Syed Ahmad Khan
|Born||Syed Ahmad Taqvi
17 October 1817
Delhi, Mughal Empire (now India)
|Died||27 March 1898
Aligarh, British India
|Notable ideas||Aligarh Movement, Aligarh Muslim University, Two Nation Theory|
Javad ud-Daula, Arif Jang Sir Syed Ahmad Khan KCSI (Hindi: सर सय्यद अहमद खान; Urdu: سر سید احمد خان; 17 October 1817 – 27 March 1898), born Syed Ahmad Taqvi (Hindi: सय्यद अहमद तकवी; Urdu: سید احمد تقوی), commonly known as Sir Syed, was an Indian Muslim philosopher and social activist of nineteenth century India.
In 1842, Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar II conferred upon Sir Syed the title of Javad-ud Daulah, conferred upon Sir Syed’s grandfather Syed Hadi by Emperor Shah Alam II around the middle of the 18th century. In addition, the Emperor added the title of Arif Jang. The conferment of these titles was symbolic of Sir Syed’s incorporation into the nobility of Delhi.
Born into Muslim nobility, Sir Syed earned a reputation as a distinguished scholar while working as a jurist for the British East India Company. During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, he remained loyal to the British and was noted for his actions in saving European lives. After the rebellion, he penned the booklet Asbab-e-Baghawat-e-Hind (The Causes of the Indian Mutiny) – a daring critique, at the time, of British policies that he blamed for causing the revolt. Believing that the future of Muslims was threatened by the rigidity of their orthodox outlook, Sir Syed began promoting Western-style scientific education by founding modern schools and journals and organising Muslim entrepreneurs. Towards this goal, Sir Syed founded the Muhammedan Anglo-Oriental College (today Aligarh Muslim University) in 1875 with the aim of promoting social and economic development of Indian Muslims.
One of the most influential Muslim politicians of his time, Sir Syed was suspicious of the Indian independence movement and called upon Muslims to loyally serve the British Raj. He denounced nationalist organisations such as the Indian National Congress, instead forming organisations to promote Muslim unity and pro-British attitudes and activities. Sir Syed promoted the adoption of Urdu as the lingua franca of all Indian Muslims, and mentored a rising generation of Muslim politicians and entrepreneurs. Prior to the Hindi–Urdu controversy, he was interested in the education of Muslims and Hindus both and this was the period in which Sir Syed visualised India as a "beautiful bride, whose one eye was Hindu and, the other, Muslim". Due to this view, he was regarded as a reformer and nationalist leader.
There was a sudden change in Sir Syed's views after the Hindi–Urdu controversy. His education and reformist policies became Muslim-specific and he fought for the status of Urdu. Maulana Hali writes, in his book, Hayat-e-Javed, "One day as Sir Syed was discussing educational affairs of Muslims with Mr. Shakespeare, the then Commissioner of Banaras, Mr. Shakespeare looked surprised and asked him, 'This is the first time when I have heard you talking specifically about Muslims. Before this you used to talk about the welfare of the common Indians.'" Sir Syed then told him, "Now I am convinced that the two communities[Muslims and Hindus] will not put their hearts in any venture together. This is nothing [it is just the beginning], in the coming times an ever increasing hatred and animosity appears on the horizon simply because of those who are regarded as educated. Those who will be around will witness it." Sir Syed is hailed as the father of the Two Nation Theory and one of the founding fathers of Pakistan, along with Allama Iqbal and Muhammad Ali Jinnah.
|“||Do not show the face of Islam to others; instead show your face as the follower of true Islam representing character, knowledge, tolerance and piety.||”|
- 1 Early life
- 2 Career
- 3 Causes of the Indian Revolt
- 4 Sir Syed and Mirza Ghalib
- 5 Scholarly works
- 6 Muslim reformer
- 7 Advocacy of Urdu
- 8 Political career
- 9 Legacy
- 10 Conclusion
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 Further reading
- 14 External links
Syed Ahmed Khan was born in Delhi, the then capital of the Mughal Empire. He was an Indian educator and politician, and an Islamic reformer and modernist. His family is said to have migrated from Arabia to Wamghan in Iran, and then moved to Herat in Afghanistan in the time of emperor Akbar. Many generations of his family had since been highly connected with the Mughal administration. His maternal grandfather Khwaja Fariduddin served as wazir in the court of Akbar Shah II. His paternal grandfather Syed Hadi held a mansab, a high-ranking administrative position and honorary name of Jawwad Ali Khan in the court of Alamgir II. Sir Syed's father Mir Muhammad Muttaqi was personally close to Akbar Shah II and served as his personal adviser.
However, Sir Syed was born at a time when rebellious governors, regional insurrections and the British colonialism had diminished the extent and power of the Mughal state, reducing its monarch to figurehead. With his elder brother Syed Muhammad Khan, Sir Syed was raised in a large house in a wealthy area of the city. They were raised in strict accordance with Mughal noble traditions and exposed to politics. Their mother Azis-un-Nisa played a formative role in Sir Syed's life, raising him with rigid discipline with a strong emphasis on education. Sir Syed was taught to read and understand the Qur'an by a female tutor, which was unusual at the time. He received an education traditional to Muslim nobility in Delhi. Under the charge of Hamiduddin, Sir Syed was trained in Persian, Arabic, Urdu and religious subjects. He read the works of Muslim scholars and writers such as Sahbai, Rumi and Ghalib. Other tutors instructed him in mathematics, astronomy and Islamic jurisprudence. Sir Syed was also adept at swimming, wrestling and other sports. He took an active part in the Mughal court's cultural activities.
