Sherwani (Urdu: شیروانی; Hindi: शेरवानी) is a long coat-like garment worn in South Asia, very similar to an Achkan or doublet. It is notably known as Pakistan's national dress and was traditionally associated with the Muslim aristocracy of the northern Indian subcontinent. The Rajput aristocracy had subsequently adopted it. It is worn over the Kurta and Churidar, Khara pajama, a shalwar. It can be distinguished from the achkan by the fact that it is often made from heavier suiting fabrics, and by the presence of a lining. Sherwani originated as a fusion of the Shalwar Kameez with the British frock coat.
The Sherwani originated in South Asia and was the court dress of nobles of the royals of India, before being more generally adopted in the late eighteenth century. It appeared during the period of British India in 18th century, as a fusion of the Shalwar Kameez with the British frock coat. It was gradually adopted by most of the Indian aristocracy, mostly Muslim, and later by the general population, as a more westernized form of traditional attire. Like the Urdu language, it also became a symbol of Muslim nobility. Before the independence of India and Pakistan, the Sherwani was closely associated with founders of Aligarh Movement. Following Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, all the professors and students wore Sherwani. The name "Aligarh Sherwani" was also coined, inspired by the popularity of the design at Aligarh Muslim University. At the Aligarh Muslim University, these Sherwanis are still worn to keep alive a long running tradition of academics.
- The Nizam of Hyderabad, Mir Sir Osman Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VII, the richest man in the world, having a fortune estimated at US$2 billion in the early 1940s. always used to wear Sherwani. He ascended the throne in 1911. In his time, all the nobility at the court and all officers of the state also used to wear Sherwani.
After the independence of Pakistan, the founder of Pakistan, Mohammad Ali Jinnah frequently wore the Sherwani and made it the national dress of Pakistan despite the fact that English culture had greatly influenced his personal preferences, particularly when it came to dress. Earlier, Mohammad Ali Jinnah donned Western style clothing and he pursued the fashion with fervour. It is said he owned over 200 hand-tailored suits which he wore with heavily starched shirts with detachable collars. During his last years he was seen mostly in Sherwani and Karakul hat which subsequently came to be known as "Jinnah cap".
Following him most government officials in Pakistan such as the President and Prime Minister started to wear the formal black Sherwani over the shalwar qameez on state occasions and national holidays. But as Dr. Tariq Rahman writes about the western style officers that "the impeccably dressed South Asian officers, both civilian and military, never wore in public till the 1970s when Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto gave respectability to this dress by wearing it in public. However General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq made it complusory of all officers to wear Sherwani on state occasions and national holidays.
It has also become almost customary for bride grooms to wear a sherwani on their wedding almost always accompanied by a turban. Wedding sherwanis usually tend to have embroidered collars and have been popularized in recent times by designers like Amir Adnan and Deepak Parwani. One major difference between Sherwani wearing habits in India and Pakistan is that Pakistanis very rarely wear it with chooridar pyjamas preferring a shalwar instead while their Indian counterparts are distinguished by their preference for chooridars.
In India, the sherwani is generally worn for formal occasions in winter by those of North Indian descent, especially those from Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Hyderabadi-Muslims. The sherwani is generally associated with Muslims while the achkan was historically favored by Hindu nobles. The two garments have significant similarities, though sherwanis typically are more flaired at the hips. The achkan was also modified into the Nehru Jacket, which is popular in India.
In Ceylon, now Sri Lanka, it was generally worn as the formal uniform of Mudaliyars and early Tamil legislators during the British colonial period. The diplomatic service had incorporated its use for formal occasions overseas.
Modern sherwanis 
- Jinnah, Pakistan and Islamic Identity: The Search for Saladin - Akbar S. Ahmed - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-06-14.
- Mourning the Sherwani, by Ayesha Javed Akram. http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=story_11-7-2005_pg7_16
- "INDIA: The Nizam's Daughter". Time. 1959-01-19.
- The Maharajas of India, by Ann Morrow
See also 
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