Solomon Burke

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Solomon Burke
Solomon Burke.jpg
Solomon Burke performing on April 19, 2008
Background information
Birth name James Solomon McDonald
Also known as "The King of Rock 'N Soul"
"The Bishop of Soul"
"King Solomon"
"The Wonder Boy preacher"
"Lord Solomon"
Born (1940-03-21)March 21, 1940[1]
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,
Died October 10, 2010(2010-10-10) (aged 70)
Haarlemmermeer, Netherlands
Genres Blues, gospel, rhythm and blues, soul, rock and roll, country
Occupations Preacher, singer
Instruments Vocals, guitar
Years active 1955–2010
Labels Apollo Records
Atlantic Records
Bell Records
MGM Records
ABC Dunhill Records
Chess Records
Savoy Records
Rounder Records
Fat Possum Records
ANTI-
Shout! Factory
E1 Music

Solomon Burke (March 21, 1940 – October 10, 2010) was an American recording artist and vocalist, who shaped the sound of rhythm and blues as one of the founding fathers of soul music in the 1960s[2] and a "key transitional figure in the development of soul music from rhythm and blues.[3][4] He had a string of hits including "Cry to Me", "If You Need Me", "Got to Get You Off My Mind", "Down in the Valley" and "Everybody Needs Somebody to Love". Burke was referred to as "King Solomon", the "King of Rock 'n' Soul", "Bishop of Soul" and the "Muhammad Ali of soul".[5][6][1] Due to Burke's minimal chart success in comparison to other soul music greats such as James Brown, Wilson Pickett and Otis Redding, Burke is often described as the genre's "most unfairly overlooked singer" of its golden age.[7] Atlantic Records executive Jerry Wexler once referred to Burke as "the greatest male soul singer of all time".[1][6][8]

Burke's most famous recordings, which spanned five years in the early 1960s, bridged the gap between mainstream R&B and grittier R&B.[9] Burke was "a singer whose smooth, powerful articulation and mingling of sacred and profane themes helped define soul music in the early 1960s."[10] He drew from his roots - gospel, jazz, country and blues - as well as developing his own style at a time when R&B, and rock were both still in their infancy.[11] Described as both "Rabelaisian"[12] and also as a "spiritual enigma,"[13] "perhaps more than any other artist, the ample figure of Solomon Burke symbolized the ways that spirituality and commerce, ecstasy and entertainment, sex and salvation, individualism and brotherhood, could blend in the world of 1960s soul music."[14]

During the 55 years that he performed professionally, Burke released 38 studio albums on at least 17 record labels and had 35 singles that charted in the US, including 26 singles that made the Billboard R&B charts. In 2001, Burke was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a performer. His album Don't Give Up on Me won the Grammy Award for Best Contemporary Blues Album at the 45th Grammy Awards in 2003. By 2005 Burke was credited with selling 17 million albums.[11][15][16] Rolling Stone ranked Burke as #89 on its 2008 list of "100 Greatest Singers of All Time."[17]

Early life and career[edit]

Burke was born James Solomon McDonald[18] on March 21, 1940 in the upper floor of his grandmother Eleanor Moore's home,[19] a row house in West Philadelphia.[1][13][20][21] Burke was the child of Josephine Moore[22] and an absentee father. His mother Josephine was a nurse, schoolteacher, concert performer and pastor.[23][24] Burke was consecrated a bishop at birth by his grandmother in the Solomon's Temple, a congregation of the United House of Prayer for All People, which she founded at her home in Black Bottom, West Philadelphia.[25][26] When Burke was nine, his mother married rabbi and butcher Vincent Burke[13] and had his name changed to Solomon Vincent McDonald Burke.[24] Burke's friends and family called him "Sol".[24] Burke was the godson of Daddy Grace.[27]

Burke credited his grandmother as his main spiritual and musical influence.[28][29] He learned how to sing all forms of music from his grandmother's coaching him to listen to music on the radio.[16][26][28] Burke began preaching at the age of 7 at the Solomon's Temple.[24] He was described in his young preaching years as a "frantic sermonizer" and "spellbinding in his delivery";[30] and was soon nicknamed the "Boy Wonder Preacher" for his charismatic preaching in the pulpit.[31] Burke became a pastor of the congregation at age 12, appeared on the radio station WDAS,[32][33] and later hosted a gospel show on WHAT-AM, mixing songs and sermons in broadcasts from Solomon's Temple.[34] On weekends he traveled with a truck and tent, to Maryland, Virginia, and the Carolinas to carry on the spiritual crusade of his church.[13] Influenced by Superman,[35] "the first sign of a royal persona was evident in the cape that he wore only on Sundays, made from his "blankie"[31] by his grandmother.[36]

Solomon Burke had six younger siblings – a sister, Laurena Burke-Corbin (born 23 June 1946),[24] and five brothers: Elec Edward "Alec" (born 16 February 1948),[37] Vladimir H. "Laddie" (born 31 July 1949),[38] Mario "Chuck" (born 13 September 1953),[37] Daniel S. "Danny" (born 10 March 1955),[37] and Jolester R. M. Burke (born 24 September 1958).[20][24][37][39] From an early age Solomon Burke worked to supplement his family's income. He recalled: "I used to deliver grocery orders in a little wagon I made out of fish boxes. When I was seven, I sold newspapers out of my own newsstand on the corner of 40th and Lancaster. I had the first 99-cent car wash, which was located at 40th and Wallace outside Al's Barber Shop. We had it there because he was the only one who would let us use his water. We could wash your car in 20 minutes. I had four or five guys, gave 'em each a nickel for each car.[1] Another briefly held early job was as a hot dog seller at Eddie's Meat Market, where his friend Ernest Evans, later known as Chubby Checker, also worked.[1] Burke eventually graduated from John Bartram High School.[24][40][41] He first became a father at 14.[42]

During high school, Burke formed and fronted the quartet, the Gospel Cavaliers.[43] He received his first guitar from his grandmother, later writing his first song, "Christmas Presents".[1][44] The Cavaliers began performing in churches. It was around this time that Burke met Kae "Loudmouth" Williams, a famed Philadelphia deejay with help from Williams' wife, Viola, who saw Burke and the Cavaliers perform at church.[45][46] Before entering a gospel talent contest in which a record deal was for first prize, the group split up.[24] Burke entered the contest, held as Cornerstone Baptist Church, as a solo artist and won the contest against eleven other competitors.[24] Soon, several labels including Apollo, Vee-Jay Records and Peacock Records pursued the 15-year-old.[47] Before pursuing the deal, Burke signed Kae Williams as his manager.[24] Williams then took him to Apollo Records introducing him to Bess Berman, who signed him to the label.[13] The move was made after Williams added four years to Burke's age, which led to confusion from the press about his age.[13]

Career[edit]

Early recordings[edit]

Burke signed with Apollo Records in late 1955 following the departure of gospel singer and the label's primary star Mahalia Jackson to Columbia.[48][49] After he signed with Apollo, the label's founder Bess Berman and its handlers were reportedly trying to make Burke "the next Harry Belafonte".[13]

Burke recorded nine singles for the label during his two-year tenure,[43][50] releasing his first single, "Christmas Presents", on Christmas Eve of 1955.[40][51][52] He recorded with musicians including King Curtis and Lester Young.[53] His other Apollo recordings during this early period included "I'm in Love",[54] "I'm All Alone"[55] and "No Man Walks Alone".[55] These early records did not sell well.