His elder brother founded the city's first printing press in the Urdu language along with the journal Sayyad-ul-Akbar. Sir Syed pursued the study of medicine for several years but did not complete the course. Until the death of his father in 1838, Sir Syed had lived a life customary for an affluent young Muslim noble. Upon his father's death, he inherited the titles of his grandfather and father and was awarded the title of Arif Jung by the emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar. Financial difficulties put an end to Sir Syed's formal education, although he continued to study in private, using books on a variety of subjects. Sir Syed assumed editorship of his brother's journal and rejected offers of employment from the Mughal court.
Social reforms in the Muslim society were initiated by Abdul Latif. He founded “The Mohammedan Literary Society" in Bengal. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan established the Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental college. Later, this institution came to be known as the Aligarh Muslim University. He opposed ignorance, superstitions and evil customs prevalent in the Muslim society. He firmly believed that the Muslim society would not progress without the acquisition of western education and science. Having recognized the steady decline in Mughal political power, Sir Syed entered the British East India Company's civil service. He was appointed serestadar at the courts of law in Agra, responsible for record-keeping and managing court affairs. In 1840, he was promoted to the title of munshi. In 1858, he was appointed to a high-ranking post at the court in Muradabad, where he began working on his most famous literary work.
Acquainted with high-ranking British officials, Sir Syed obtained close knowledge about British colonial politics during his service at the courts. At the outbreak of the Indian rebellion, on May 10, 1857, Sir Syed was serving as the chief assessment officer at the court in Bijnor. Northern India became the scene of the most intense fighting. The conflict had left large numbers of civilians dead. Erstwhile centres of Muslim power such as Delhi, Agra, Lucknow and Kanpur were severely affected. Sir Syed was personally affected by the violence and the ending of the Mughal dynasty amongst many other long-standing kingdoms. Sir Syed and many other Muslims took this as a defeat of Muslim society. He lost several close relatives who died in the violence. Although he succeeded in rescuing his mother from the turmoil, she died in Meerut, owing to the privations she had experienced.
Causes of the Indian Revolt
In 1859 Sir Syed Published the booklet Asbab-e-Baghawat-e-Hind (The Causes of the Indian Revolt) in which he studied the causes of the Indian revolt. In this, his most famous work, he rejected the common notion that the conspiracy was planned by Muslim élites, who were insecure at the diminishing influence of Muslim monarchs. He blamed the British East India Company for its aggressive expansion as well as the ignorance of British politicians regarding Indian culture. Sir Syed advised the British to appoint Muslims to assist in administration.
Maulana Altaf Hussain Hali wrote in the biography of Sir Syed that:
"As soon as Sir Syed reached Muradabad, he began to write the pamphlet entitled The Causes of the Indian Revolt (asbab-e-baghawat-e-hind), in which he did his best to clear the people of India, and especially the Muslims, of the charge of Mutiny. In spite of the obvious danger, he made a courageous and thorough report of the accusations people were making against the Government and refused the theory which the British had invented to explain the causes of the Mutiny."
When the work was finished, without waiting for an English translation, Sir Syed sent the Urdu version to be printed at the Mufassilat Gazette Press in Agra. Within a few weeks, he received 500 copies back from the printers. His friend warned him not to send the pamphlet to Parliament or to the Government of India. Rae Shankar Das, a great friend of Sir Syed, begged him to burn the books rather than put his life in danger. Sir Syed replied that he was bringing these matters to the attention of the British for the good of his own people, of his country, and of the government itself. He said that if he came to any harm while doing something that would greatly benefit the rulers and the subjects of India alike, he would gladly suffer whatever befell him. When Rae Shankar Das saw that Sir Syed's mind was made up and nothing could be done to change it, he wept and remained silent. After performing a supplementary prayer and asking God's blessing, Sir Syed sent almost all the 500 copies of his pamphlet to England, one to the government, and kept the rest himself.
When the government of India had the book translated and presented before the Council, Lord Canning, the governor-general, and Sir Barthold Frere accepted it as a sincere and friendly report. The foreign secretary Sale Beadon, however, severely attacked it, calling it 'an extremely seditious pamphlet'. He wanted a proper inquiry into the matter and said that the author, unless he could give a satisfactory explanation, should be harshly dealt with. Since no other member of the Council agreed with his opinion, his attack did no harm.
