Ship replica

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A replica of the 15th-century caravel Lisa von Lübeck.
A replica of the ancient bireme "Ivlia" in Bay of Biscay

A ship replica is a reconstruction of a no longer existing ship. Replicas can range from authentically reconstructed, fully seaworthy ships, to ships of modern construction that give an impression of a historic vessel. Some replicas may not even be seaworthy, but built for other educational or entertainment purposes.

Reasons to build a replica include historic research into shipbuilding, national pride, exposition at a museum or entertainment (e.g., for a TV series), and/or education programs for the unemployed. For example, see the project to build a replica of the Continental brig Andrew Doria.[1] Apart from building a genuine replica of the ship, sometimes the construction materials, tools and methods can also copied from the ships' original era, as is the case with the replica of Batavia in Lelystad and the ship of the line replica Delft[2] in Rotterdam (Delfshaven).

Definition[edit]

The term "replica" in this context does not normally include scale models. The term museum ship is used for an old ship that has been preserved and converted into a museum open to the public.

A ship replica may also be a generic replica, one that represents a certain type of ship rather than a particular historic example, like Kamper Kogge, replicating the Cogs that were used extensively in Northern Europe by the Hanseatic League in the Middle Ages, but where there is little knowledge of specific ships.[contradiction]

Some generic type replicas such as Thor Heyerdahl's Ra II, qualify as true replicas as these ships were built to investigate the craft and or culture of the original era. That they do not replicate a specific vessel is mainly because no details of such a specific vessel are available.

Some other ships that are modeled after ships of a certain type or era (and are in that sense replicas) do not qualify as true replicas. Some ships may be borderline cases, such as Kanrin Maru, which is actually twice the size of the original, but built following the plans of the original.

Replicas can be temporary, cheap and very simple, such as the replica of a Viking ship that was burnt at the Leixlip Festival.

Notable historic type ships that are not replicas include:

  • USS Constitution (1795) is strictly speaking not a replica but the original vessel. However, most of the ship's timber has been replaced over time, with only 10-15% of the original remaining.[3] This is a modern version of the philosopher's dilemma concerning replica versus original; known as the Ship of Theseus dilemma.
  • HMS Victory (1765) is still the original vessel, although unlike Constitution, she is in dry dock and does not sail. She has also been heavily restored, with only 10-15% of her original timber remaining.[4]
  • Mircea, which is an almost exact copy of Gorch Fock. Mircea was built as a copy because Gorch Fock was a very successful ship. Thus Mircea was not built as a replica per se, but as a copy for other reasons (i.e. to perform economically, in this case as a training vessel).
  • Stad Amsterdam also is not a true replica as this is a generic clipper type ship combining the best qualities of clippers of the past with modern materials and technologies.[contradiction]

Another ambiguous case subject to the Ship of Theseus dilemma is Niagara. The original was sunk in 1820 for preservation, and the ship has been rebuilt three times since. The third reconstruction was considerably more extensive, and the only parts from the original which were retained are non-structural, leading many authorities to classify her as a replica, rather than a reconstructed original.

Notable ship replicas[edit]

Some sailing ship replicas with their home port; and key information of the original (many articles are about the original ship):

Europe, Middle East, Australia, America[edit]

Ship name Type Current porta Current affiliation Country Original affiliation Original built Notable for End Remark
Ra II Reed boat Oslo, Norway Bygdøy maritime museum  Egypt
Tutanchamun Maske.jpg
c.4000BC Ancient Egyptian merchant. Heyerdahl crossed Atlantic in it c.2000BC Class replica
Uluburun II[5] Merchant Bodrum, Turkey Bodrum Underwater Archaeological Museum  Turkey c.14th century BC Late Bronze Age merchant Sank c.1316–1305 BC Oldest known merchant shipwreck.
Argo Penteconter Volos, Greece  Greece ? A replica of a Greek penteconter, with a 50-oar crew made up from all 27 European Union member countries.[6] ? Class replica
Ivlia Bireme  Ukraine c.800BC Ancient Greek rowing warship (galley) with oars at two levels.[7] c.100BC Class replica
Olympias Trireme Faliro, Greece  Greece c.700BC Ancient Greek warship c.400BC Class replica
Kyrenia II Merchant  Cyprus c.4th century BC Ancient Greek merchant ship Sank c.288BC
Hugin Viking ship Ramsgate, England Plinthed at Pegwell Bay  Denmark 449 Hengist and Horsa land in Kent Rowed across the North Sea to commemorate the 1500th anniversary in 1949.[8]

