Skidmore, Owings and Merrill
|Founded||Chicago, Illinois, United States (1936 )|
John O. Merrill
|Key people||John O. Merrill
Fazlur Rahman Khan
|Services||Architecture, Building Services/MEP Engineering, Graphics, Interior Design, Structural Engineering, Civil Engineering, Sustainable Design and Urban Design & Planning|
Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP (SOM) is an American architectural and engineering firm. It was formed in Chicago in 1936 by Louis Skidmore and Nathaniel Owings; in 1939 they were joined by John O. Merrill. They opened their first branch in New York City, New York in 1937. SOM is one of the largest architectural firms in the world. Their primary expertise is in high-end commercial buildings, as it was SOM that led the way to the widespread use of the modern international-style or "glass box" skyscraper. They have built several of the tallest buildings in the world, including the John Hancock Center (1969, second tallest in the world when built), Sears Tower (1973, tallest in the world for over twenty years), and Burj Khalifa (2010, current world's tallest building). SOM provides services in Architecture, Building Services/MEP Engineering, Digital Design, Graphics, Interior Design, Structural Engineering, Civil Engineering, Sustainable Design and Urban Design & Planning.
Many of SOM's post-war designs have become icons of American modern architecture, including the Manhattan House (1950), designated as a New York City landmark in 2007 by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission; and the Lever House (1952), also in New York City; as well as the Air Force Academy Chapel (1958) in Colorado Springs, Colorado; and the John Hancock Center (1969) and Sears Tower (1973), both in Chicago.
Although SOM was one of the first major modern American architectural firms to promote a corporate face (i.e. not specifically crediting individual architects for their buildings), many famous architects, engineers and interior designers have been associated with the various national offices.
Notable SOM architects include: Gordon Bunshaft, Natalie de Blois, Myron Goldsmith, Bruce Graham, Brigitte Peterhans, Gertrude Kerbis, Walter Netsch, Edward Charles Bassett, Adrian Smith, Larry Oltmanns, Fazlur Rahman Khan. Lucien Lagrange, and David Childs.
The earliest amongst the many SOM engineers was John O. Merrill. Fazlur Khan, another engineer at SOM, is considered "the greatest structural engineer of the second half of the 20th century"; he is best known for his design and construction of the Willis Tower (formerly the Sears Tower), and John Hancock Center and for his designs of structural systems that remain fundamental to all high-rise skyscrapers. Indeed, Khan is responsible for developing the algorithms that made the Hancock building and many subsequent skyscrapers possible. Another notable SOM engineer is Bill Baker, who is best known as the engineer of Burj Khalifa (Dubai, 2010), the world’s tallest manmade structure. To support the tower’s record heights and slim footprint, he developed the “buttressed core” structural system, consisting of a hexagonal core reinforced by three buttresses that form a Y shape.
Interior designers 
Throughout its history, SOM has been recognized with more than 1400 awards for quality and innovation. More than 580 of these awards have been received since 1998. In 1996 and 1962, SOM received the Architecture Firm Award from the American Institute of Architects, which recognizes the design work of an entire firm. SOM is the only firm to have received this honor twice.
August 2009, SOM received four of 13 R+D Awards from Architect Magazine. In addition, a collaboration between SOM and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, The Center for Architecture, Science and Ecology, was honored with a fifth award.
SOM has completed over 10,000 projects around the nation and in more than 50 countries around the world and maintains offices in Chicago, New York City, San Francisco, Washington, D.C., London, Brussels, Hong Kong, and Shanghai.
Burj Khalifa 
Burj Khalifa (Arabic: برج خليفة "Khalifa Tower"), formerly known as Burj Dubai, is a supertall skyscraper in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and is the tallest man-made structure ever built, at 829.8 m (2,722 ft). Construction began on 21 September 2004, and the building officially opened on 4 January 2010. The tower's architect and engineer is Skidmore, Owings and Merrill. George J. Efstathiou was the Managing Partner for the project. Bill Baker, the Chief Structural Engineer for the project, invented the buttressed core structural system in order to enable the tower to achieve such heights economically. Adrian Smith, who worked with Skidmore, Owings and Merrill until 2006, was the Consulting Design Partner. The primary builder is a joint venture of South Korean Samsung C&T, who also built the Taipei 101 and Petronas Twin Towers, Besix and Arabtec. The total budget for the Burj Khalifa project is about US $1.5 billion; and for the entire new "Downtown Dubai", US $20 billion.