External video
Oral History, Solomon Burke shares early moments of his life story. interview date March 10, 2006, NAMM (National Association of Music Merchants) Oral History Library

Burke gained some notoriety for the Apollo single, "You Can Run (But You Can't Hide)", which he wrote with Charles Merenstein.[56][57] Due to the song's title borrowing from Joe Louis' quote, "he can run, but he can't hide", Louis was credited as co-writer.[58] Louis helped promote the song by having Burke appear on the Steve Allen Show in early 1957.[59] Burke was abruptly dropped from Apollo following a violent argument with manager Kae Williams over performance royalties;[40] Burke claimed Williams had him "blackballed" from the industry following this move.[60] After releasing a few singles for other labels, Burke briefly returned to Apollo under the pseudonym "Little Vincent", releasing one song in 1961,[61] and the label issued a self-titled album in 1962.[62]

Following his initial Apollo departure, Burke struggled to record or get club dates,[60] and an argument with his mother left him homeless.[5][15][63] He later moved into a home owned by Lathella Thompson, after Thompson accidentally hit him with her car outside a club.[15][64][65] During this time, Burke studied the Islamic faith[5][66] and married, but the marriage was annulled.[5][60][66] Soon afterwards, he married Delores Clark, Thompson's niece, and soon had six children.[40][64] As his family grew, Burke trained for a while to be a mortician at Eckels College of Mortuary Science, graduating with a doctorate of mortuary science, and finding work at a funeral home.[64][67][68] Burke later had his own mortuary business in Los Angeles.[69]

Burke was briefly signed to Herb Abramson's Triumph Records.[70][71] However, Burke could not record for the label because his contract with Apollo had not yet been dissolved.[72] In 1959, Philadelphia businessman Marvin Leonard "Babe" Chivian (1925-1972), a "body-and-fender man"[41] and real estate speculator,[73] offered Burke a red Lincoln Continental convertible if he would agree to a management contract with him.[74] Chivian arranged for Burke to be signed to Singular Records,[1][15][75] a Philadelphia-based label that was owned by WPEN disc jockey Edwin L. "Larry" Brown and vocal coach Arthur "Artie" Singer, who had a distribution deal with Chess Records.[76] Burke released just two singles for Singular,[50] "Doodle Dee Doo" and "This Little Ring"; neither song charted.[61]

Work with Atlantic Records[edit]

In November 1960, he signed with Atlantic Records. According to Burke, he signed with the label within ten minutes of entering Jerry Wexler's office,[65][77] reportedly signing a "handshake deal" with Wexler and Ahmet Ertegun.[78][79] At the time of Burke's signing, two of Atlantic Records' major stars, Bobby Darin and Ray Charles, had left the label for better deals with Capitol and ABC respectively.[19][65] According to Alex Halberstadt, "Salvation arrived in the person of Solomon Burke, a soul singer of overwhelming charisma and remarkable stylistic range. ... Wexler and Burke created a string of hits that carried the label financially and represented the first fully realized examples of the classic soul sound."[80] Burke reportedly helped keep Atlantic Records solvent from 1961 to 1965 with his steady run of hit records.

Burke recorded thirty-two singles with Atlantic, most of which hit both the pop and R&B charts. Burke's second single for the label was the country single, "Just Out of Reach (Of My Two Open Arms)", which became his first charted single, reaching #24 on the Billboard Hot 100 and peaking at #7 on the R&B charts. The song also became Burke's first million-seller.[81] His next hit came with "Cry to Me", which reached #5 on the R&B chart in 1962 and was described as one of the first songs to mix country, R&B and gospel.[82] After the release of "Cry to Me", Burke was among one of the first artists to be referred to as a "soul artist".[83][84][85] Other hits included Wilson Pickett's "If You Need Me"; "You're Good for Me"; his co-written classic, "Everybody Needs Somebody to Love";[86] his only number-one single, "Got to Get You Off My Mind";[78][87] and "Tonight's the Night". Following the release of "Got to Get You Off My Mind", Burke and his wife Delores divorced.[5][88] Burke became the first R&B artist to cover a Bob Dylan song with his cover of "Maggie's Farm", which became the b-side of "Tonight's the Night".[89][90] In 1965 Atlantic released his fifth album, The Best of Solomon Burke, which peaked at #22 on the US charts.[87]

Branding[edit]

Almost immediately after signing to Atlantic, Wexler and Burke clashed over his branding and the songs that he would record. According to Burke, "Their idea was, we have another young kid to sing gospel, and we’re going to put him in the blues bag."[65] As Burke had struggled from an early age with "his attraction to secular music on the one hand and his allegiance to the church on the other,"[91] when he was signed to Atlantic Records he "refused to be classified as a rhythm-and-blues singer" due to a perceived "stigma of profanity" by the church,[91] and R&B's reputation as "the devil's music." Burke indicated in 2005: "I told them about my spiritual background, and what I felt was necessary, and that I was concerned about being labeled rhythm & blues. What kind of songs would they be giving me to sing? Because of my age, and my position in the church, I was concerned about saying things that were not proper, or that sent the wrong message. That angered Jerry Wexler a little bit. He said, ‘We’re the greatest blues label in the world! You should be honored to be on this label, and we’ll do everything we can – but you have to work with us.’"[65] To mollify Burke, it was decided to market him as a singer of "soul music" after he had consulted his church brethren and won approval for the term.[26] When a Philadelphia DJ said to Burke, "You're singing from your soul and you don't want to be an R&B singer, so what kind of singer are you going to be?", Burke shot back: "I want to be a soul singer."[92] Burke's sound, which was especially popular in the South, was described there as "river deep country fried buttercream soul."[93] Burke is credited with coining the term "soul music,"[94] which he confirmed in a 1996 interview.[95]

Despite his initial reluctance, shared with several former gospel singers including Aretha Franklin and Wilson Pickett, Burke was "molded into a more secular direction when he signed with Atlantic in the '60s,"[96] and became one of "the "backsliders," artists who "preferred a secular acclaim to the gospel obscurity".[97] He decided eventually that "secular music was not the antithesis of the church but, rather, 'a new avenue, a new dimension to spread the gospel.'"[91] Despite this, "leaving gospel for secular music, as well as integrating secular music into gospel performances, was controversial."[98] Noted blues scholar Paul Oliver maintains that when Sam Cooke and Burke "turned from gospel singing to the blues",[99] unlike others who had done so previously, "they took the gospel technique with them"; "even the words often secularized gospel songs", and this was coupled with a "screaming delivery, the exploitation of emotional involvement, [and] the frenetic displays of dancing singers."[99] For Burke, "gospel influences were pervasive. Gospelly chord progressions, organ accompaniment and a style of singing which can only be described as "preaching" have now spread widely into much black popular music."[100] Music critic Mark Deming described Burke as having: "one of the finest voices in popular music, that possessed a churchly authority that was the ideal match for his material which balanced the pleasures of the flesh with the price of the transgression."[101]