Actually a copy of the 9th Century Gokstad ship

Sea Stallion from Glendalough Viking ship Roskilde Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde  Denmark 1042 in Dublin Ireland Main warship of the Viking age Scuttled in Roskilde Fjord c.1100
Lisa von Lübeck Caravel Lübeck, Germany  Germany
Siegel Elbing 1350.jpg
c.1200 Main medieval merchant c.1500 Class replica
Kamper Kogge Hanseatic cog Kampen, the Netherlands  Netherlands
Siegel Elbing 1350.jpg
c.1200 Main medieval merchant c.1500 Class replica
Roland von Bremen Bremen cog Bremen, Germany  Germany
Siegel Elbing 1350.jpg
1380 Main medieval merchant Sank 1380
Santa María Carrack Columbus, US 39°57′47″N 83°00′20″W / 39.96306°N 83.00556°W / 39.96306; -83.00556  United States
Escudo Corona de Castilla.png
c.1490 Columbus's 1492 squadron Grounded 1492 Several replicas, all based on conjectures
Santa María Carrack Palos de la Frontera, Spain 37°12′41″N 6°55′41″W / 37.21139°N 6.92806°W / 37.21139; -6.92806 Wharf of the Caravels museum  Spain
Escudo Corona de Castilla.png
c.1490 Columbus's 1492 squadron Grounded 1492 Several replicas, all based on conjectures
Santa María Carrack Edmonton, Canada 53°31′22″N 113°37′36″W / 53.52278°N 113.62667°W / 53.52278; -113.62667 West Edmonton Mall  Canada
Escudo Corona de Castilla.png
c.1490 Columbus's 1492 squadron Grounded 1492 Several replicas, all based on conjectures
Santa María Carrack Funchal, Portugal 32°38′30″N 16°55′00″W / 32.64167°N 16.91667°W / 32.64167; -16.91667  Portugal
Escudo Corona de Castilla.png
c.1490 Columbus's 1492 squadron Grounded 1492 Several replicas, all based on conjectures
Pinta Caravel Tortola, British Virgin Islands The Columbus Foundation  British Virgin Islands
Escudo Corona de Castilla.png
c.1490 Columbus's 1492 squadron Several replicas, all based on conjectures
Pinta Caravel Palos de la Frontera, Spain 37°12′42″N 6°55′41″W / 37.21167°N 6.92806°W / 37.21167; -6.92806 Wharf of the Caravels museum  Spain
Escudo Corona de Castilla.png
c.1490 Columbus's 1492 squadron Several replicas, all based on conjectures
Pinta Caravel Bayona, Spain 42°7′16″N 8°50′48″W / 42.12111°N 8.84667°W / 42.12111; -8.84667 Caravel Pinta Museum  Spain
Escudo Corona de Castilla.png
c.1490 Columbus's 1492 squadron Several replicas, all based on conjectures
Niña Caravel Tortola, British Virgin Islands The Columbus Foundation  British Virgin Islands
Escudo Corona de Castilla.png
c.1490 Columbus's 1492 squadron Several replicas, all based on conjectures
Niña Caravel Palos de la Frontera, Spain 37°12′40″N 6°55′42″W / 37.21111°N 6.92833°W / 37.21111; -6.92833 Wharf of the Caravels museum  Spain
Escudo Corona de Castilla.png
c.1490 Columbus's 1492 squadron Several replicas, all based on conjectures
Niña Caravel El Puerto de Santa María, Spain 36°34′41″N 6°15′23″W / 36.57806°N 6.25639°W / 36.57806; -6.25639  Spain
Escudo Corona de Castilla.png
c.1490 Columbus's 1492 squadron Several replicas, all based on conjectures
Niña Caravel Corpus Christi, US 27°47′38″N 97°23′27″W / 27.79389°N 97.39083°W / 27.79389; -97.39083  United States
Escudo Corona de Castilla.png
c.1490 Columbus's 1492 squadron Several replicas, all based on conjectures
Matthew Caravel Bristol, UK  United Kingdom
Tudor Rose.svg
c.1495 John Cabot's ship to America in 1497
Nau Capitânia Nau Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Brazilian Naval Cultural Centre  Brazil Flag Portugal (1495).svg ca 1500 Discovery of Brazil by Pedro Álvares Cabral Class replica
Victoria Carrack Seville, Spain  Spain
Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg
c.1515 Only survivor of Magellan's 1519-1522 travel Achieved to survive the circumnavigation of the globe again in 2006.
Victoria Carrack Punta Arenas, Chile Nao Victoria Museum  Chile
Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg
c.1515 Only survivor of Magellan's 1519-1522 first circumnavigation of the planet
Grande Hermine Carrack Jordan Harbour, Ontario c.1520 Brought Jacques Cartier to Saint-Pierre on 15 June 1535 abandoned, vandalised and arsoned, beached
