Ray Charles

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Ray Charles
Ray Charles (cropped).jpg
Ray Charles in 1990
Background information
Birth name Ray Charles Robinson
Born (1930-09-23)September 23, 1930
Albany, Georgia,, United States[1]
Origin Greenville, Florida, United States
Died June 10, 2004(2004-06-10) (aged 73)
Beverly Hills, California, United States
Genres R&B, soul, blues, jump blues, piano blues, soul blues, gospel, country, jazz, vocal jazz, pop, rock and roll
Occupation(s) Musician, singer, songwriter, composer, arranger
Instruments Vocals, piano, keyboards
Years active 1947–2004
Labels Atlantic, ABC, Warner Bros., Swing Time, Concord, Columbia, Flashback
Associated acts The Raelettes, USA for Africa, Billy Joel
Website www.raycharles.com

Ray Charles Robinson (September 23, 1930 – June 10, 2004), professionally known as Ray Charles, was an American singer, songwriter, musician and composer, who is sometimes referred to as "The Genius".[2][3]

He pioneered the genre of soul music during the 1950s by combining rhythm and blues, gospel, and blues styles into the music he recorded for Atlantic Records.[4][5][6] He also contributed to the racial integration of country and pop music during the 1960s with his crossover success on ABC Records, most notably with his two Modern Sounds albums.[7][8][9] While he was with ABC, Charles became one of the first African-American musicians to be granted artistic control by a mainstream record company.[5]

Charles was blind from the age of seven. Charles cited Nat King Cole as a primary influence, but his music was also influenced by jazz, blues, rhythm and blues, and country artists of the day, including Art Tatum, Louis Jordan, Charles Brown and Louis Armstrong.[10] Charles' playing reflected influences from country blues, barrelhouse and stride piano styles. He had strong ties to Quincy Jones, who often cared for him and showed him the ropes of the "music club industry."

Frank Sinatra called him "the only true genius in show business", although Charles downplayed this notion.[11] In 2004, Rolling Stone ranked Charles at number ten on their list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time",[2] and number two on their November 2008 list of the "100 Greatest Singers of All Time".[12] In honoring him, American musician Billy Joel observed: "This may sound like sacrilege, but I think Ray Charles was more important than Elvis Presley".[13]

Life and career[edit]

Early years (1930–45)[edit]

Ray Charles Robinson was the son of Aretha (née William) Robinson,[14] a sharecropper, and Bailey Robinson, a railroad repair man, mechanic and handyman.[15] When Charles was an infant, his family moved from his birthplace in Albany, Georgia, back to his mother's hometown of Greenville, Florida.

Charles did not see much of his father growing up, and it is unclear whether his mother and father were ever married. Charles was raised by his biological mother Aretha, as well as his father’s first wife, a woman named Mary Jane. Growing up, he referred to Aretha as "Mama", and Mary Jane as "mother".[10] Aretha was a devout Christian, and the family attended the New Shiloh Baptist Church.[14]

In his early years, Charles showed a curiosity for mechanical objects, and would often watch his neighbors working on their cars and farm machinery. His musical curiosity was sparked at Mr. Wylie Pitman's Red Wing Cafe, when Pitman played boogie woogie on an old upright piano; Pitman subsequently taught Charles how to play piano himself. Charles and his mother were always welcome at the Red Wing Cafe, and even lived there when they were experiencing financial difficulties.[10] Pitman would also care for Ray's brother George, to take the burden off Aretha. George drowned in Aretha's laundry tub when he was four years old, and Ray was five.[10][15] After witnessing the death of his brother, Charles would feel an overwhelming sense of guilt later on in life.

Charles started to lose his sight at the age of four[3] or five,[16] and was completely blind by the age of seven, apparently as a result of glaucoma.[17] Broke, uneducated and still mourning the loss of Charles' brother George, Aretha used her connections in the local community to find a school that would accept blind African American students. Despite his initial protest, Charles would attend school at the Florida School for the Deaf and the Blind in St. Augustine from 1937 to 1945.[18]