One World Trade Center 
One World Trade Center, formerly known as Freedom Tower, is located in New York City. After Daniel Libeskind won the competition for master-planning, SOM was awarded the architectural design contract for the Freedom Tower, despite having withdrawn their entry in the original design competition.
Planning work 
In addition to architectural services, Skidmore, Owings and Merrill has also competed in the field of large scale planning programs. An example of one important commission was as the lead design firm for the Boston Transportation Planning Review, a metropolitan wide re-design of Boston's entire transit and roadway infrastructure in the 1970s.
Notable SOM buildings 
- Individual buildings and the town plan for Oak Ridge, Tennessee, United States, 1942
- Manhattan House, 1947–51, a designated New York City Landmark.
- Lever House, New York City, New York, United States, 1952
- Manufacturers Hanover Trust Bank branch building 1954, a designated New York City Landmark and Interior, 2011.
- Istanbul Hilton Hotel, Turkey's first five star hotel, 1955.
- Inland Steel Building, Chicago, United States, 1957
- United States Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, Colorado, United States, 1958
- Veterans Memorial Coliseum, Portland, Oregon, United States, 1960
- One Chase Manhattan Plaza, Financial District, Manhattan, New York, United States, 1961, a designated New York City Landmark.
- BMA Tower (One Park Place), Kansas City, Missouri, 1961
- Tour Telus (CIL House), Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 1962
- McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope, Kitt Peak, Arizona, 1962
- Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States, 1963
- Mauna Kea Beach Hotel, Kohala Coast, Hawaii, United States, 1965
- University of Illinois at Chicago's "Circle Campus", United States, 1965
- Autzen Stadium, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon, 1967
- Louis Jefferson Long Library at Wells College, Aurora, New York, United States, 1968
- Equitable Building, Atlanta, Georgia, 1968
- 555 California Street, San Francisco, California, United States, 1969
- Grand Rapids City Hall & Kent County Administrative Building - Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1969
- City Center Square, Kansas City, Missouri, United States 1977
- John Hancock Center, Chicago, Illinois, United States, 1969
- Dan Ryan Rapid Transit Stations, Myron Goldsmith Chicago, Illinois, 1969
- Kennedy Rapid Transit Stations (Jefferson Park to Logan Square), Myron Goldsmith, Chicago, Illinois, 1970
- Regenstein Library, Chicago, Illinois, United States, 1970
- Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum, Austin, Texas, 1971
- One HSBC Center, Buffalo, New York, United States, 1971
- Weyerhaeuser Headquarters, Tacoma, Washington, United States, 1971
- Hajj Terminal, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, 1972
- Olympic Tower, New York, United States, 1972
- Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower), Chicago, Illinois, United States, 1973
- Carlton Centre, Johannesburg, South Africa, 1973
- U.S. Bank Center, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States, 1973
- Edmonton Centre (now Edmonton City Centre), Edmonton, Alberta, Canada 1974
- First Wisconsin Plaza, Madison, Wisconsin, United States, 1974
- 555 17th Street, Denver, Colorado, United States, 1978
- 200 W Madison, Chicago, Illinois (former Hyatt Corporation headquarters)
- Denver World Trade Center, Denver, Colorado, United States, 1979
- Marriott World Trade Center, New York City, New York, United States, 1981-2001 (Destroyed in the September 11th attacks)
- Enerplex, North Building, Princeton, New Jersey, United States, 1982
- Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States, 1982
- BellSouth Center, Atlanta, Georgia, United States, 1982
- Georgia-Pacific Tower, Atlanta, Georgia, United States, 1982
- US Bancorp Tower, Portland, Oregon, United States, 1983
- Trammell Crow Center, Dallas, Texas, 1984*
- Republic Plaza (Denver), Denver, Colorado, 1984
- Fort Wayne Museum of Art, Fort Wayne, Indiana, United States, 1984
- Southeast Financial Center, Miami, Florida, United States, 1984