Later, Sir Syed was invited to attend Lord Canning's durbar in Farrukhabad and happened to meet the foreign secretary there. He told Sir Syed that he was displeased with the pamphlet and added that if he had really had the government's interests at heart, he would not have made his opinion known in this way throughout the country; he would have communicated it directly to the government. Sir Syed replied that he had only had 500 copies printed, the majority of which he had sent to England, one had been given to the government of India, and the remaining copies were still in his possession. Furthermore, he had the receipt to prove it. He was aware, he added, that the view of the rulers had been distorted by the stress and anxieties of the times, which made it difficult to put even the most straightforward problem in its right perspective. It was for this reason that he had not communicated his thoughts publicly. He promised that for every copy that could be found circulating in India he would personally pay 1,000 rupees. At first, Beadon was not convinced and asked Sir Syed over and over again if he was sure that no other copy had been distributed in India. Sir Syed reassured him on this matter, and Beadon never mentioned it again. Later he became one of Sir Syed's strongest supporters.
Many official translations were made of the Urdu text of The Causes of the Indian Revolt. The one undertaken by the India Office formed the subject of many discussions and debates. The pamphlet was also translated by the government of India and several members of parliament, but no version was offered to the public. A translation which had been started by a government official was finished by Sir Syed's great friend, Colonel G. F. I. Graham, and finally published in 1873.
Sir Syed and Mirza Ghalib
1855, he finished his highly scholarly, very well researched and illustrated edition of Abul Fazl’s Ai’n-e Akbari, itself an extraordinarily difficult book. Having finished the work to his satisfaction, and believing that Mirza Asadullah Khan Ghalib was a person who would appreciate his labours, Syed Ahmad approached the great Ghalib to write a taqriz (in the convention of the times, a laudatory foreword) for it. Ghalib obliged, but what he did produce was a short Persian poem castigating the Ai’n-e Akbari, and by implication, the imperial, sumptuous, literate and learned Mughal culture of which it was a product. The least that could be said against it was that the book had little value even as an antique document. Ghalib practically reprimanded Syed Ahmad Khan for wasting his talents and time on dead things. Worse, he praised sky-high the “sahibs of England” who at that time held all the keys to all the a’ins in this world.
This poem is often referred to but has never translated in English. Shamsur Rahman Faruqi wrote an English translation. The translation is accurate if lacking the felicity of the original. The original Persian poem can be found in Sibte Hassan's book: "Naveed-e-Fikr"
The poem was unexpected, but it came at the time when Syed Ahmad Khan’s thought and feelings themselves were inclining toward change. Ghalib seemed to be acutely aware of a European[English]-sponsored change in world polity, especially Indian polity. Syed Ahmad might well have been piqued at Ghalib’s admonitions, but he would also have realized that Ghalib’s reading of the situation, though not nuanced enough, was basically accurate. Syed Ahmad Khan may also have felt that he, being better informed about the English and the outside world, should have himself seen the change that now seemed to be just round the corner. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan never again wrote a word in praise of the Ai’n-e Akbari and in fact gave up taking active interest in history and archaeology, and became a social reformer.
While continuing to work as a jurist, Sir Syed began focusing on writing, from the age of 23 (in 1840), on various subjects (from mechanics to educational issues), mainly in Urdu, where he wrote, at least, 6000 pages. His career as an author began when he published a series of treatises in Urdu on religious subjects in 1842. He published the book A'thar-as-sanadid (Great Monuments) documenting antiquities of Delhi dating from the medieval era. This work earned him the reputation of a cultured scholar. In 1842, he completed the Jila-ul-Qulub bi Zikr-il Mahbub and the Tuhfa-i-Hasan, along with the Tahsil fi jar-i-Saqil in 1844. These works focused on religious and cultural subjects. In 1852, he published the two works Namiqa dar bayan masala tasawwur-i-Shaikh and Silsilat ul-Mulk. He released the second edition of A'thar-as-sanadid in 1854. He also started work on a commentary on the Bible — the first by a Muslim — in which he argued that Islam was the closest religion to Christianity, with a common lineage from Abrahamic religions. He began with Genesis and Matthew, the first books of the Old and New Testament, but quit his project before even completing those first two. His other writings such as Loyal Muhammadans of India, Tabyin-ul-Kalam and A Series of Essays on the Life of Muhammad and Subjects Subsidiary Therein helped to create cordial relations between the British authorities and the Muslim community.
Throughout his life Syed Ahmad found time for literary and Scholarly pursuits. The range of his literary and Scholarly interests was very wide: history, politics, archaeology, journalism, literature, religion and science. The scope of his major writings is indeed amazing, majority are listed as follows:
- 1. Act No. 10 (Stamp Act) 1862.
- 2. Act No. 14 (Limitation) Act 1859-1864.
- 3. Act No. 16 (Regarding registration documents) - Allyson, 1864.
- 4. ACT NO. 18 (WORKED FOR WOMEN RIGHTS)ACT 1866
- 4. Ahkam Tu'am Ahl-Kitab, Kanpur, 1868.
- 5. Al-Du'a Wa'l Istajaba, Agra, 1892.
- 6. Al-Nazar Fi Ba'z Masa'il Imam Al-Ghazzali, Agra.
- 7. Izalat ul-Chain as Zi'al Qarnain, Agra, 1889.
- 8. Zila al-Qulub ba Zikr al-Mahbub, Delhi, 1843.
- 9. Khulq al-Insan ala ma fi al-Quran, Agra, 1892.
- 10. Kimiya-i-Sa'dat, 2 fasl, 1883.
- 11. Mazumm ba nisbat tanazzul ulum-i-diniya wa Arabiya wa falsafa-i-Yunaniya, Agra, 1857.