Charles began to develop his musical talent at school,[17] and was taught to play the classical piano music of Bach, Mozart, and Beethoven. His teacher Mrs. Lawrence taught him how to read music using braille, a difficult process that requires learning the left hand movements by reading braille with the right hand and learning the right hand movements by reading braille with the left hand, and then synthesizing the two parts. While Charles was happy to play the piano, he was more interested in the jazz and blues music he heard on the family radio than classical music.[18] On Fridays, the South Campus Literary Society held assemblies where Charles would play piano and sing popular songs. On Halloween and Washington's birthday, the black Department of the school had socials where Charles would play. It was here he established "RC Robinson and the Shop Boys" and sang his own arrangement of "Jingle Bell Boogie". During this time, he also performed on WFOY radio in St. Augustine.[18]

Aretha died in the spring of 1945, when Charles was 14 years old. Her death came as a shock to Ray, who would later consider the deaths of his brother and mother to be "the two great tragedies" of his life. Charles returned to school after the funeral, but was then expelled in October for playing a prank on his teacher.[18]

Life in Florida, Los Angeles, Seattle and first hits (1945–52)[edit]

After leaving school, Charles moved to Jacksonville with a couple who were friends of his mother. He played the piano for bands at the Ritz Theatre in LaVilla for over a year, earning $4 a night. He also joined the musicians’ union in the hope that it would help him get work. He befriended many union members, but others were less kind to him because he would monopolize the union hall’s piano, since he did not have one at home. He started to build a reputation as a talented musician in Jacksonville, but the jobs did not come fast enough for him to construct a strong identity. He decided to leave Jacksonville and move to a bigger city with more opportunities.[19]

At age 16, Charles moved to Orlando, where he lived in borderline poverty and went without food for days. It was an extremely difficult time for musicians to find work, as since World War II had ended there were no “G.I. Joes” left to entertain. Charles eventually started to write arrangements for a pop music band, and in the summer of 1947 he unsuccessfully auditioned to play piano for Lucky Millinder and his sixteen-piece band.[18]

In 1947, Charles moved to Tampa, where he had two jobs: one as a pianist for Charlie Brantley's Honeydrippers, a seven-piece band; and another as a member of a white country band called The Florida Playboys (though there is no historical trace of Charles' involvement in The Florida Playboys besides Charles' own testimony). This is where he began his habit of always wearing sunglasses, made by designer Billy Stickles. Ray Charles Robinson dropped his last name to avoid confusion with the boxer Sugar Ray Robinson, and in his early career modelled himself on Nat "King" Cole. His first four recordings — "Wondering and Wondering", "Walking and Talking", "Why Did You Go?" and "I Found My Baby There" — were supposedly made in Tampa, although some discographies also claim he recorded them in Miami in 1951, or Los Angeles in 1952.[18]

Charles had always played piano for other people, but he was keen to have his own band. He decided to leave Florida for a large city, and, considering Chicago and New York City too big, followed his friend Gossie McKee to Seattle in March 1948, knowing that the biggest radio hits came from northern cities.[17][20] Here he met and befriended, under the tutelage of Robert Blackwell, a 14-year-old Quincy Jones.[21][22] He started playing the one-to-five A.M. shift at the Rocking Chair with his band McSon Trio, which featured McKee on guitar and Milton Garrett on bass. Publicity photos of the trio are some of the earliest recorded photographs of Ray Charles. In April 1949, Charles and his band recorded "Confession Blues", which became his first national hit, soaring to the second spot on the Billboard R&B chart.[20] While still working at the Rocking Chair, he also arranged songs for other artists, including Cole Porter's "Ghost of a Chance" and Dizzy Gillespie's "Emanon".[19]

After the success of his first two singles, Charles moved to Los Angeles in 1950, and spent the next few years touring with blues artist Lowell Fulson as his musical director.[3]

In 1950, his performance in a Miami hotel would impress Henry Stone, who went on to record a Ray Charles Rockin' record (which never became particular popular). During his stay in Miami, Charles was required to stay in the segregated but thriving black community of Overtown. Stone later helped Jerry Wexler find Charles in St. Petersburg.[23]

After joining Swing Time Records, he recorded two more R&B hits under the name "Ray Charles": "Baby, Let Me Hold Your Hand" (1951), which reached number five; and "Kissa Me Baby"(1952), which reached number eight. Swing Time folded the following year, and Ahmet Ertegün signed him to Atlantic Records.[17]

Signing with Atlantic Records (1952–59)[edit]

Charles' first recording session with Atlantic ("The Midnight Hour"/"Roll With my Baby") took place in September 1952, although his last Swingtime release ("Misery in my Heart"/"The Snow is Falling") would not appear until February 1953. He began recording jump blues and boogie-woogie style recordings as well as slower blues ballads, where he continued to show the vocal influences of Nat "King" Cole and Charles Brown. "Mess Around" became Charles' first Atlantic hit in 1953; the following year he had hits with "It Should Have Been Me" and "Don't You Know". He also recorded the songs "Midnight Hour" and "Sinner's Prayer". Some elements of his own vocal style were evident in "Sinner's Prayer", "Mess Around" and "Don't You Know".