"Burke sounded like a Baptist preacher in a country church, and for [Jerry] Wexler he was the first and possibly the greatest of all '60s soul men."[102] Wexler, who considered Burke to be "the greatest male soul singer of all time",[8] pronounced him a "vocalist of rare prowess and remarkable range. His voice is an instrument of exquisite sensitivity."[8] Wexler also described the young Burke's vocal style as "churchy without being coarse."[5] In 2000 Wexler indicated: "Solomon was beautiful, baby. He sounded just like Dean Martin."[103] In 2003 Wexler assessed Burke: "I rate him at the very top. Since all singing is a trade-off between music and drama, he's the master at both. His theatricality. He's a great actor."[104] Despite his admiration for Burke, Wexler also described Burke as "a piece of work: wily, highly intelligent, a salesman of epic proportions, sly, sure-footed, a never-say-die entrepreneur",[5] while also branding him "a card-carrying fabulist. Solomon has told so many versions of the same happening that it's unreal."[5]

Impact[edit]

After a string of a dozen hit records,[105] by November 1963 Burke had agreed to be crowned the "King of Rock 'n' Soul" in a ceremony at the Royal Theatre in Baltimore by local deejay Fred Robinson, known professionally as "Rockin' Robin", who also gave him a cape and crown that he always wore on stage.[1][106][107][108] Burke accepted the appellation the "King of Rock 'N' Soul", indicating "without soul, there'd be no rock and without rock, there'd be no soul."[109] The ceremony was repeated each night during the week Burke performed in Baltimore.[110]

According to Gerri Hirshey: "Title agreed upon, Solomon added the trappings: a crown, a scepter, a cape, robe, dancing girls, and colored lights."[106] Burke's crown was an exact replica of "the crown jewels of London" and the cape was trimmed with real ermine.[111] Burke, whose shows were tours de force of riveting soul and unashamed hokum", "ticked every box from low comedy through country pleading to the kind of magisterial rock'n'roll that brought the house down",[112] and he "became known as much for his showmanship as he did his voice. He would often take the stage in a flowing, 15-foot-long cape and bejeweled crown, his stage theatrics predating those of such legendary showman as James Brown. According to David Hepworth, Burke "once employed a midget who was secreted under his cape. When it was thrown off the cape would disappear stage left as of its own volition."[112][111] After the success of his "Papa's Got a Brand New Bag" in late 1965, James Brown, believing he deserved to be crowned "King of Soul", hired Burke to perform for one night in Chicago, but ended up paying not to perform but rather to watch him perform instead, expecting Burke also to surrender his crown and title to him.[113] According to Burke, "He paid me $7,500 to stand onstage and hand him my robe and crown. It was a great gig: I got paid and I didn't have to sing a note."[9][114] Burke accepted Brown's money, but retained his title and regal paraphernalia.[113]

As he increased in weight, "Burke’s sheer bulk meant that he could never be a dancer like James Brown, but like Brown, his act was full of showmanship."[89] Consequently, over the years Burke "evolved a fervently demonstrative stage act",[13] that were often compared with religious revival meetings.[85] Burke and black performers like James Brown, Aretha Franklin and Wilson Pickett, "would adopt the 'house-wrecking' tactics of black preachers, and their shows functioned in much the same way as black religious events in that performer and audience became immersed in the music, arriving together at an ecstatic state that allowed them to feel a deep intensity of experience."[115] According to Weldon McDougal, Burke "turned theatres like the Apollo and the Uptown into churches, he had folk running down the aisles to be saved by his music."[13] Cliff White described a show in the UK where "with head thrown back and one hand cupped to his mouth like an Alpine yodeller he cried out with such overwhelming passion that he left the spellbound audience wrung out and exhausted like so many limp rags."[13]

Decline with Atlantic[edit]

Burke in 1967

After 1965, the "biggest year of his career", Burke settled as "at best a middle-of-the-pack chart performer".[88] Due to failing chart numbers and the rise of several performers including Aretha Franklin, Wilson Pickett and Otis Redding, Burke was described by David Cantwell in this period as "a King without a kingdom".[88] Burke's position in Atlantic dropped by 1968 as other Atlantic artists such as Aretha Franklin and Wilson Pickett replaced him as the label's primary artists.[78] Burke tried to regain his early Atlantic success by recording at Memphis, working on the album, I Wish I Knew at Chips Moman's American Sound Studio.[116] The album included the songs "Get Out My Life Woman" and a cover of "I Wish I Knew How It Would Feel to Be Free", his first recording that provided social commentary.[117] The song was later dedicated to Martin Luther King, Jr.,[118] and Atlantic gave up 5% of royalties on the single to King's family.[119] The single only reached #32 R&B and #68 pop. Burke later met his next manager and fiancée Tamiko Jones at the Memphis studio.[120] Burke and Jones recorded several duets on Jones' album, I'll Be Anything for You. Following a failed collaboration with other soul artists as The Soul Clan, Burke decided to leave the label. His reasons for leaving Atlantic were for not "bring treated properly" and that Atlantic "just wasn't home anymore, wasn't family".[11][88]

Later recordings[edit]

After leaving Atlantic, Burke signed with Bell Records where he released 5 singles in the next eighteen months.[121] In 1969 he had a small hit with his second release for Bell, a reworking of Creedence Clearwater Revival's "Proud Mary" b/w "What Am I Living For" (Bell 783). This was co-produced by Tamiko Jones,[122] who was being rehabilitated after a bout of polio,[123] and was at the time Burke's fiancée and manager.[43] Burke recorded a cover of "Proud Mary" prior to Ike & Tina Turner's version, and according to Burke was the one who convinced the duo to record it.[92] The song became a brief hit reaching #15 R&B and #45 pop.[78] All but four of the tracks Burke recorded during an 18-month stay with Bell Records were packaged on the Proud Mary LP. After this album and the two following singles - his own "Generation of Revelations", and the Mac Davis song "In the Ghetto", which had previously been a hit for Elvis Presley - failed to chart, his contract was not renewed.

Through the efforts of his manager, Buddy Glee, by November 1970 Burke signed with Mike Curb's MGM label,[78] and formed MBM Productions, his own production company.[124] Burke's record debut for MGM, "Lookin' Out My Back Door", another Creedence Clearwater Revival song, had disappointing sales.[13] His first MGM album, Electronic Magnetism, also failed to chart. In 1972 Burke had a #13 R&B hit for MGM with "Love Street and Fool's Road" (MGM 14353).[13] In 1972, he recorded the soundtrack to two films, Cool Breeze and Hammer. He left MGM for ABC-Dunhill Records in 1974, recording the album, I Have a Dream,[125] which produced the #14 R&B hit, "Midnight and You".[13] By 1975 Burke was signed to Chess Records. He recorded two albums for Chess: Music to Make Love By and Back to My Roots, and had a top 20 R&B hit in 1975 with "You And Your Baby Blues".[13] However, his follow-up single "Let Me Wrap My Arms Around You" only reached #72 on the R&B chart. In 1978 Burke released an album Please Don't Say Goodbye To Me, which was produced by Jerry "Swamp Dogg" Williams, though Amherst Records.[78] On September 23, 1978, Burke charted for the 31st and last time when "Please Don't Say Goodbye to Me" reached #91 on the R&B chart.[126] He released the album Sidewalks, Fences and Walls on Infinity Records in 1979 (reissued as Let Your Love Flow in 1993 by Shanachie Records).[78][127]