- 12. Namiqa fi Bayan Mas'ala Tasawwur al-Shaikh, Aligarh, 1883.
- 13. Rah-i-Sunnat dar rad-i-bid'at, Aligarh, 1883.
- 14. Risala Ibtal-i-Ghulami, Agra, 1893.
- 15. Risala ho wal Mojud, 1880.
- 16. Risala Tahqiq Lafzi-i-Nassara, 1860.
- 17. Tabyin-ul-Kalam fi Tafsir-al-turat-wa'l Injil ala Mullat-al-Islam (The Mohomedan Commentary on the Holy Bible).
- 18. Tafsir-ul-Qura'n
- Vol. I Aligarh, 1880,
- Vol. II Aligarh, 1882, Agra, 1903.
- Vol. III Aligarh, 1885
- Vol. IV Aligarh, 1888
- Vol. V Aligarh, 1892.
- Vol. VI Aligarh, 1895
- Vol. VII Agra, 1904.
- 19. Tafsir al-Jinn Wa'l Jan ala ma fi al-Qur'an, Rahmani Press, Lahore, 1893, Agra, 1891.
- 20. Tafsir-a-Samawat, Agra.
- 21. Tahrir fi Usul al-Tafsir, Agra, 1892.
- 22. Tarjama fawa'id al-afkar fi amal al-farjar, Delhi 1846.
- 23. Tarqim fi qisa ashab al-kahf wal-Raqim, Agra, 1889.
- 24. Tasfiyad al'Aquid (Being the correspondence between Syed Ahmad Khan and Maulana Muhammad Qasim of Deobund).
- 25. He promote western and eastern education.
- 26. Asbab-e-Baghawat-e-Hind (Reasons for the Indian Revolt of 1857) 1875
- 25. A'in-e-Akbari (Edition with Illustration), Delhi.
- 26. Asar-us-Sanadid (i) Syed-ul-Akhbar, 1847, (II) Mata-i-Sultani, 1852.
- 27. Description des monument de Delhi in 1852, D'a Pre Le Texte Hindostani De Saiyid Ahmad Khan (tr. by M. Garcin De Tassy), Paris, 1861.
- 28. Jam-i-Jum, Akbarabad, 1940.
- 29. Silsilat-ul-Muluk, Ashraf ul Mataba', Delhi, 1852.
- 30. Tarikh-i-Firoz Shahi (Edition), Asiatic Society, Calcutta, 1862.
- 31. Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri (edition Aligarh, 1864).
- 32. Al-Khutbat al-Ahmadiya fi'l Arab wa'I Sirat al-Muhammadiya : Aligarh, 1900, English translation, London, 1869-70.
- 33. Sirat-i-Faridiya, Agra, 1896.
- 34. Tuhfa-i-Hasan, Aligarh, 1883.
===Political works=== : 35. Asbab-i-Bhaghwat-i-Hind, Urdu 1858 and English edition, Banaras.
- 36. Lecture Indian National Congress Madras Par, Kanpur, 1887.
- 37. Lectures on the Act XVI of 1864, delivered on the 4th Dec., 1864 for the Scientific Society, Allygurh, 1864.
- 38. Musalmanon ki qismat ka faisla (taqarir-e-Syed Ahmad Khan wa Syed Mehdi Ali Khan etc.) Agra, 1894.
- 39. On Hunter's :Our Indian Mussulmans' London, 1872.
- 40. Present State of Indian Politics (Consisting of lectures and Speeches) Allahabad, 1888.
- 41. Sarkashi Zilla Binjor, Agra 1858.
- 42. Iltimas be Khidmat Sakinan-i-Hindustan dar bad tarraqi ta' lim ahl-i.Hind, Ghazipore, 1863.
- 43. Lecture dar bab targhib wa tahris talim itfal-i-Musalmanan, in 1895, Agra 1896.
- 44. Lecture Madrasaat ul-Ulum Aligarh Key Tarikhi halat aur jadid Waqi'at Par, Agra. 1889.
- 45. Lecture Ijlas Dahum Muhammadan Educational Conference, Agra, 1896.
- 46. Lecture Muta'liq Ijlas Yazdahum Muhammadan Educational Conference, Agra, 1896.
- 47. Majmu'a Resolution Haye dah sala (Resolutions passed by the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental Educational Conference from 1886 to 1895) ed. by Sir Syed Ahmad, Agra, 1896.
- 48. Report Salana (Annual Report of the Boarding House of Madrasat-ul-Ulum 1879-1880).
- 49. Khutut-i-Sir Syed, ed Ross Masud, 1924.
- 50. Majuma Lecture Kaye Sir Syed ed. Munshi Sirajuddin, Sadhora 1892.
- 51. Maqalat-i-Sir-Syed ed. by 'Abdullah Khvesgri, Aligarh, 1952.
- 52. Maqalat-i-Sir Syed, ed. By Muhammad Ismail, Lahore,
- 53. Makatib-i-Sir Syed, Mustaq Husain, Delhi, 1960.
- 54. Maktubat-i-Sir Syed, Muhammad Ismail Panipati, Lahore, 1959.