Real Galley Barcelona, Spain  Spain
Naval Jack of Spain.svg
c.1570 Flagship of Don John of Austria in the Battle of Lepanto
Golden Hind(e) Galleon London, UK
 United Kingdom
Tudor Rose.svg
c.1575 1577-1580 circumnavigation
Golden Hind(e) Galleon Brixham, UK
 United Kingdom
Tudor Rose.svg
c.1575 1577-1580 circumnavigation Second replica of the ship anchored in 1963 used in the TV series Sir Francis Drake
Duyfken East Indies Explorer Perth, Australia  Netherlands
VOC-Amsterdam.svg
1595 Discovery of Australia 1606 Irreparable damage 1608
Discovery Barque Jamestown, USA Jamestown Settlement museum  United Kingdom
Union flag 1606 (Kings Colors).svg
1602 First permanent English settlement in North America, 1607
Godspeed Brigantine Jamestown, USA Jamestown Settlement museum  United States
Union flag 1606 (Kings Colors).svg
c.1605 First permanent English settlement in North America, 1607 The 1984/85 replica sailed the Atlantic (without the aid of engines) departing London on April 30, 1985 with a crew of 14.
Susan Constant Merchant Jamestown, USA Jamestown Settlement museum  United Kingdom
Union flag 1606 (Kings Colors).svg
c.1605 First permanent English settlement in North America, 1607
Halve Maen Vlieboot Albany, USA  Netherlands
VOC-Amsterdam.svg
c.1608 Original explorer of what is now called the Hudson River, Henry Hudson, 1609 Destroyed around 1618 in Jakarta
Mayflower II Merchant Plymouth, MA, USA  United States c.1607 Pilgrim ship 1620 Dismantled 1623?
Kalmar Nyckel Dutch full-rigged pinnace Kalmar Nyckel Foundation, USA  Sweden
Naval Ensign of Sweden.svg
1625 Founded New Sweden colony at Fort Christina (Wilmington, Delaware, USA) Late 17th century Charters, Daysails, Appearances
Batavia East Indiaman Lelystad, The Netherlands  Netherlands
VOC-Amsterdam.svg
1628 Mutiny 1629 Wrecked 1629
Prins Willem East Indiaman Den Helder, the Netherlands  Netherlands
VOC-Amsterdam.svg
1649 Sank 1662 Replica destroyed in fire, July 2009
Nonsuch Merchant Winnipeg, Canada Manitoba Museum  United Kingdom 1650 First trading in Hudson Bay 1668-69 Unknown (possibly sunk in 1670s)
De Zeven Provinciën Ship of the Line (80 guns) Lelystad, the Netherlands  Netherlands
Naval Jack of the Netherlands.svg
1665 Flagship of Michiel de Ruyter Decommissioned 1694 Under construction
Shtandart Frigate (24 guns) Saint Petersburg Baltic ports  Russia
Russian Navy Ensign
1703 Flagship of Peter the Great of Russia 1727 Decommissioned In Limbo
Götheborg East Indiaman Gothenburg, Sweden Globetrotter  Sweden
SOIC
c.1740 Sank 1745 Sail training vessel (volunteers)
Amsterdam East Indiaman Amsterdam, the Netherlands Scheepvaart Museum  Netherlands
VOC-Amsterdam.svg
1749 Grounded 1749
Lady Washington Brig Aberdeen, USA  United States
Private Owner
c.1750 First US merchant to reach Japan Foundered 1798
Jacobstads Wapen Galeas Jakobstad, Finland  Sweden
Naval Ensign of Sweden.svg
c.1750
Surprise/Rose Frigate San Diego, USA San Diego Maritime Museum  United Kingdom
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg
1757 1776 attack New York. Scuttled 1779 Renamed Surprise after movie Master and Commander
HMS Sultana Schooner Chestertown, Maryland, USA  United Kingdom
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg
1767 US colony coast patrol Sold 1772
Endeavour Barque Sydney, Australia Australian National Maritime Museum  United Kingdom
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg
1768 Captain Cook's ship
Beaver Brig Boston USA Boston Tea Party Ships and Museum  United Kingdom
Civil Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg
ca 1770 One of the merchant ships involved in the "Boston Tea Party" protest in 1773 Generic period merchant ship
Eleanor Brig Boston USA Boston Tea Party Ships and Museum  United Kingdom
Civil Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg
ca 1770 One of the merchant ships involved in the "Boston Tea Party" protest in 1773 Generic period merchant ship