Between 1979 and 1984, Burke recorded four gospel albums for Savoy Records, starting with the album, Lord I Need a Miracle Right Now.[128] He was nominated for his first Grammy in the Best Male Gospel Soul category for his rendition of "Precious Lord, Take My Hand",[13][129] but complained later that he did not receive royalties from his Savoy work.[130] He then recorded for smaller labels such as Rounder, MCI/Isis, Bizarre/Straight, Black Top, Point Blank and GTR Records. Burke was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on March 19, 2001 in New York City by Mary J. Blige, after eight previous nominations since 1986.[131]

Final recordings[edit]

In 2002, Burke signed with Fat Possum Records and released the album, Don't Give Up on Me. The album became critically acclaimed and later resulted in Burke's first Grammy Award win.[132][133] Burke later signed with Shout! Factory to release the album, Make Do With What You Got, which became another critically acclaimed success. In 2006, Burke returned to his country roots with the album, Nashville. In 2008, he received another Grammy nomination for the album, Like a Fire. That same year, Rolling Stone magazine ranked Burke as #89 on its list of the "100 Greatest Singers of All Time". In 2010, Burke came out with the Willie Mitchell-produced Nothing's Impossible for E1 Entertainment. Later in 2010, he released his final album, Hold on Tight, a collaboration album with De Dijk, a Dutch band.

Entrepreneurship[edit]

From an early age Burke was "always an enterprising personality."[134] In addition to his recording career, Burke ran funeral homes, owned two drugstores and a popcorn business in Philadelphia,[1] and later had the first Mountain Dew franchise in Philadelphia.[105]

Burke's entrepreneurial activities included cooking and selling barbecued chicken sandwiches backstage,[135][136] and well as sandwiches, soft drinks, and fried chickens at increasingly inflated prices to other performers who were refused service at restaurants on the Chitlin' circuit in the "Jim Crow" South.[1][34][137] According to Sam Moore of the soul duo Sam & Dave, "He gave me one pork chop, one scoop of macaroni and cheese, and one spoonful of gravy. I said, ‘Is that it?’ And he’d say, "That’s it, brother. I’m doing you a favor, so take it or leave it."[134] Trombonist Fred Wesley was one who was critical of Burke's business practices.[138] Burke demanded and operated the concessions at the Apollo Theater when he performed there in 1966.[139] This was very profitable for him but so enraged the owner Frank Schiffman that he was banned from performing at the Apollo for life.[1][140][141] After playing at the reopening of The Cavern Club in Liverpool in July 1966, Burke said: “The Cavern was a great place to play. The groove was there, the people were there, and it was wonderful. I remember them selling hot Pepsis. What a mistake – you gotta put ice in those things. Think of how many more they could have sold with ice in them."[89]

Burke owned funeral parlors in California, Pennsylvania, and North Carolina, and two of his children have turned the mortuary business into a franchise.[44][142] Additionally, Burke owned and operated a limousine service.[92] Burke continued to operate companies that supplied theaters and stadiums with his own brand of fast food—Soul Dogs and Soul Corn until at least 2004.[143][144]

Bishopry and community work[edit]

From the early 1970s, after having moved to Los Angeles, Burke concentrated on his episcopal duties, preaching from a crimson throne on the third Sunday of the month at the Prayer Assembly Church of God in Christ, his church at 226 North Market St., Inglewood, California.[26][145] Within three decades his church grew to have about 170 missions and 40,000 members.[146] By 2000, Burke's Solomon’s Temple: The House of God for All People had over 300 ordained ministers whose job is to “feed the hungry, educate the uneducated and be God’s workers in the vineyard”, and 40,000 parishioners in close to 200 churches across the USA, Canada, and Jamaica.[142] At the time of his death, there were about 180 churches that were established under the charter of his denomination, with Burke indicating: "We’re non-sectarian, non-denominational. Ours is an open door."[32] In 2008 Burke acknowledged his Christian methodology differed from that of his maternal uncle, Pastor Harry R. Moore (1933–1982), the founder and pastor of Our First Temple of Faith, at Front and Susquehanna Streets, Philadelphia: "Mine was more: God, money and women, hey hey hey; truth, love, peace and get it on."[5] While pursuing other interests, Burke was also deeply involved in community work, assisting The Crippled Children's Foundation for blind and underprivileged children, while personally being responsible for more than 120 adopted children.[13]

Burke was also a mentor to up-coming Soul and Blues musicians, including a young Reggie Sears.[147]

Personal life[edit]

Burke was married four times, In total Burke fathered at least 14 children (9 daughters and 5 sons), including at least two fathered outside any of his marriages, including Melvia Burke and Elijah Mohammed Burke, Vickey Burke.[148][149] He had 7 step children, 90 grandchildren and 19 great-grandchildren at the time of his death.[13]

Burke was married to Doris P. Williams for two months; the marriage was annulled by August 1958,[150] though it resulted in the birth of one child, Valerie Doris Gresham (born September 16, 1957).[151]

Burke's second wife was Delores Clark Burke,[152][153] with whom he had 7 children, including Eleanor Alma (born December 27, 1958),[37][154][155] Melanie Burke-McCall(born March 1960), Solomon Vincent, Jr. (born October 15, 1961), Carolyn J. Burke (born September 1962), Prince Solomon(JFK)Burke, Gemini C.Burke (born September 1, 1964),[37][156] and Lillian (born August 1966).

Burke's third wife was Bernadine Burke.[157][158] In 2012 Court documents BP Case 126258 proved that Burke had never divorced Delores Burke when marring Bernadine Turner in 1970. As well married Frances Sunday with no divorce from Bernadine McDonald Burke.

Burke's fourth wife was Frances Sunday Burke McDonald (born 1951), Marriage License dated December 1977;[127] she was living with him when he died, and had three children with him.[5] Burke used different name's on each marriage License's.

In a 2006 interview Burke admitted having his first child at age 14: "being a father at age 14 maybe been a little early, but I don’t regret one moment, one second, one day, or one hour. My only regrets are the loss of my twins and my first son."[42] Burke's twin sons were James and David, who both died in infancy. By 1961, Burke had "three kids on the outside, and about four at home",[15] including Melanie Burke (born 1960),[159] Solomon Vincent Burke, Jr. (born October 15, 1961).[37] In an open letter to his children, Burke wrote:

"Your love and your strength, and the love of your mothers, have made me the strongest-minded father in the world. I may not be the best father. Maybe I haven't done everything that I should do, could do, or would do…or desire to do, but by the grace of God, and your prayers, we will make it. Every day is a new way. None of us are perfect and God knows, I have made many mistakes."[42]

Burke admitted serial infidelity during his marriages: "I was young. Girls were coming from every angle. I couldn't love them all. But I tried."[5] Burke stated:

"I realized in later years that money didn’t solve problems. I realized too that maybe the reason I had problems with my marriages was because I didn't spend enough time with my children, my family. I thought that sending money home and buying pretty cars and redoing houses, and ordering food by the hundreds of dollars a day, would keep my family together, keep my children happy.... Not being there all the time, being on the road 250 days out of the year, was too much. I was gaining the world and losing my children. And my wife. My love life."[42]

Family members[edit]