Late in 1954, Charles recorded his own composition "I Got a Woman"; the song became Charles' first number-one R&B hit in 1955, bringing him to national prominence.[24] "I Got a Woman" included a mixture of gospel, jazz and blues elements that would later prove to be seminal in the development of rock 'n' roll and soul music. He continued through to 1958 with records such as "This Little Girl of Mine", "Drown in My Own Tears", "Lonely Avenue", "A Fool For You" and "The Night Time (Is the Right Time)".

Parallel to his R&B career, Charles also recorded instrumental jazz albums such as 1957's The Great Ray Charles. During this time, Charles also worked with jazz vibraphonist Milt Jackson, releasing Soul Brothers in 1958 and Soul Meeting in 1961. By 1958, Charles was not only headlining black venues such as The Apollo Theater and The Uptown Theater, but also bigger venues such as The Newport Jazz Festival (where he would cut his first live album).

In 1956, Charles recruited a young all-female singing group named the Cookies, and reshaped them as The Raelettes. Up to this point, Charles had used his wife and other musicians to back him on recordings such as "This Little Girl of Mine" and "Drown In My Own Tears". The Raelettes' first recording session with Charles was on the bluesy-gospel inflected "Leave My Woman Alone".

Crossover success (1959–67)[edit]

Charles in 1971. Photo: Heinrich Klaffs.

Charles reached the pinnacle of his success at Atlantic with the release of "What'd I Say", a complex song that combined gospel, jazz, blues and Latin music, which Charles would later claim he had composed spontaneously as he was performing in clubs and dances with his small band. Despite some radio stations banning the song because of its sexually suggestive lyrics, the song became Charles' first ever crossover top ten pop record.[25] Later in 1959, he released his first country song (a cover of Hank Snow's "Movin' On"), as well as recording three more albums for the label: a jazz record (later released in 1961 as The Genius After Hours); a blues record (released in 1961 as The Genius Sings the Blues); and a traditional pop/big band record (The Genius of Ray Charles). The Genius of Ray Charles provided his first top 40 album entry, where it peaked at No. 17, and was later held as a landmark record in Charles' career.

Charles' Atlantic contract expired in the fall of 1959, with several big labels offered him record deals; choosing not to renegotiate his contract with Atlantic, Ray Charles signed with ABC-Paramount Records in November 1959.[26] He obtained a much more liberal contract than other artists had at the time, with ABC offering him a $50,000 annual advance, higher royalties than before and eventual ownership of his masters — a very valuable and lucrative deal at the time.[27] During his Atlantic years, Charles had been heralded for his own inventive compositions, but by the time of the release of the instrumental jazz LP Genius + Soul = Jazz (1960) for ABC's subsidiary label Impulse!, Charles had virtually given up on writing original material, instead following his eclectic impulses as an interpreter.[25]

With "Georgia on My Mind", his first hit single for ABC-Paramount in 1960, Charles received national acclaim and a Grammy Award. Originally written by composers Stuart Gorrell and Hoagy Carmichael, the song was Charles' first work with Sid Feller, who produced, arranged and conducted the recording.[25][28] Charles earned another Grammy for the follow-up "Hit the Road Jack", written by R&B singer Percy Mayfield.[29] By late 1961, Charles had expanded his small road ensemble to a full-scale big band, partly as a response to increasing royalties and touring fees, becoming one of the few black artists to crossover into mainstream pop with such a level of creative control.[25][30] This success, however, came to a momentary halt during a concert tour in November 1961, when a police search of Charles' hotel room in Indianapolis, Indiana, led to the discovery of heroin in his medicine cabinet. The case was eventually dropped, as the search lacked a proper warrant by the police, and Charles soon returned to music.[30]