- 55. Makummal Majumua Lectures wa speeches. ed. Malik Fazaluddin, Lahore, 1900.
- 56. Muktubat al-Khullan ed. Mohd. Usman Maqbul, Aligarh 1915.
- 57. Tasanif-i-Ahmadiya (Collection of Syed Ahmad Khan's works on religions topics) in 8 parts.
- 58. stress on Holy Quran.
- 59.Reformation of Faith.
- 58. On the Use of the Sector (Urdu), Syed-ul-Akbar, 1846.
- 59. Qaul-i-Matin dar Ibtal-i-Harkat i Zamin, Delhi, 1848.
- 60. Tashil fi Jar-a-Saqil, Agra, 1844.
- 61. Ik Nadan Khuda Parast aur Dana dunyadar Ki Kahani, Badaon, 1910.
- 62. Kalamat-ul-Haqq, Aligarh
Journals, reports, and proceedings
- 1. Tehzeeb-ul-Ikhlaq.
- 2. Aligarh Institute Gazette.
- 3. Proceedings of the Muhammadans Educational Conference.
- 4. An Account of the Loyal Muhammadans of India, Parts I, II, III, Moufussel Press, Meerut, 1860.
- 5. Proceedings of the Scientific Society.
- 6. Bye-Laws of the Scientific Society.
- 7. Addresses and speeches relating to the Muhammedan Anglo-Oriental College in Aligarh (1875–1898) ed. Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk, Aligarh, 1898.
The motto of Aligarh University, Taught man that which he knew not. (Qur'an 96:5)
Through the 1850s, Syed Ahmed Khan began developing a strong passion for education. While pursuing studies of different subjects including European [jurisprudence], Sir Syed began to realise the advantages of Western-style education, which was being offered at newly established colleges across India. Despite being a devout Muslim, Sir Syed criticised the influence of traditional dogma and religious orthodoxy, which had made most Indian Muslims suspicious of British influences. Sir Syed began feeling increasingly concerned for the future of Muslim communities. A scion of Mughal nobility, Sir Syed had been reared in the finest traditions of Muslim élite culture and was aware of the steady decline of Muslim political power across India. The animosity between the British and Muslims before and after the rebellion (Independence War) of 1857 threatened to marginalise Muslim communities across India for many generations. Sir Syed intensified his work to promote co-operation with British authorities, promoting loyalty to the Empire amongst Indian Muslims. Committed to working for the upliftment of Muslims, Sir Syed founded a modern madrassa in Muradabad in 1859; this was one of the first religious schools to impart scientific education. Sir Syed also worked on social causes, helping to organise relief for the famine-struck people of North-West Province in 1860. He established another modern school in Ghazipur in 1863.
Upon his transfer to Aligarh in 1864, Sir Syed began working wholeheartedly as an educator. He founded the Scientific Society of Aligarh, the first scientific association of its kind in India. Modelling it after the Royal Society and the Royal Asiatic Society, Sir Syed assembled Muslim scholars from different parts of the country. The Society held annual conferences, disbursed funds for educational causes and regularly published a journal on scientific subjects in English and Urdu. Sir Syed felt that the socio-economic future of Muslims was threatened by their orthodox aversions to modern science and technology. He published many writings promoting liberal, rational interpretations of Islamic scriptures. However, his view of Islam was rejected by Muslim clergy as contrary to traditional views on issues like jihad, polygamy and animal slaughtering. Clerics of the Deobandi and Wahhabi schools condemned him harshly as a kafir. In face of pressure from religious Muslims, Sir Syed avoided discussing religious subjects in his writings, focusing instead on promoting education.
On the pre-colonial system he said "The rule of the former emperors and rajas was neither in accordance with the Hindu nor the Mohammadan religion. It was based on nothing but tyranny and oppression; the law of might was that of right; the voice of the people was not listened to"
Advocacy of Urdu
The onset of the Hindi-Urdu controversy of 1867 saw the emergence of Sir Syed as a political leader of the Muslim community. He became a leading Muslim voice opposing the adoption of Hindi as a second official language of the United Provinces (now Uttar Pradesh). Sir Syed perceived Urdu as the lingua franca of Muslims. Having been developed by Muslim rulers of India, Urdu was used as a secondary language to Persian, the official language of the Mughal court. Since the decline of the Mughal dynasty, Sir Syed promoted the use of Urdu through his own writings. Under Sir Syed, the Scientific Society translated Western works only into Urdu. The schools established by Sir Syed imparted education in the Urdu medium. The demand for Hindi, led largely by Hindus, was to Sir Syed an erosion of the centuries-old Muslim cultural domination of India. Testifying before the British-appointed education commission, Sir Syed controversially exclaimed that "Urdu was the language of gentry and Hindi that of the vulgar." His remarks provoked a hostile response from Hindu leaders, who unified across the nation to demand the recognition of Hindi.