Several of Burke's family have had successful careers in various facets of show business. In the mid-1960s two of Burke's younger brothers, Alex (born 1948 in Philadelphia)[37] and Laddie (born 1949 in Philadelphia),[20] joined with fellow Germantown High School students, brothers Earl and Timmy Smith to form The Showstoppers,[160] who had a couple of local hit singles in Philadelphia on Showtime Records in 1968,[161] including a #11 hit on the UK Singles Chart with "Ain't Nothin' But a Houseparty" b/w "How Easy Your Heart Forgets Me" (Heritage HE-800),[162] which peaked at #87 on the Billboard chart in 1968,[93] which was later a discothèque hit (#33) in 1971, just before the group disbanded after a series of flops.[162]

Burke's daughter, Melanie Burke- McCall,[163] a Neo Soul singer who is an accomplished artist as well as a freelance background recording artist with companies such as Daxwood Records,[164] Casablanca, A&M and Rawkus Records and a studio artist for groups such as Billy Preston, Peacock (Anna Gayle group), and Leslie Uggams, and toured with Chaka Khan, and wrote and produced Trouble Don't Last LP with Family, & Friends, a 14-song original soundtrack for Ms, which was released in 2005, Ms. Burke opened for Jocelyn Brown, Jaheim, Norman Connors, and Angela Bofill, as well as for her father at the Kimmel Center for the Performing Arts in Philadelphia in 2006.In 1972 Melanie was signed along with her siblings The Sons & Daughters of Solomon to MGM Records.[159] Her son is Novel,[165] who released his first studio album "The Audiobiography" in October 2008,[166] and wrote movie soundtracks for Tyler Perry's Diary of a Mad Black Woman, Step Up, and 21. Her youngest son, Solomon, also has started recording.[159]

Burke's granddaughter Candy Burke (born 1977) was a backing singer at many of Burke's performances, including the July 2008 Juan-les-Pins concert, where she performed a rendition of "I Will Survive." She also appears in the 2003 North Sea Jazz Festival DVD with her father.

Burke's grandson Novel Stevenson has written hits such as "Bossy" for Kelis, as well as numerous songs for artists including India.Arie, Leona Lewis, Fantasia, Justin Timberlake, Dr. Dre, Ashanti, Joss Stone, Stacie Orrico, and Monica. In 2013 Novel was featured along with his grandfather, as writer and singer on The Grammy award winning CD "Gravity" by Lacrae.

Rapper Raeneal T. Quann (known as Q-Don) (born about 1978), who was accidentally shot and killed by robbers on April 26, 2000, outside the Club Evolution in Philadelphia, was also a grandson of Burke.[167][168][169]

Declining health and death[edit]

For many years Burke struggled with his health, with his "weight estimated somewhere between 300 and 400 pounds" in 2006.[170] New York Times writer Ben Sisario wrote of Burke: "Wide-shaped in his youth, he grew into Henry VIII-like corpulence, and in his later years had to be wheeled to his throne."[171] In the later years of his life, "arthritis and weight ... limited his mobility",[170] and confined him to a wheelchair.[172] In an interview in 2008, Burke claimed that "God put me in this wheelchair", and that God's message to him was: "'You are too fat!'" Burke denied having an eating disorder: ... I guess God let me develop into what I am now and allowed me to live. It's not an eating disorder. If I had an eating disorder, I wouldn't travel."[5] In 2006 Burke acknowledged: "It's very rough. I love to eat and I love to cook – as you can see. But my hip has to be replaced and a knee has to be replaced and I've got to lose 150 pounds before they can do that. And that's a lot. But it's NOT! God knows I've enjoyed every kind of food there is, all around the world. It's not like I'm going to miss any of it. Because I've had it all!"[170] Despite his efforts, at the time of his death, Burke's weight still exceeded 350 pounds.[75]

On Sunday October 10, 2010, Burke died at Amsterdam Schiphol Airport while on a plane from Washington Dulles Airport that had just landed. He had been due to perform with De Dijk in Amsterdam on October 12.[173] The cause of death was not immediately clear; according to his family, Burke died of natural causes.[174] 2012 probate court hearing of Burke's will Burke's manger/live in love Jane Margolis Vickers would admit to Burke having a blood clot before getting on the plane in DC to Amsterdam. Vickers Drove Burke from his home in Los Angeles to Maine than from Maine to Washington DC, were Burke would take his final flight. After Vickers and Burke both were told by doctors (Northern VA. Reston Hospital Emergence room )to discontinue his travel because it could be fatal due to Blood clot. Less than 24 hours Burke was wheel on to his last plane ride of his life.

On Thursday 21 October a wake and meditation service was held at the Pierce Brothers Valley Oaks Griffin Mortuary at Westlake Village.[175] Burke's funeral was at 10.00am on Friday 22 October 2010 at the City of Refuge in Gardena, California and was open to the public. It was simulcast on the internet and at a memorial service held at the Sharon Baptist Church in Philadelphia,[175] that was led by Minister Lester Fields and Solomon's younger sister, Apostle Laurena Burke Corbin,[176] the pastor of Our First Temple of Faith Mt. Deborah Pentecostal Church on Haverford Avenue in Philadelphia,[177] and attended by Burke's extended East Coast family.[176]

Joe Henry described the funeral, which was "2 and a half hours long, included many eulogies, some spontaneous gospel singing; some shouting, some wailing, a fainting, and a daughter who hopped on the balls of her feet and spoke in tongues as punctuation to her scripted remarks. The highlight for me was Rudy [Copeland]’s bluesy Hammond B-3 instrumental of Thomas Dorsey'sPrecious Lord (Lead Me On)." He played it like Ray [Charles] would have, kicking it heavy on the bass foot pedals, and shouting his own encouragement: 'Tell the story, son!' The whole service climaxed with a rousing version of "When The Saints Go Marching In", which included the choir, a 2nd-line-style brass band marching through the isles (sic), and everyone in the pews clapping and singing along."[178]

Burke is buried at Lot 4037, Space 1, in the Murmuring Trees section of the Forest Lawn Memorial Park in the Hollywood Hills, at 6300 Forest Lawn Drive, Los Angeles, California.[179]

Legacy[edit]

According to Tim Newby: "Despite the endless parade of fans and praise, Burke always seemed to be two steps ahead or one step behind his contemporaries. While he was always at the forefront of the Soul movement, paving the way for a slew of singers who followed in his large wake, he never had that one timeless hit like so many others of the time that would forever endear him to our memories. So many of his peers of the time had that one huge mega-hit that would stamp them as eternal legends, and while Burke came close, he never found that one everlasting song. He became more known for his inspiration on other musicians than for his music. He is often criminally overlooked by the casual fan."

