Jin Mao Tower
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|Jin Mao Tower|
Jin Mao Tower from nearby Shanghai World Financial Centre
|Type||Office, Hotel, observation, retail|
|Location||88 Century Avenue, Pudong District, Shanghai 200121, China|
|Architectural||420.5 metres (1,380 ft)|
|Tip||420.5 metres (1,380 ft)|
|Top floor||348.4 metres (1,143 ft)|
|Observatory||340.1 metres (1,116 ft)|
|Floor count||88 (+3 basement floors)|
|Floor area||289,500 m2 (3,116,000 sq ft)|
|Design and construction|
|Architect||Adrian Smith at SOM|
The Jin Mao Tower (simplified Chinese: 金茂大厦; traditional Chinese: 金茂大廈; pinyin: Jīn Mào Dàshà; literally: "Golden Prosperity Building") is an 88-story landmark skyscraper in the Lujiazui area of the Pudong district of Shanghai, China. It contains offices and the Grand Hyatt Shanghai hotel. Until 2007 it was the tallest building in the PRC, the fifth tallest in the world by roof height and the seventh tallest by pinnacle height. Along with the Oriental Pearl Tower, it is part of the Pudong skyline. Its height was surpassed on September 14, 2007 by the Shanghai World Financial Center which is next to the building. The Shanghai Tower, a 128-story building located next to these two buildings and now under construction, will be even taller.
It was designed by the Chicago office of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill. Its postmodern form, whose complexity rises as it ascends, draws on traditional Chinese architecture such as the tiered pagoda, gently stepping back to create a rhythmic pattern as it rises. Like the Petronas Towers in Malaysia, the building's proportions revolve around the number 8, associated with prosperity in Chinese culture. The 88 floors (93 if the spire floors are counted) are divided into 16 segments, each of which is 1/8 shorter than the 16-story base. The tower is built around an octagon-shaped concrete shear wall core surrounded by 8 exterior composite supercolumns and 8 exterior steel columns. Three sets of 8 two-story high outrigger trusses connect the columns to the core at six of the floors to provide additional support.
The foundations rest on 1,062 high-capacity steel piles driven 83.5 m deep in the ground to compensate for poor upper-strata soil conditions. At the time those were the longest steel piles ever used in a land-based building. The piles are capped by a 4 m-thick concrete raft 19.6 m underground. The basement's surrounding slurry wall is 1 m thick, 36 m high and 568 m long, and composed of 20,500 m³ of reinforced concrete.
The building employs an advanced structural engineering system of wind and earthquake engineering which fortify it against typhoon winds of up to 200 km/h (with the top swaying by a maximum of 75 cm) and earthquakes of up to 7 on the Richter scale. The steel shafts have shear joints that act as shock absorbers to cushion the lateral forces imposed by winds and quakes, and the swimming pool on the 57th floor is said to act as a passive damper.
Official dedication was August 28, 1998, a date also chosen with the number 8 in mind. The building was fully operational in 1999.
The building has 3 main entrances to the lobby, two for the office portion and one for the hotel. Additionally, a 6-story podium at the tower base houses the Hyatt's conference and banquet facilities (first two floors) as well as a shopping mall, restaurants and nightclubs such as the hotel's "Pu-J's" on the third floor.
The 3-story basement has a food court, express elevators to the observation deck, and 600 vehicle and 7,500 bicycle parking spaces below. Above, 61 elevators (supplied by Mitsubishi) and 19 escalators carry visitors throughout the building.
The lower 50 floors (in the first 4 segments of the tower) are made up of 123,000 m² of offices, divided into 5 elevator zones (3-6, 7-17, 18-29, 30-40, and 41-50). Office spaces are open-plan (column-free) with a floor-to-floor gross height of 4.0 m, net height 2.7 m. Levels 51 and 52 are mechanical floors, accessible only by service elevators.
Shanghai Grand Hyatt
The building's anchor tenant is the five-star, 555-rooms Grand Hyatt Shanghai hotel which occupies floors 53 to 87. It is one of the highest hotels in the world, second in Shanghai only to its sister property, the Shanghai Park Hyatt, occupying the 79th to 93rd floors of the immediately adjacent Shanghai World Financial Center. These have since been surpassed by The Ritz-Carlton, Hong Kong, which occupies floors 102 to 118 of the International Commerce Centre. However, the tallest building to be used exclusively as a hotel is the Burj Al Arab in Dubai (excluding the taller Ryugyong Hotel which was never in use). Additionally, the world's longest laundry chute runs down the full length of the tower to the basement, and incorporates buffers to slow down the laundry during its descent.