- 63 Building, Yeouido, Seoul, South Korea, 1985
- Wachovia Tower, Birmingham, Alabama, 1986
- 321 North Clark, Chicago, Illinois, United States, 1987
- JPMorgan Chase Tower, Dallas, Texas, United States, 1987
- NBC Tower, Chicago, Illinois, 1989
- One Worldwide Plaza, New York City, New York, United States, 1989
- 461 Fifth Avenue, New York City, New York, United States, 1989
- Roosevelt Hospital, New York City
- Islamic Cultural Center of New York, 1991
- 100 East Pratt Street, Baltimore, 1992
- Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre (HKCEC), Hong Kong, China, 1997
- National Commercial Bank, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
- Ninoy Aquino International Airport Terminal 3, Manila, Philippines, 1997
- Jin Mao Building, Shanghai, China, 1998
- Pavilhão Atlântico, Lisbon, Portugal, 1998
- Embassy of the United States, Ottawa, Canada, 1999
- Korea World Trade Center, Seoul, Korea, 2000
- PBCom Tower, Makati, Philippines, 2000
- O'FerrallAMERICA Industries, World Headquarters, Dundalk, Maryland, 2000
- 7 South Dearborn (unbuilt), Chicago, Illinois, United States, 2000
- Adelaide Convention Centre, Adelaide, Australia, 2001
- San Francisco International Airport International Terminal, San Francisco, California, United States, 2001
- Dallas Convention Center, Dallas, Texas, United States, 2002
- Time Warner Center, New York City, New York, United States, 2003
- Random House Tower, New York City, New York, United States, 2003
- Ben Gurion Airport Terminal 3, Tel Aviv, Israel, completed 2004 (in association with Moshe Safdie)
- Rondo ONZ, Warsaw, Poland, 2005
- 10 Exchange Square, London, United Kingdom, 2004
- Finsbury Avenue Square, London, United Kingdom, 2004
- Samsung Tower Palace 3 - Tower G, Seoul, South Korea, 2004 in partnership with Samoo Architects & Engineers
- Toronto Pearson Airport - Terminal 1, Toronto, Ontario, Canada opened April 2004 (in association with Adamson Associates Architects, and Moshe Safdie and Associates)
- Jianianhua Centre, Chongqing, China, 2005
- AIG Tower, (美國國際集團大廈), Hong Kong, PRC, completed 2005
- New Providence Wharf, London, United Kingdom, 2006
- 7 World Trade Center (second), New York City, New York, United States, 2006
- Tokyo Midtown, Tokyo, Japan, 2007
- Dublin International Airport, Dublin, Ireland, 2007
- Singapore Changi Airport Terminal 3, Changi, Singapore in partnership with CPG Corporation
- Cathedral of Christ the Light, Oakland, California, United States, 2008
- Centennial Towers, South San Francisco, California, United States, 2008
- Trump International Hotel and Tower, Chicago, Illinois, United States
- Burj Khalifa, also known as the Burj Dubai, Dubai City, UAE, 2010
- Nanjing Greenland Financial Center, Nanjing, China, 2010
- Al Hamra Tower, Kuwait City, Kuwait, 2011
Buildings under construction 
- 1 World Trade Center, New York City, New York, United States
- 222 South Main, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
- Chemsunny Plaza, Beijing, China
- Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport Terminal 2, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
- China World Trade Center Tower 3, Beijing, China
- King Abdullah Economic City, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
- Lopez Centre, Makati, Philippines
- Pan Peninsula Towers, London, England, UK
- Pearl River Tower, Guangzhou, China
- Poly International Plaza, Beijing, China
- Rajhi Bank Headquarters, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
- Pan Peninsula, London, United Kingdom, Due 2009
- Financial Street Chongqing Financial Centre, Chongqing, China, Due 2011
- Chongqing Rural Commercial Bank Financial Building, Chongqing, China, Due 2012
- NATO Headquarters, Brussels, Belgium, Due 2012
- Zuellig Building, Makati, Philippines, Due 2012
-the Sioux City Art Center
Destroyed Buildings 
- Marriott World Trade Center, Manhattan New York. (Destroyed Sep 11, 2001 in WTC attacks when it was crushed by the collapse of the Twin Towers)
- For designation report, see Matthew A. Postal, 2007, http://www.nyc.gov/html/lpc/downloads/pdf/reports/Manhattan_house.pdf
- Adams, Nicholas. "Skidmore, Owings & Merrill: The Experiment since 1936." Milan: Electa. 2006.