Neil Portnow, President/CEO of The Recording Academy, praised Burke soon after his death: "GRAMMY-winning soul singer Solomon Burke was revered as one of music’s greatest vocalists and a pioneer of the genre. A deeply spiritual man, his love and passion for his craft kept him touring and performing to sold-out audiences right up to his final days. Few artists have had careers as long, rich and influential as his, and he leaves a larger-than-life legacy as powerful and soulful as he was. The music industry has lost one of its most distinctive voices."[180]

Discography[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ Hoffmann 2006, p. 29.
  3. ^ Stambler 1974, p. 83.
  4. ^ Hoffmann 1981, p. 116.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Chalmers, Robert (June 29, 2008). "Solomon Burke: last of the great soul men". The Independent (London). 
  6. ^ a b Jet 2001, p. 35.
  7. ^ David Cantwell, "Editorial Review"
  8. ^ a b c Wexler 1993, p. 49.
  9. ^ a b Greg Kot, "Solomon Burke Dead at 70; 'The King of Rock and Soul'", Chicago Tribune (October 10, 2010)
  10. ^ Ben Sisario, "Solomon Burke, Influential Soul Singer, Dies at 70", The New York Times (October 11, 2010)
  11. ^ a b c Pete Lewis, "Solomon Burke: The Last Soul Man", B&S 1038 (2010)
  12. ^ Carlo Wolff, "Guralnick Studies Soul Music Roots," Schenectady Gazette (June 20, 1986):24.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Tony Cummings, "Solomon Burke: The '60s Soul Music Legend and a Spiritual Enigma", Crossrhythms (November 5, 2010),
  14. ^ Brian Ward, Just my Soul Responding: Rhythm and Blues, Black Consciousness, and Race Relations (University of California Press, 1998):199.
  15. ^ a b c d e Charles Young, "King Solomon's Sweet Thunder", Rolling Stone (October 10, 2010)
  16. ^ a b Jonny Whiteside, "Black in the Saddle", LA Weekly (April 7, 2005)
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  19. ^ a b Solomon Burke, in David Cantwell, "Solomon Burke: Pennies from Heaven: Thirteen Ways of Looking at the King of Rock 'n' Soul", The Long Way Around 66 (November – December 2006)
  20. ^ a b c Ancestry.com. U.S. Public Records Index, Vol. 2.
  21. ^ "King Solomon Philly Soul Star Still Hopes to Make it in Home Town," Philadelphia Daily News (January 6, 1994).
  22. ^ Ralph Cipriano, "Pastor Josephine M. Burke, 70", Philadelphia Inquirer (August 31, 1990):C09 LOCAL
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  29. ^ Solomon Burke, in Travis Atria, "Solomon Burke: 1940–2010", Wax Poetics (October 2010)
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  35. ^ Bil Carpenter, Uncloudy Days: The Gospel Music Encyclopedia (Backbeat Books, 2005):60.
  36. ^ "Blessed," Pittsburgh-Post Gazette (August 11, 2005), WE-4.
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  38. ^ Ancestry.com. U.S. Public Records Index, Volume 2.
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  43. ^ a b c Heikki Suosalo. "Solomon Burke". Retrieved November 22, 2012. 
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  45. ^ The Broadcast Pioneers of Philadelphia. Broadcastpioneers.com. Retrieved on 2011-04-07.
  46. ^ Charlie Horner, "The Silhouettes"
  47. ^ Jerry Zolten, Great God A'Mighty! The Dixie Hummingbirds: Celebrating the Rise of Soul Gospel Music (Oxford University Press, USA, 2003):265.
  48. ^ Ed Ward, Geoffrey Stokes, and Ken Tucker, Rock of Ages: The Rolling Stone History of Rock & Roll (Rolling Stone Press, 1986):235.
  49. ^ Horace Clarence Boyer, The Golden Age of Gospel (University of Illinois Press, 2000):91.
  50. ^ a b "The Young Solomon Burke". DEEP #3. June 2008. Retrieved November 22, 2012. 
  51. ^ Billboard (24 December 1955):34
  52. ^ Sherry Sherrod DuPree, Biographical Dictionary of African-American, Holiness-Pentecostals, 1880–1990 (Middle Atlantic Regional Press, 1989); Ashyia N. Henderson, ed., Contemporary Black Biography, Vol. 31 (Gale Research Inc., 2002):19.
  53. ^ Solomon Burke, in A.D. Amorosi, "Soul Mining", Philadelphia Citypaper (July 18–24, 2002)
  54. ^ Billboard (25 February 1956):63–64.
  55. ^ a b 45 discography for Apollo Records. Globaldogproductions.info. Retrieved on 2011-04-07.
  56. ^ Merenstein was the husband of Bess Berman's daughter, Harriet. See "Last Rites for Ike Berman," Billboard (16 February 1956):19.
  57. ^ Gary James, "Interview With Solomon Burke", (January 27, 1992)
  58. ^ Billboard (15 December 1956):64.
  59. ^ Los Angeles Times (January 4, 1957):A10; Gary Kramer, "Rhythm-Blues Notes," Billboard (12 January 1957):48.
  60. ^ a b c Robert Hilburn, "Burke Returns to Recapture Soul Throne," Milwaukee Journal Sentinel (August 27, 2002):E1, E3.
  61. ^ a b Solomon Burke discography at Soul Express
  62. ^ David Edwards and Mike Callahan, "Apollo Album Discography, Part 1 (1947–1962)" (October 31, 2009); and David Edwards and Mike Callahan, "Apollo Records Story" (December 29, 2007)
  63. ^ "SOLOMON BURKE SINGS BOB DYLAN – Maggie's Farm", (October 29, 2010)
  64. ^ a b c John Lewis, "Soul: Solomon Burke, hommage au Roi de la soul", (October 12, 2010), Vibrations
  65. ^ a b c d e Kurt B. Reighley, "Solomon Burke: The Return of the King: Solomon Burke's Grand Comeback Becomes a Whole New Beginning", The Long Way Around 57 (May–June 2005)/
  66. ^ a b "New York Beat," Jet (7 August 1958):63.
  67. ^ H.S. Eckels History. Eckelsandcompany.com. Retrieved on 2011-04-07.
  68. ^ Naomi Rogers, An Alternative Path: The Making and Remaking of Hahnemann Medical College and Hospital of Philadelphia (Rutgers University Press, 1998):191.
  69. ^ "Review: Don’t Give Up on Me", Harp Magazine.
  70. ^ "Abramson Starts," Billboard (15 December 1958):85.
  71. ^ Charlie Gillett, Making Tracks: Atlantic Records and the Growth of a Multi-Billion-Dollar Industry (WH Allen, 1975):122.
  72. ^ Herb Abramson. Rockabilly.nl. Retrieved on 2011-04-07.
  73. ^ Eric Konigsberg, Blood Relation (HarperCollins, 2005):99–101, 105, 108–109.
  74. ^ "Masco Young Notebook," Washington Afro-American (October 17, 1961):16.
  75. ^ a b Bill Dahl, "Solomon Burke 1940–2010", (October 11, 2010)
  76. ^ "Chess in Deal With Singular," The Billboard (10 March 1958):3.
  77. ^ Solomon Burke in Billboard (24 February 2007):44.
  78. ^ a b c d e f g Red Kelly, "Solomon Burke – What Am I Living For (Bell 783)" (May 1, 2006)