The success of the Hindi movement led Sir Syed to further advocate Urdu as the symbol of Muslim heritage and as the language of all Indian Muslims. His educational and political work grew increasingly centred around and exclusively for Muslim interests. He also sought to persuade the British to give Urdu extensive official use and patronage. His colleagues such as Mohsin-ul-Mulk and Maulvi Abdul Haq developed organisations such as the Urdu Defence Association and the Anjuman Taraqqi-i-Urdu, committed to the perpetuation of Urdu. All these colleagues led efforts that resulted in the adoption of Urdu as the official language of the Hyderabad State and as the medium of instruction in the Osmania University. To Muslims in northern and western India, Urdu had become an integral part of political and cultural identity. However, the division over the use of Hindi or Urdu further provoked communal conflict between Muslims and Hindus in India.
On April 1, 1869 he went, along with his son Syed Mahmood, to England, where he was awarded the Order of the Star of India from the British government on August 6. Travelling across England, he visited its colleges and was inspired by the culture of learning established after the Renaissance. Sir Syed returned to India in the following year determined to build a "Muslim Cambridge." Upon his return, he organised the "Committee for the Better Diffusion and Advancement of Learning among Muhammadans" (Muslims) on December 26, 1870. Sir Syed described his vision of the institution he proposed to establish in an article written sometime in 1872 and re-printed in the Aligarh Institute Gazette of April 5, 1911:
I may appear to be dreaming and talking like Shaikh Chilli, but we aim to turn this MAO College into a University similar to that of Oxford or Cambridge. Like the churches of Oxford and Cambridge, there will be mosques attached to each College… The College will have a dispensary with a Doctor and a compounder, besides a Unani Hakim. It will be mandatory on boys in residence to join the congregational prayers (namaz) at all the five times. Students of other religions will be exempted from this religious observance. Muslim students will have a uniform consisting of a black alpaca, half-sleeved chugha and a red Fez cap… Bad and abusive words which boys generally pick up and get used to, will be strictly prohibited. Even such a word as a "liar" will be treated as an abuse to be prohibited. They will have food either on tables of European style or on chaukis in the manner of the Arabs… Smoking of cigarette or huqqa and the chewing of betels shall be strictly prohibited. No corporal punishment or any such punishment as is likely to injure a student's self-respect will be permissible… It will be strictly enforced that Shia and Sunni boys shall not discuss their religious differences in the College or in the boarding house. At present it is like a day dream. I pray to God that this dream may come true."
By 1873, the committee under Sir Syed issued proposals for the construction of a college in Aligarh. He began publishing the journal Tahzib al-Akhlaq (Social Reformer) to spread awareness and knowledge on modern subjects and promote reforms in Muslim society. Sir Syed worked to promote reinterpretation of Muslim ideology in order to reconcile tradition with Western education. He argued in several books on Islam that the Qur'an rested on an appreciation of reason and natural law, making scientific inquiry important to being a good Muslim. Sir Syed established a modern school in Aligarh and, obtaining support from wealthy Muslims and the British, laid the foundation stone of the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College on May 24, 1875. He retired from his career as a jurist the following year, concentrating entirely on developing the college and on religious reform. Sir Syed's pioneering work received support from the British. Although intensely criticised by orthodox religious leaders hostile to modern influences, Sir Syed's new institution attracted a large student body, mainly drawn from the Muslim gentry and middle classes. The curriculum at the college involved scientific and Western subjects, as well as Oriental subjects and religious education. The first chancellor was Sultan Shah Jahan Begum, a prominent Muslim noblewoman, and Sir Syed invited an Englishman, Theodore Beck, to serve as the first college principal. The college was originally affiliated with Calcutta University but was transferred to the Allahabad University in 1885. Near the turn of the 20th century, it began publishing its own magazine and established a law school. In 1920, the college was transformed into a university.
In 1878, Sir Syed was nominated to the Viceroy's Legislative Council. He testified before the education commission to promote the establishment of more colleges and schools across India. In the same year, Sir Syed founded the Muhammadan Association to promote political co-operation amongst Indian Muslims from different parts of the country. In 1886, he organised the All India Muhammadan Educational Conference in Aligarh, which promoted his vision of modern education and political unity for Muslims. His works made him the most prominent Muslim politician in 19th century India, often influencing the attitude of Muslims on various national issues. He supported the efforts of Indian political leaders Surendranath Banerjea and Dadabhai Naoroji to obtain representation for Indians in the government and civil services. In 1883, he founded the Muhammadan Civil Service Fund Association to encourage and support the entry of Muslim graduates into the Indian Civil Service (ICS). While fearful of the loss of Muslim political power owing to the community's backwardness, Sir Syed was also averse to the prospect of democratic self-government, which would give control of government to the Hindu-majority population:
"At this time our nation is in a bad state in regards education and wealth, but God has given us the light of religion and the Quran is present for our guidance, which has ordained them and us to be friends. Now God has made them rulers over us. Therefore we should cultivate friendship with them, and should adopt that method by which their rule may remain permanent and firm in India, and may not pass into the hands of the Bengalis… If we join the political movement of the Bengalis our nation will reap a loss, for we do not want to become subjects of the Hindus instead of the subjects of the "people of the Book…"
All-India Muslim League
Ahmad Khan helped form the All-India Muslim League (AIML). His educational proposals and political activism inspired Muslim elites to support the AIML. Ahmad Khan originally founded the All India Muhammadan Educational Conference in 1886 in order to uplift Western education, especially science and literature, among India's Muslims. The conference, in addition to generating funds for Ahmad Khan's Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College, motivated Muslim elites to propose expansion of educational uplift elsewhere, known as the Aligarh Movement. In turn this new awareness of Muslim needs helped stimulate a political consciousness among Muslim elites that went on to form the AIML.