- Kamin, Blair. "Why Architecture Matters." Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 2003.
- "Oral History of Gordon Bunshaft (1909-1990)". The Art Institute of Chicago.
- "Gordon Bunshaft Interviewed by Betty J. Blum, April 4-7, 1989". SOM Journal 3. Hatje Cantz.
- "Natalie de Blois Interviewed by Detlef Mertins, June 17, 2004". SOM Journal 4. Hatje Cantz.
- "Oral History of Natalie De Blois". The Art Institute of Chicago.
- "Myron Goldsmith: Keating Hall at IIT, by Nicholas Adams". SOM Journal 5. Hatje Cantz.
- "Oral History of Myron Goldsmith (1918-1996)". The Art Institute of Chicago.
- "Late SOM Architect Bruce Graham Honored: In Recognition of Graham's 40-year Career in Chicago, the Tribute to the Mastermind of the Willis (Sears) Tower and John Hancock Center Included the Dedication of Honorary Bruce J. Graham Way".
- "Oral History of Bruce Graham (1925-2010)". The Art Institute of Chicago.
- "Oral History of Gertrude Kerbis (b. 1926)". The Art Institute of Chicago.
- "Oral History of Walter Netsch (1920-2008)". The Art Institute of Chicago.
- "Walter Netsch Interviewed by Detlef Mertins, May 21, 2001". SOM Journal 1. Hatje Cantz.
- "Edward Charles Bassett (1921-1999)". The Art Institute of Chicago.
- "David Childs, SOM architect, presents final design for the Freedom Tower - June 2007".
- FundingUniverse: SOM company history.
- Ali Mir (2001), Art of the Skyscraper: the Genius of Fazlur Khan, Rizzoli International Publications, ISBN 0-8478-2370-9
- Engineer Bill Baker Is the King of Superstable 150-Story Structures, Wired.com
- Pace, Eric. "Davis Allen, 82, a Designer Of Modern Business Interiors," New York Times. May 23, 1999.
- "Architect Magazine Names SOM its Number One Architecture Firm in the United States". SOM.com. May 2010.
- "SOM Awards". SOM.com.
- List of AIA Firm Award Recipients http://www.aia.org/practicing/awards/AIAS075259
- "Third Annual R+D Awards: Sustainable Form-Inclusion System". Architect Magazine. August 2009.
- "Third Annual R+D Awards: Oasis Generator". Architect Magazine. August 2009.
- "Third Annual R+D Awards: Pin-Fuse Joint". Architect Magazine. August 2009.
- "Third Annual R+D Awards: San Francisco Digital Context Analysis Model". Architect Magazine. August 2009.
- "Third Annual R+D Awards: Active Phytoremediation Wall System". Architect Magazine. August 2009.
- Burj Khalifa Opening Ceremony. Dubai, United Arab Emirates: Dubai One TV. 2010-01-04. Event occurs at 16:00Z.
- "Official Opening of Iconic Burj Dubai Announced". Gulfnews. 4 November 2009. Retrieved 4 November 2009.
- "Burj Dubai, Dubai, at Emporis.com". Emporis. Retrieved 1 March 2007.
- "Burj Dubai reaches a record high". Emaar Properties. 21 July 2007. Retrieved 24 November 2008.
- Keegan, Edward (15 October 2006). "Adrian Smith Leaves SOM, Longtime Skidmore partner bucks retirement to start new firm". ArchitectOnline. Retrieved 23 March 2009.
- "Burj Dubai, Dubai - SkyscraperPage.com". SkyscraperPage. Retrieved 23 March 2009.
- "What to see". Dubai Travel Desk. Retrieved 23 March 2009.[dead link]
- David W. Dunlap (20 October 1987). "J. Walter Severinghaus, 81, Former Architect". The New York Times. "J. Walter Severinghaus, an architect who played a key role in building the practice of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill and such structures as One Chase Manhattan Plaza… was a partner in the New York City office of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, which he joined in 1938, when the Chicago-based firm was beginning to expand. He was made a partner in 1949."
- "www.SOM.com". Retrieved 2012-03-16. Text " McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope" ignored (help)
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