  79. ^ Gerri Hirshey, Nowhere To Run: The Story of Soul Music (Da Capo Press, 1994):85.
  80. ^ Alex Halberstadt, "Jerry Wexler", Salon (September 5, 2000)
  81. ^ David Hatch and Stephen Millward, From Blues to Rock: An Analytical History of Pop Music (Manchester University Press ND, 1989):89.
  82. ^ International Masters Publishers, Stand by Me (Vol. 3 of Roots of Rhythm Series) (International Masters Publishers, Incorporated, 1999):26.
  83. ^ Jeff Wallenfeldt, ed., The Black Experience in America: From Civil Rights to the Present (The Rosen Publishing Group, 2010):127.
  84. ^ Arnold Shaw, Honkers and Shouters: The Golden Years of Rhythm and Blues, 2nd ed. (Collier Books, 1978):441.
  85. ^ a b Teresa L. Reed, The Holy Profane: Religion in Black Popular Music (University Press of Kentucky, 2004):126.
  86. ^ Robert Hilburn, "His Legacy on the Line", Los Angeles Times (August 11, 2002)
  87. ^ a b Solomon Burke, in The Independent (2002), quoted in "Got to Get You Off My Mind by Solomon Burke"
  88. ^ a b c d David Cantwell, "Solomon Burke: Pennies from Heaven: Thirteen Ways of Looking at the King of Rock 'n' Soul", [1], The Long Way Around 66 (November – December 2006)
  89. ^ a b c Spencer Leigh, "Solomon Burke: The 1960s 'King of Rock and Soul' Who Enjoyed a Modern Renaissance", The Independent (October 11, 2010)
  90. ^ Chris Hutchins, "London", Billboard (12 June 1965):16.
  91. ^ a b c Teresa L. Reed, The Holy Profane: Religion in Black Popular Music (University Press of Kentucky, 2004):124.
  92. ^ a b c Solomon Burke, in James Porter, "Songs of Solomon: Solomon Burke Interview", Roctober 33 (2002)
  93. ^ a b "Solomon Burke" (July 5, 2010)
  94. ^ Richard Younger, Get a Shot of Rhythm and Blues: The Arthur Alexander Story (University of Alabama Press, 2000):108.
  95. ^ Roger Catlin, "Newport R & B Fest is Just Delightful," Hartford Courant (July 29, 1996):A4.
  96. ^ Richie Unterberger, "Biography"
  97. ^ Robert Sacré, ed., Saints and Sinners: Religion, Blues, and (D)evil in African-American Music and Literature: Proceedings of the Conference Held at the Université de Liége (October 1991) (vol. 5 of Etudes & éditions) (Société liégeoise de musicologie, 1996):16.
  98. ^ Glenn Appell and David Hemphill, American Popular Music: A Multicultural History (Thomson Wadsworth, 2006):317.
  99. ^ a b Paul Oliver, Screening the Blues: Aspects of the Blues Tradition (Da Capo Press, 1989):88.
  100. ^ Bill Millar, The Drifters: The Rise and Fall of the Black Vocal Group (Macmillan, 1971):20.
  101. ^ Mark Deming, in All Music Guide to Soul: The Definitive Guide to R&B and Soul (Backbeat Books, 2003):101.
  102. ^ Barney Hoskyns, Ragged Glories: City Lights, Country Funk, American Music (Pimlico, 2003):78.
  103. ^ Jerry Wexler, in Alex Halberstadt, "Jerry Wexler", Salon (September 5, 2000)
  104. ^ Jerry Wexler, in Rebecca Leung, "King Solomon: Singer Solomon Burke Making A Comeback In The Music World", 60 Minutes (December 7, 2003)
  105. ^ a b Peter Guralnick, "Song of Solomon", The Boston Phoenix (March 6, 1984), Section 3:2.
  106. ^ a b Hirshey 2006, p. 87.
  107. ^ Jet 1964, p. 37.
  108. ^ Negro Digest 1964, p. 13.
  109. ^ Jet 1963, p. 42.
  110. ^ Solomon Burke: Everybody Needs Somebody, 2007 documentary for BBC Television produced and directed by Paul Spencer.
  111. ^ a b Hirshey 2006, p. 88.
  112. ^ a b David Hepworth, "Farewell to a Heavyweight From the Golden Age of Soul", The Independent (11 October 2010)
  113. ^ a b Peter Guralnick, "Song of Solomon", The Boston Phoenix (March 6, 1984), Section 3:3.
  114. ^ However, according to another source, it was $10,000. See Peter Guralnick, "Song of Solomon", The Boston Phoenix (March 6, 1984), Section 3:3.
  115. ^ Martin Munro, Different Drummers: Rhythm and Race in America (University of California Press, 2010):189, based on Brian Ward, Just my Soul Responding: Rhythm and Blues, Black Consciousness, and Race Relations (University of California Press, 1998):202.
  116. ^ "Solomon Burke - Save It (Atlantic (2527)". March 5, 2007. Retrieved November 23, 2012. 
  117. ^ Reed 2004, p. 127.
  118. ^ Gonulsen, Jason (February 19, 2007). "Features – Patty Griffin: Sun Shining Through". Glide Magazine. Retrieved June 29, 2007. 
  119. ^ Jet 1968, p. 58.
  120. ^ Jet 1967, pp. 60-62.
  121. ^ 45 discography for Bell Records. Globaldogproductions.info. Retrieved on 2011-04-07.
  122. ^ John S. Wilson, "CAREER RESUMED BY TAMIKO JONES; Recent Polio Victim Presents Songs at Rainbow Grill", The New York Times (January 14, 1971):43; "Solomon Burke – Proud Mary"; "Tamiko Jones: The Collection (1963–1986)" (18 November 2009); "Original Soul Man Cared for Spiritual and Temporal Needs Right to the Grave", The Age (October 13, 2010). For more regarding Tamiko Jones, see "Tamiko Jones"
  123. ^ Cordell S. Thompson, "New York Beat", Jet (8 October 1970):63.
  124. ^ "Soul Sauce", Billboard (28 April 1973):23.
  125. ^ "Soul", Billboard (18 May 1974):58.
  126. ^ 45 Discography for Amherst Records. Globaldogproductions.info. Retrieved on 2011-04-07.
  127. ^ a b Robert Wilonsky, "Soul Survivor: Four decades After His First Record, Solomon Burke is Still in the Studio and in God's Arms", Dallas Observer (March 20, 1997)
  128. ^ "Solomon Burke Makes Comeback with Gospel LP", Jet (3 December 1981):61.
  129. ^ "Complete List of the Nominees for 26th Annual Grammy Music Awards", Schenectady Gazette (January 9, 1984):12.
  130. ^ Heikki Suosalo, "Solomon Burke is 60! An Interview with Solomon Burke from Soul Express" (January 2000)
  131. ^ Neil Strauss, "THE POP LIFE; Seeking Truth About Eminem", The New York Times (December 21, 2000); "Aretha, Smokey, Marvin Make Hall of Fame Bid", Jet (18 August 1986):55.
  132. ^ Jet (10 Mar 2003):56.
  133. ^ Solomon Burke, in Nekesa Mumbi Moody, "Newcomer Jones Sweeps Major Grammys", Hartford Courant (February 24, 2003).
  134. ^ a b Patrick Doyle, "Soul Legend Solomon Burke Dead at 70", The Beat Patrol (October 10, 2010)
  135. ^ George Lipsitz, Midnight at the Barrelhouse: The Johnny Otis Story (U of Minnesota Press, 2010):45.
  136. ^ Peter Guralnick, Dream Boogie: The Triumph of Sam Cooke (Little, Brown, 2005):436–437.
  137. ^ Peter Guralnick, Dream Boogie: The Triumph of Sam Cooke (Little, Brown, 2005):478–479