The Hyatt's famous barrel-vaulted atrium starts at the 56th floor and extends upwards to the 87th. Lined with 28 annular corridors and staircases arrayed in a spiral, it is 27 m in diameter with a clear height of approximately 115 m. It is one of the tallest atriums in the world, the tallest being Burj Al Arab's.
The hotel floors also feature:
- 53/F: The Piano Bar, a jazz club.
- 54/F: The hotel lobby and Grand café, served by an express elevator from the tower's ground floor.
- 55/F: Canton, a high-end Cantonese restaurant that takes up the entire floor.
- 56/F: On Fifty-Six, a collection of restaurants including The Grill, the Italian Cucina, the Japanese Kobachi, and the Patio Lounge, which is located at the base of the atrium.
- 57/F: Club Oasis, a fitness club featuring what was once the world's highest swimming pool.
- 85/F: Highest rooms; this is also a transfer level for the elevators going to the two floors above.
- 86/F: Club Jin Mao, a Shanghainese restaurant.
- 87/F: Cloud 9, a sky bar with panoramic view.
The 88th floor (not part of the hotel) houses the Skywalk, a 1,520 m2 indoor observation deck with a capacity of 1,000+ people. In addition to the panoramic views of Shanghai, it offers a topside view of the hotel atrium below. It also includes a small post office. Access is through two express elevators from the basement that travel at 9.1 m/s and take 45 seconds to reach the top. As of 2009 admission to the 88th floor costs RMB 88, or RMB 45 for children.
Levels 89-93, which occupy the building's spire, are mechanical floors not accessible to the public. They are illuminated in bright light at night.
- On February 18, 2001 Han Qizhi, a 31-year old shoe salesman from Anhui province "struck by a rash impulse", climbed the building barehanded. Well-known French urban climber Alain "Spiderman" Robert had earlier been trying to convince Chinese authorities to let him climb the structure. Referring to the tower's scaffold-like cladding, Robert commented that his six-year-old son could climb the building and that he himself could do it using only one arm. He faced the possibility of 15 days in a Chinese jail for an unauthorized attempt. He finally scaled the building in 2007. He was arrested and jailed for 5 days before being expelled from China.
- On October 5, 2004 during Chinese National Day Holiday, a multi-national group of BASE jumpers (invited by the Shanghai Sports Bureau) leapt from the top of the tower. 34-year old Australian jumper Roland "Slim" Simpson had a parachute malfunction and crashed on an adjacent building. He fell into a coma, and died following repatriation on October 22.
- In early 2007, in an effort to promote its Windows Vista operating system, Microsoft had illuminated the 88-story tower with the Windows Vista name.
- On April 3, 2009 Shanda used a laser-light show on the tower to advertise the open beta of Aion: The Tower of Eternity. The image made by the lasers could be seen from 7:30 pm to 10:00 pm and ran until April 12, 2009.
- Fazlur Rahman Khan
- List of skyscrapers
- List of tallest buildings and structures in the world
- List of tallest freestanding structures in the world
- "Jin Mao Building - The Skyscraper Center". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat.
- Jin Mao Tower at SkyscraperPage
- Shanghai's bristling skyline gets giant new landmark CNN News
- "Shanghai Center". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
- Shanghai Star
- Commonly quoted atrium height of 152 m is due to a faulty assumption of 38 floors of 4 m each; it is actually 32 floors of 3.5 m each, the last few being taller.
- Climbing News, Independent Online
- [dead link]
- [dead link]
- CRI Online
- Blog of Death
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jin Mao Tower.|
- China Jin Mao Group Co. Ltd.
- Grand Hyatt Shanghai
- Jin Mao Building on CTBUH Skyscraper Center
- Emporis datasheet
- SkyscraperPage datasheet
- Elevator Layout
- CTBUH datasheet
- The Jin Mao Tower on SH.com
- Jin Mao Tower on China Guides
- Buildable scale paper model
- Alain Robert scales Jin Mao Tower
- Jin Mao Building
- Jin Mao Building Pictures
|Tallest Building in Shanghai
1998 – 2007
Shanghai World Financial Center