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In politics, a red–green alliance or red–green coalition is an alliance of "red" social-democratic or democratic socialist parties with "green" environmentalist or sometimes Nordic agrarian parties. The alliance is often based on common left political views, especially a shared distrust of corporate or capitalist institutions. While the "red" social-democratic parties tend to focus on the effects of capitalism on the working class, the "green" environmentalist parties tend to focus on the environmental effects of capitalism.
There have been two distinct types of red-green alliances. The first type is formed by centre-left parties for the short-term goal of creating a coalition government. The second type is a long-term organisational alliance of minor far-left parties for the purpose of challenging capitalism.
Red-green coalition governments
There have been a number of red-green governments in Europe since the 1990s.
- In Germany, a red-green coalition of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) and Alliance '90/The Greens led by Chancellor Gerhard Schröder formed the federal government from September 1998 to September 2005.
- In France, the 'Plural Left' coalition of the Socialist Party, The Greens, French Communist Party and allies governed from 1997 until 2002. The Ayrault Cabinet which governed from May 2012 until March 2014 had ministers affiliated with the Socialist Party, Radical Party of the Left and Europe Ecology – The Greens.
- In Finland, Prime Minister Paavo Lipponen's first and second Cabinets contained ministers from the Social Democratic Party of Finland (including Lipponen himself) and Green League. The Green League participated in government from April 1995 until May 2002.
- In Norway, the Red-Green Coalition of the Labour Party, Socialist Left Party and Centre Party governed Norway as a majority government from the 2005 general election until 2013. The Centre Party was the 'green' element of the alliance, and is a centrist agrarian party.
- In Iceland, the First and Second Cabinets of Prime Minister Jóhanna Sigurðardóttir were formed from a coalition of the Social Democratic Alliance and Left-Green Movement, governing from February 2009 to May 2013.
- In Italy, the Prodi I, D'Alema I, D'Alema II, Amato II and Prodi II Cabinets included the social-democratic Democrats of the Left (later to become the Democratic Party) as the largest party, with the Federation of the Greens receiving at least one ministry. However, unlike a straightforward red–green alliance, these cabinets involved Catholic-inspired, social-liberal and even communist parties.
- In Sweden, the Löfven Cabinet established on 3 October 2014 is a coalition of the Swedish Social Democratic Party and Green Party.
Radical red-green alliances
- GreenLeft of the Netherlands: a political party that began in 1989 as an political alliance comprising the Communist Party of the Netherlands, Pacifist Socialist Party and the Christian left parties Evangelical People's Party and Political Party of Radicals. The alliance had been known as Rainbow for the 1989 European elections.
- Unity List – The Red–Greens of Denmark: a political party, originally a political alliance, formed in 1989 by the Left Socialists (VS), Communist Party of Denmark (DKP) and Socialist Workers Party (SAP).
- The Nordic Green Left Alliance, a European political alliance formed by the Left Alliance (Finland), the Left-Green Movement (Iceland), the Left Party (Sweden), the Socialist Left Party (Norway) and the Socialist People's Party (Denmark). The MEPs of the NGLA sit in the European United Left–Nordic Green Left (GUE/NGL) grouping in the European Parliament, although the MEPs of the Socialist People's Party sit in The Greens–European Free Alliance (G/EFA) group.
- Left Ecology Freedom: a political party in Italy that was initially formed as a political alliance comprising socialists, greens and social democrats. The political alliance was itself a partial successor to the short-lived The Left – The Rainbow electoral alliance which had existed in Italy from December 2007 until May 2008 comprising the Federation of the Greens, the Communist Refoundation Party, Party of Italian Communists and the Democratic Left.
Red-green alliances with centre-left parties
There are also red/green political alliances and/or electoral agreements between social-democratic or liberal parties with green parties
- In Canada, the term "Red-Green Alliance" has been used to describe the limited co-operation between the centrist Liberal Party of Canada which uses red as its colour, and the Green Party of Canada, which is centre-left but not seen as being as radical as many of its overseas sister parties.
- The Red-Greens (Swedish: De rödgröna) was a red-green political alliance in Sweden, established on 7 December 2008. It consisted of the Social Democrats, Left Party and Greens in the Riksdag, sitting in opposition to the centre-right Alliance for Sweden coalition government. The Red-Greens aimed to achieve a majority at the 2010 Swedish general election held on 19 September 2010 and form its own coalition government. However, the Red-Greens failed to unseat the incumbent Alliance government, and the pact was dissolved on 26 October 2010.
- A red-green alliance of sorts occurred during the campaign leading up to the London mayoral election, 2008. Incumbent mayor Ken Livingstone, candidate for the Labour Party, formed an electoral pact with the Green Party mayoral candidate Siân Berry via the supplementary voting system, in which Labour voters were encouraged to place the Green candidate as their second preference, and vice versa.
- The phrase 'red-green alliance' has also been used to describe the One Wales coalition in the Welsh Assembly following the 2007 elections between the Welsh Labour Party and Plaid Cymru. However this was not an alliance of social democrats and environmentalists like others listed in this article, and was named simply for the colours of the participating parties, with Plaid Cymru being a Welsh nationalist party.
- In Italy, The Olive Tree and The Union coalitions comprised the Federation of the Greens along with social-democratic, social Christian, centrist and other parties in a broad heterogenous centre-left alliance. The successor party to the Olive Tree, the Democratic Party, maintains an internal faction of greens called the Democratic Ecologists.
- Blue-green alliance
- Red-green-brown alliance
- Traffic light coalition
- Jamaica coalition (politics)
- Green Left (disambiguation)
- Green socialist (disambiguation)
- Social Movement Unionism
- "Orden som präglar valrörelsen". Göteborgsposten. Retrieved 2010-09-09.[dead link]
- TheStar.com | News | Could the 'red-green coalition' be revived?
- "Namnet är spikat" (in Swedish). Aftonbladet. Retrieved 2008-12-11.
- "Opposition parties to build coalition". The Local - Sweden's News in English. Retrieved 2008-12-11.
- Greens and Livingstone join forces against Johnson | Politics | guardian.co.uk