  138. ^ Fred Wesley, Hit Me, Fred: Recollections of a Sideman (Duke University Press, 2002):128–129.
  139. ^ Jack Schiffman, "Uptown: The Story of Harlem's Apollo Theatre (Cowles Book Co., 1971):107. See Burke's version in Peter Guralnick, "Song of Solomon", The Boston Phoenix (March 6, 1984), Section 3:2.
  140. ^ Brian Ward, Just My Soul Responding: Rhythm and Blues, Black Consciousness, and Race Relations (University of California Press, 1998):199–201; Gerri Hirshey, Nowhere To Run: The Story Of Soul Music, 86–88
  141. ^ Guralnick, 88–90. Burke headlined a Christmas concert at the Apollo in December 1965. See "New York Beat", Jet (6 January 1966):63.
  142. ^ a b Burke, Solomon – Soul, Records, Singer, Pop, Burke’s, and Album. Encyclopedia.jrank.org (2000-01-01). Retrieved on 2011-04-07.
  143. ^ Ted Drozdowski, "Solomon Burke Hits a New Peak", The Phoenix (July 18–25, 2002)
  144. ^ Grant Britt, "Fat Possuming with Solomon Burke", Indy Week (September 8, 2004)
  145. ^ Christopher Blagg, "Soul Searchin’ With Solomon Burke", (1 October 2002)
  146. ^ Peter Guralnick, Sweet Soul Music: Rhythm and Blues and the Southern Dream of Freedom (Back Bay Books, 1999):78.
  147. ^ "Reggie Sears". Artist Direct. Retrieved 18 August 2013. 
  148. ^ Some sources indicate Burke had 23 children. For example, see Randy Lewis, "POP BEAT; Hail the King of Rock 'n' Soul", Los Angeles Times (February 5, 2005):E1; and Beverly Corbell, "Meet the 'Grammy dude'", The Daily Sentinel (March 9, 2007)
  149. ^ "Solomon Burke". NPR. 22 October 2002. Retrieved 5 December 2008. 
  150. ^ "New York Beat", Jet (August 7, 1958):63; "PA United States BURKE MICHELLE D., on Feb. 28, 2008. Survived by her father Thomas Dawson, her mother Doris Williams and stepfather Solomon Burke; 2 daughters, Ebony and Danah; one sister, Valerie; one brother, Charles", see "Death Notice: Michelle D. Burke", Philadelphia Inquirer (March 4, 2008)
  151. ^ Charles Burke; Ancestry.com. U.S. Public Records Index, Vol. 1 "Valerie D. Gresham."
  152. ^ Forever & always, & lyrics for 2 other selections, I been laying for you, girl, Honey, do ya wanna love me? – song, music – Copyright Info. Faqs.org. Retrieved on 2011-04-07.
  153. ^ One source indicates her name is Sister Deloris Perkins. See Michael Futch, "Dreamgirl Reborn: The Daughter Of Rhythm And Blues Singer Solomon Burke Is Making A Name For Herself With A Show-Stopping Role On The Local Stage", The Fayetteville Observer (March 13, 1992): "For years Melanie Burke has thought about writing a book and calling it ``Million Dollar Baby. That's what her mother used to call her. Sister Deloris Perkins was her name, and she was an evangelist who came to live in Fayetteville until her death 10...." Another article indicates: "Melanie Burke of Fayetteville is one of them. Physically, she favors both her father and her mother, the late evangelist Delores Clark Burke of Fayetteville." See Michael Futch, "Blessed Family of Soul", The Fayetteville Observer (April 8, 2001); "Day by Day"; "New York Beat", Jet (30 Jan 1964):63.
  154. ^ Eleanor Alma Burke (born December 27, 1958);
  155. ^ "Songwriter/Composer: Eleanor Alma Burke" name after burkes grand mother, Current Affiliation: BMI CAE/IPI #: 597955274
  156. ^ Gemini Burke served as a US Marine for eight years. See Gary James, "Interview With Solomon Burke", (January 27, 1992); Burke graduated from EE Smith Senior High School in Fayetteville, North Carolina in 1984; attended the University of Hawaii (1990–1993), see [2], where he played US Football; was one of the American Gladiators, see "Once Filmed, Twice Acted", Popular Science (June 2001):26; starred in two episodes of Pacific Blue in 1999, see "Gemini Burke", IMDB; was involved in making Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within, see [3]
  157. ^ "ELECTRONIC MAGNETISM (Legal Title)", BMI Work #368877
  158. ^ "Regardskelly.com". Regardskelly.com. Retrieved 2012-10-28. 
  159. ^ a b c Bands, DJs, Live Music Performers in Northern Virginia Virginia, VA. 703area.com. Retrieved on 2011-04-07.
  160. ^ The Showstoppers Page. Soulwalking.co.uk. Retrieved on 2011-04-07.
  161. ^ The Show Stoppers. AllMusic. Retrieved on 2011-04-07.
  162. ^ a b Frank W. Hoffmann, Rhythm and Blues, Rap, and Hip-Hop, Vol. 6 (Infobase Publishing, 2006):239.
  163. ^ For photo of extended Burke family, see [4]; "Melanie Burke", [5]; "Melanie "Justice" Burke", [6]; "Melanie Burke", [7]
  164. ^ Daxwood Records. SoulDiscovery. Retrieved on 2011-04-07.
  165. ^ Michael Futch, "Ready to Be Heard", The Fayetteville Observer (NC) (May 7, 2003)
  166. ^ "Novel: The Audiobiography", SPIN (April 2009):82; Gail Mitchell, "Rhythm, Rap, and The Blues", Billboard (9 Nov 2002):25.
  167. ^ According to Quann's aunt: "He inherited his love of music from his family and from other sources. His grandfather is famed blues singer Solomon Burke. Quann grew up in West Philadelphia playing basketball with actor/rapper Will Smith." See "Promising Rapper Slain at Club", Philadelphia Daily News (April 27, 2000):26 LOCAL.
  168. ^ "Perils Plague Strip Neighbors Hope Disaster Leads to Curbs on Rowdies", Philadelphia Daily News (May 22, 2000):04 LOCAL.
  169. ^ "Nightclubbers to Be Tried in Holdup-Slayings", Philadelphia Daily News (September 23, 2000):10 LOCAL.
  170. ^ a b c "Solomon Burke still regal at 65", Deseret News (February 24, 2006)
  171. ^ Ben Sisario, The New York Times, in "Remembering Solomon Burke", (October 12, 2010)
  172. ^ Luiza Sauma Solomon Burke, "Barbican, London", The Independent (July 9, 2008)
  173. ^ Solomon Burke dies at Amsterdam airport at 70, Yahoo News, 10 October 2010
  174. ^ Solomon Burke website: "Early this morning, Sunday, October 10, 2010, the legendary King of Rock & Soul, Solomon Burke, our father, passed away due to natural causes." Retrieved 10-10-2010.
  175. ^ a b Red Kelly, "Homegoing Celebration for Solomon Burke", (18 October 2010)
  176. ^ a b Red Kelly, "Never Alone: The Gospel Legacy of Bishop Solomon Burke"
  177. ^ Red Kelly, "Solomon Burke – Here's My Life" (February 20, 2008)
  178. ^ Joe Henry, "Flesh and Blood, This World and the Next: Solomon Burke's Funeral", (October 22, 2011)
  179. ^ "Solomon Burke", findagrave.com
  180. ^ Neil Portnow, (October 10, 2010)

Citations[edit]

External links[edit]