Hector Fluyt Pictou, Canada Ship Hector Foundation  Canada
Flag of Scotland.svg
c.1770 Immigrant Ship
l'Hermione 12-pounder Concorde-class frigate Rochefort, France L'Association Hermione-La Fayette  France
Flag of France.svg
1779 Sank 1792 Under Construction
Delft Ship of the Line (56-gun) Rotterdam, the Netherlands Scheepswerf De Delft[2]  Batavian Republic
Naval Jack of the Netherlands.svg
1783 Battle of Camperdown Sank 1797 Under Construction
Bounty Armed Transport 1) Greenport, New York,
2) Discovery Bay, Hong Kong
 United Kingdom
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg
1787 Mutiny 1789 Burned 1790 Wrecked by Hurricane Sandy
Maryland Federalist Miniature square rigger Maryland State House, Annapolis, USA Maryland State Archives  United States 1788 Original vessel presented as a gift to George Washington Original vessel sunk in a storm in the Potomac River in 1788
Grand Turk Frigate Saint-Malo, France  United Kingdom
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg
c.1790 Generic Nelson age war ship replica used in Hornblower
Friendship of Salem East Indiaman Salem, Massachusetts USA Salem Maritime National Historic Site  United States 1797 Captured in the War of 1812 and condemned as a prize of war.
Lady Nelson Brig Tasmania, Australia  United Kingdom
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg
1799 Explored Australian coastline Captured by pirates 1825
Lynx Schooner Newport Beach, USA  United States
Naval Jack of the United States.svg
c.1810 UK blockade running privateer
Fame Schooner Salem, Massachusetts USA Salem Maritime National Historic Site  United States
Naval Jack of the United States.svg
c.1812 UK blockade running privateer. Captured 20 ships Wrecked 1814
Pride of Baltimore II Topsail Schooner Baltimore, USA  United States
Naval Jack of the United States.svg
c.1812 UK blockade running privateer Type replica
Niagara Brig Erie, Pennsylvania, USA Erie Maritime Museum  United States
Naval Jack of the United States.svg
1813 Battle of Lake Erie Sunk for preservation 1820, rebuilt three times since Sail training vessel and museum
HMS Buffalo Store ship
later convict ship
Gleneig, Adelaide, Australia  United Kingdom
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg
1813 Carried the first Governor and 179 colonists to South Australia Wrecked in a gale in 1840 Used as a floating restaurant
Goleta Ancud Schooner Punta Arenas, Chile Nao Victoria Museum  Chile
Coat of arms of the Chilean Navy.svg
1843 Claim the Strait of Magellan on behalf of the Chilean independent government Uncertain discommission, displayed at Nao Victoria Museum[9]
Freedom Schooner Amistad Schooner New Haven, USA  Spain
private owner
c.1825 Involved in the Amistad revolt, 1839 Unknown after 1844
Enterprize Schooner Melbourne, Australia Enterprize Trust, Melbourne  Australia
Civil Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg
1829 Transported European settlers to Melbourne Replica of Australian built ship. Charters, School Trips, daysails
William the Fourth Steam Paddle Wheeler Newcastle, NSW, Australia Newcastle City Council  Australia 1831 Ocean going steam powered side paddlewheeler Replica of Australian built ship
Pilgrim Brig Dana Point, USA Ocean Institute  United States
Private owner
1825 1834 memoir by Richard Henry Dana, Jr. Burned at sea 1856 Used in Amistad movie
Dunbrody Barque New Ross, Ireland  Canada
Private owner
1845 Famine Ship Grounded 1875, Labrador A Famine History museum
Jeanie Johnston Barque Dublin, Ireland
Dublin Docklands Development Authority[10]
 Canada 1847 Famine Ship Sail Training vessel, a Famine History Museum and a Corporate Entertainment venue
Californian Schooner San Diego, USA  United States
Ensign of the United States Revenue-Marine (1867).png
Patrolled California coast c.1850 Based on C.W. Lawrence
Bluenose II Schooner Lunenburg, Canada  Canada
Canadian Red Ensign 1921-1957.svg
1921 Winning Racing Schooner Grounded 1946 Fundraising for Bluenose III