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan lived the last two decades of his life in Aligarh, regarded widely as the mentor of 19th- and 20th century Muslim entrepreneurs and politicians. He remained the most influential Muslim politician in India, with his opinions guiding the convictions of a large majority of Muslims. Battling illnesses and old age, Sir Syed died on March 27, 1898. He was buried besides Sir Syed Masjid inside the campus of the Aligarh university. His funeral was attended by thousands of students, Muslim leaders and British officials. Sir Syed is widely commemorated across South Asia as a great Muslim reformer and visionary. At the same time, Sir Syed sought to politically ally Muslims to the British government. An avowed loyalist of the British Empire, Sir Syed was nominated as a member of the Civil Service Commission in 1887 by Lord Dufferin. In 1888, he established the United Patriotic Association at Aligarh to promote political co-operation with the British and Muslim participation in the government. Syed Ahmed Khan was knighted by the British government in 1888 and in the following year he received an LL.D. honoris causa from the Edinburgh University.
The university he founded remains one of India's most prominent institutions. Prominent alumni of Aligarh include Muslim political leaders Maulana Mohammad Ali, Abdur Rab Nishtar, Maulana Shaukat Ali and Maulvi Abdul Haq, who is hailed in Pakistan as Baba-e-Urdu (Father of Urdu). The first two Prime Ministers of Pakistan, Liaquat Ali Khan and Khawaja Nazimuddin, as well as the late Indian President Dr. Zakir Hussain, are amongst Aligarh's most famous graduates. In India, Sir Syed is commemorated as a pioneer who worked for the socio-political upliftment of Indian Muslims, Sir Syed is also hailed as a founding father of Pakistan for his role in developing a Muslim political class independent of Hindu-majority organisations. The Sir Syed University of Engineering and Technology was established in honour of Sir Syed in Karachi and is a leading technical institution in Pakistan. Furthermore, Sir Syed Government Girls College in Karachi, Pakistan is also named in the honour of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan.
Supporters of Sir Syed contend that his political vision gave an independent political expression to the Muslim community, which aided its goal of securing political power in India. His philosophy guided the creation of the All India Muslim League in 1906, as a political party separate from the Congress. Sir Syed's ideas inspired both the liberal, pro-British politicians of the Muslim League and the religious ideologues of the Khilafat struggle. The Muslim League remained at odds with the Congress and continued to advocate the boycott of the Indian independence movement. In the 1940s, the student body of Aligarh committed itself to the establishment of Pakistan and contributed in large measure to the activities of the Muslim League. Sir Syed's patronage of Urdu led to its widespread use amongst Indian Muslim communities and following the Partition of India its adoption as the official language of Pakistan, even though Bengali and Punjabi were more prevalent at the time.
- Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica
- Hayaat-e-Javaid, Maulana Altaf Husain Haali, Vol. 1, pp. 25-26, Arsalaan Books, Allama Iqbal Road, Azad Kashmir
- Glasse, Cyril, The New Encyclopedia of Islam, Altamira Press, (2001)
- Akram [/Ekram/Ikram], Shaikh Muhammad. Mauj-e-kausar (in Urdu). Lahore. pp. 86, 85.
- Hayaat-e-Javaid, Maulana Altaf Husain Haali, Vol. 1, pp. 26, Arsalaan Books, Allama Iqbal Road, Azad Kashmir
- GRAHAM, George Farquhar (1885). The Life and Work of Syed Ahmed Khan, C. at S. L. Black wood. p. 1.
- period =P001 "Sir Syed Ahmad Khan". Story of Pakistan. Retrieved 2006-10-14.
- GRAHAM, George Farquhar (1885). The Life and Work of Syed Ahmed Khan, C. S. L. Blackwood. p. 4.
- Syed Ziaur Rahman, Sir Syed and His Family Background, The Aftab Magazine, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, 1998-99, p. 17-19; We and You (Special Issue), Aligarh, Sept-Oct., 1999, p. 10
- "Sir Syed Ahmed Khan". Encyclopedia of World Biography (2nd ed.). Gale Research. 1997. pp. 17 vols.
- GRAHAM, George Farquhar (1885). The Life and Work of Syed Ahmed Khan, C. S. L. Blackwood. p. 7.
- Hayat-i-Javed (A Biography of Sir Sayyid) by Altaf Husain Hali (1901), translated by David J. Matthews (New Delhi: Rupa and Company, 1994)
- "Sir Syed Ahmad Khan — Chronology". Sir Syed University of Engineering and Technology. Retrieved 2006-10-14.
- MUHAMAD, Dr. Shan (1978). The Aligarh Movement. Meerut: Meenakshi Prakashan. pp. IX.
- See, for instance, chapter 2 of Raja, Masood Ashraf. Constructing Pakistan: Foundational Texts and the Rise of Muslim National Identity, 1857–1947, Oxford 2010, ISBN 978-0-19-547811-2
- Hayat-i-Javed (A Biography of Sir Sayyid) by Altaf Husain Hali (1901), translated by David J. Matthews (New Delhi: Rupa and Company, 1994), pp. 92-95
- A vast and triumphalist document on the governance of Akbar. The A’in was also the world’s first anthropological text and gazetteer, and much else besides.
