Kumar Bagchi, "Writing Indian History in the Marxist Mode in a Post-Soviet World," Indian Historical Review, January 1993, Vol. 20 Issue 1/2, pp 229-244,
  199. ^ Gyan Prakash, "Subaltern studies as postcolonial criticism," American Historical Review, December 1994, 99#5 pp 1475-1500
  200. ^ John Roosa, "When the Subaltern Took the Postcolonial Turn," Journal of the Canadian Historical Association, 2006, Vol. 17 Issue 2, pp 130-147

Sources[edit]

Published sources[edit]

  • Michaels, Axel (2004), Hinduism. Past and present, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press 
  • Samuel, Geoffrey (2010), The Origins of Yoga and Tantra, Cambridge University Press 

Web-sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Bandyopadhyay, Sekhar. From Plassey to Partition: A History of Modern India (2010)
  • Basham, A. L., ed. The Illustrated Cultural History of India (Oxford University Press, 2007)
  • Brown, Judith M. Modern India: The Origins of an Asian Democracy (2nd ed. 1994) online
  • Daniélou, Alain (2003). A Brief History of India ISBN 0-89281-923-5
  • Guha, Ramachandra. India After Gandhi: The History of the World's Largest Democracy (2007), 890pp; since 1947
  • James, Lawrence. Raj: The Making and Unmaking of British India (2000)
  • Keay, John (2000). India: A History. New York City: Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3797-0. 
  • Kulke, Hermann and Dietmar Rothermund. A History of India. (4th ed 2004) online
  • Mcleod, John. The History of India (2002) excerpt and text search
  • Mansingh, Surjit The A to Z of India (2010), a concise historical encyclopedia
  • Metcalf, Barbara D. and Thomas R. Metcalf. A Concise History of Modern India (2006)
  • Peers, Douglas M. India under Colonial Rule: 1700-1885 (2006), 192pp
  • Richards, John F. The Mughal Empire (The New Cambridge History of India) (1996)
  • Rothermund, Dietmar. An Economic History of India: From Pre-Colonial Times to 1991 (1993)
  • Sharma, R.S., India's Ancient Past, (Oxford University Press, 2005)
  • Sarkar, Sumit. Modern India, 1885-1947 (2002)
  • Singhal, D.P. A History of the Indian People. (1983)
  • Smith, Vincent. The Oxford History of India (3rd ed. 1958), old-fashioned
  • Spear, Percival. The History of India (1958 and later editions) online edition
  • Stein, Burton. A History of India (1998)
  • Tapan, Habib, and Irfan Raychaudhuri, eds. The Cambridge Economic History of India; Volume 1: c. 1200 - c. 1750 (1984), essays by scholars
    • Dharma Kumar and Meghnad Desai, eds. The Cambridge Economic History of India: Volume 2, c.1751-c.1970 (2nd ed. 2010), 1114pp of scholarly articles
  • Thapar, Romila. Early India: From the Origins to AD 1300 (2004) excerpt and text search
  • Thompson, Edward, and G.T. Garratt. Rise and Fulfilment of British Rule in India (1934) 690 pages; scholarly survey, 1599-1933 excerpt and text search
  • Tomlinson, B. R. The Economy of Modern India, 1860-1970 (The New Cambridge History of India) (1996)
  • Wolpert, Stanley. A New History of India. (6th ed. 1999)

Historiography[edit]

  • Bannerjee, Dr. Gauranganath (1921). India as known to the ancient world. Humphrey Milford, Oxford University Press, London. 
  • Bayly, C. A. "State and Economy in India over Seven Hundred Years," Economic History Review, (November 1985), 38#4 pp 583–596, online
  • Bose, Mihir. "India's Missing Historians: Mihir Bose Discusses the Paradox That India, a Land of History, Has a Surprisingly Weak Tradition of Historiography," History Today 57#9 (2007) pp 34+. online
  • Elliot, Henry Miers; John Dowson (1867–77). The History of India, as told by its own historians. The Muhammadan Period. London: Trübner and Co.

Online sources[edit]

  • The Imperial Gazetteer of India (26 vol, 1908–31), highly detailed description of all of India in 1901. online edition

External links[edit]