^a If more than one replica is made the home port of the different current ports are given in a numbered list

Asia[edit]

Other[edit]

  • Bounty; two replicas of this ship have been built for films about the famous mutiny.
  • Hokule'a; Honolulu, Hawaii; an ancient Hawaiian vessel.
  • Makali'i; Kawaihae, Hawaii; an ancient Hawaiian vessel.
  • Alingano Maisu; Kawaihae, Hawaii; an ancient Hawaiian vessel.
  • Hokualakai; Hilo, Hawaii; an ancient Hawaiian vessel.
  • Iosepa; Honolulu, Hawaii; an ancient Hawaiian vessel.
  • Hawaiiloa; Honolulu, Hawaii; an ancient Hawaiian vessel.
  • Te Aurere; Auckland, New Zealand; an ancient Maori vessel.
  • Aotearoa One; Auckland, New Zealand; an ancient Maori vessel.
  • Te Au O Tonga; Rarotonga, Cook Islands; an ancient Polynesian vessel.
  • Takitumu; Rarotonga, Cook Islands; an ancient Polynesian vessel.
  • Tahiti Nui; Tahiti, French Polynesia; an ancient Polynesian vessel, formerly named "Hawaiki Nui".

Other vessels[edit]

  • Ictineu II; Barcelona, Spain; a replica of the first mechanically powered steam driven submarine.
  • The Hjortspring Boat is replica of a Danish Iron Age rowing boat.[11]
  • At the Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde, replicas of Viking ships are built.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Andrew Doria - The First Salute, Inc.". Retrieved 2012-08-18. 
  2. ^ a b "Het oorspronkelijke schip 'De Delft'" (in Dutch). Historische werf Rotterdams Welvaren. Retrieved 2012-08-18. 
  3. ^ "FAQ". Collections & History. USS Constitution Museum. Retrieved 2012-08-18. 
  4. ^ "Interview: HMS Victory's Commanding Officer, Lt Cdr John Scivier". Archived from the original on 12 December 2009. Retrieved 2012-08-18. 
  5. ^ "Uluburun II Project". 360° Arastirma Grubu. Retrieved 2012-09-20. 
  6. ^ [1]
  7. ^ Starting from Odessa (Ukraine) in 1989, Ivlia followed the routes of the ancient mariners on the Black Sea and the Mediterranean as well as the Atlantic, covering more than 3.000 nautical miles in six expedition seasons and visiting over 50 European ports, finally sailing up the river Seine to reach Paris.
  8. ^ http://www.visitthanet.co.uk/attractions/viking-ship-hugin/11097
  9. ^ "Construirán réplicas navegables de la goleta Ancud y del bergantín Beagle" (in Spanish). La Prensa Austral. 31 December 2011. Retrieved 2012-08-18. 
  10. ^ "Jeanie Johnston Update". Dublin Docklands Development Authority. Retrieved 22 November 2009. 
  11. ^ "The Guild of the Hjortspring Boat". [dead link]

External links[edit]