- From Antiquary to Social Revolutionary: Syed Ahmad Khan and the Colonial Experience By Shamsur Rahman Faruqi.
- Hayat-i-Javed (A Biography of Sir Sayyid) by Altaf Husain Hali (1901), translated by David J. Matthews (New Delhi: Rupa and Company, 1994),
- The word a’in can mean all or any of the following: character, convention, temperament, habit, rule, path, law (ecclesiastical or secular), creed, praxis, quality, intention, organization, management, system, decoration, beauty. (Lughat Nama-e Dehkhoda). There are about eighty meanings in all. These meanings seem to have developed over the centuries. Most were available to Abul Fazl; all were available to Ghalib.
- He did edit another two historical texts over the next few years, but neither of them was anything like the Ai’n-e Akbari.
- John W. Wilder(2006), Selected essays by Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan, p. 34
- Johannes Marinus Simon Baljon(1964), The reforms and religious ideas of Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan, p. 13
- Sir Syed Ahmed Khan >> Chronology
- Compiled by: Ashraf A. Shah, 1980
- KUMAR, S (2000). Educational Philosophy in Modern India. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. p. 59. ISBN 81-261-0431-7.
- Nazeer Ahmed (2000). Islam in Global History. Xlibris Corporation. p. 231. ISBN 0738859664.
- ALI, Engineer Asghar (2001). Rational Approach to Islam. Delhi: Gyan Publishing House. p. 191. ISBN 8121207258.
- Hindi Nationalism, Alok Rai, Orient Blackswan, 2001
- ABBASI, Yusuf (1981). Muslim Politics and Leadership in the South Asian Sub-continent. Institute of Islamic History, Culture and Civilization, Islamic University (Islamabad). p. 90.
- GRAHAM, George Farquhar (1885). The Life and Work of Syed Ahmed Khan, C. S. L. Blackwood. p. 289.
- MAJUMDAR, RC (1969). Struggle for Freedom. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. p. 1967. ASIN: B000HXEOUM.
- BAIG, MRA (1974). The Muslim Dilemma in India. Delhi: Vikas Publishing House. pp. 51–2.
- KUMAR, S (2000). Educational Philosophy in Modern India. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. p. 60. ISBN 81-261-0431-7.
- Abdul Rashid Kahn, "All India Muhammadan Educational Conference and the Foundation of the All India Muslim League," Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society (2007) Vol. 55 Issue 1/2, pp 65-83.
- The Glowing Legend of Sir Syed – A Centennial Tribute (1998), Ed. Syed Ziaur Rahman, Non-Resident Students’ Centre, Aligarh
Muslim University (Aligarh)
- Prof. Iftikhar Alam Khan. Sir Syed aur Faney Tameer (Aligarh)
- Prof. Iftikhar Alam Khan. Muslim University ki Kahani, Imarton ki zubani (Aligarh)
- Prof. Iftikhar Alam Khan. Sir Syed aur Scientific Society (Aligarh)
- Prof. Iftikhar Alam Khan. Sir Syed tahreek ka siyasi aur samaji pas manzar (Aligarh)
- Prof. Iftikhar Alam Khan. Sir Syed House ke Mah Wasal (Aligarh)
- Prof. Iftikhar Alam Khan. Sir Syed Daroon e Khana (Aligarh*
- Prof. Iftikhar Alam Khan " Sir Syed aur Jadeedyat" Pub. by Educational Publications, Delhi 012.
- Encyclopedia of World Biography — Syed Ahmed Khan, 2nd ed. 17 Vols. (Gale Research) as Baba-e-Urdu (Father of Urdu). The first two Prime Ministers of Pakistan, Liaquat Ali Khan and Khawaja Nazimuddin, as well as the late Indian President Dr. Zakir Hussain, are amongst Aligarh's most famous graduates. In India, Sir Syed is commemorated as a pioneer who worked for the socio-political upliftment of Indian Muslims, though his views on Hindu-Muslim issues are a subject of controversy. Sir Syed is also hailed as a founding father of Pakistan for his role in developing a Muslim political class independent of Hindu-majority organisations. The Sir Syed University of Engineering and Technology was established in honour of Sir Syed in Karachi and is a leading technical institution in Pakistan. Furthermore, Sir Syed Government Girls College in Karachi, Pakistan is also named in the honour of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan.
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- "Sir Syed Ahmad Khan short biography". official website of Aligarh Muslim University.
- "Sir Syed Today: A Source of Literary Work of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan".
- "Sir Syed Ahmad Khan (1817–1898)". Story of Pakistan.
- "Sir Syed Ahmad Khan". Pioneers of Freedom.
- "Sir Syed Ahmed Khan". Sir Syed University of Engineering & Technology.
- "Sir Syed Ahmad Khan". Cyber AMU.
- Upadhyay, R. "Aligarh Movement". South Asia Analysis Group.
- The Rich Legacy of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan (Gulf News)
- Sir Syed Ahmed Khan His Life and Contribution (NewAgeIslam)