In the early 1960s, whilst on the way from Louisiana to Oklahoma City, Charles faced a near-death experience when the pilot of his plane lost visibility, as snow and his failure to use defroster caused the windshield of the plane to become completely covered in ice. The pilot made a few circles in the air before he was finally able to see through a small part of the windshield and land the plane. Charles placed a spiritual interpretation on the event, claiming that "something or someone which instruments cannot detect" was responsible for creating the small opening in the ice on the windshield which enabled the pilot to land the plane safely.[10]

The 1962 album Modern Sounds in Country and Western Music, and its sequel Modern Sounds in Country and Western Music, Vol. 2, helped to bring country into the musical mainstream. Charles' version of the Don Gibson song I Can't Stop Loving You topped the Pop chart for five weeks, stayed at No. 1 in the R&B chart for ten weeks, and also gave him his only number one record in the UK. In 1962, he founded his own record label, Tangerine Records, which ABC-Paramount promoted and distributed.[31][32] He also had major pop hits in 1963 with "Busted" (US No. 4) and Take These Chains From My Heart (US No. 8).

In 1965, Charles' career was halted once more after being arrested for a third time for heroin use. He agreed to go to rehab to avoid jail time, and eventually kicked his habit at a clinic in Los Angeles. After spending a year on parole, Charles reappeared in the charts in 1966 with a series of hits composed with the fledgling team of Ashford & Simpson, including the dance number "I Don't Need No Doctor", and "Let's Go Get Stoned", which became his first No. 1 R&B hit in several years. His cover of country artist Buck Owens' "Crying Time" reached No. 6 on the pop chart and helped Charles win a Grammy Award the following March. In 1967, he had a top twenty hit with another ballad, "Here We Go Again".[33]

Commercial decline (1967–81)[edit]

Ray Charles in 1968
1972 meeting of President Nixon and Ray Charles taken by Oliver F. Atkins

Charles' renewed chart success, however, proved to be short lived, and by the late 1960s his music was rarely played on radio stations. The rise of psychedelic rock and harder forms of rock and R&B music had reduced Charles' radio appeal, as did his choosing to record pop standards and covers of contemporary rock and soul hits, since his earnings from owning his own masters had taken away the motivation to write new material. Charles nonetheless continued to have an active recording career, although most of his recordings between 1968 and 1973 evoked strong reactions: people either liked them a lot, or strongly disliked them.[17] His 1972 album, A Message from the People, included his unique gospel-influenced version of "America the Beautiful", as well as a number of protest songs about poverty and civil rights. Charles was often criticized for his version of "America the Beautiful" because it was very drastically changed from the songs original version. The common argument against this is that the words are scattered and changed, but the music in the background remains beautiful and untouched. Many people believed that this was a perfect representation of the freedom Americans are given, free to do what they want, so long as they follow the laws (music) that we are given. [34] In 1974, Charles left ABC Records and recorded several albums on his own Crossover Records label. A 1975 recording of Stevie Wonder's hit "Living for the City" later helped Charles win another Grammy.

In 1977, he reunited with Ahmet Ertegün and re-signed to Atlantic Records, where he recorded the album True to Life, remaining with his old label until 1980. However, the label had now begun to focus on rock acts, and some of their prominent soul artists such as Aretha Franklin were starting to be neglected. In November 1977 he appeared as the host of NBC's Saturday Night Live.[35] In April 1979, Charles' version of "Georgia On My Mind" was proclaimed the state song of Georgia, and an emotional Charles performed the song on the floor of the state legislature.[17] Though he had notably supported the civil rights movement and Martin Luther King, Jr. in the 1960s, in 1981 Charles was criticized for performing at South Africa's Sun City resort during an international boycott of its apartheid policy.[17]

Later years (1983–2004)[edit]

Charles with President Ronald Reagan and First Lady Nancy Reagan in 1984
One of his last public performances, at the 2003 Montreal International Jazz Festival

In 1983, Charles signed a contract with Columbia Records. He recorded a string of country albums, as well as having single hits with duet singers such as George Jones, Chet Atkins, B.J. Thomas, Mickey Gilley, Hank Williams, Jr. and lifelong friend Willie Nelson, with whom he recorded the No. 1 country duet "Seven Spanish Angels".

Prior to the release of his first Warner release, Would You Believe, Charles made a return to the R&B charts with a cover of The Brothers Johnson's "I'll Be Good to You", a duet with his lifelong friend Quincy Jones and singer Chaka Khan which hit number-one on the R&B charts in 1990 and won Charles and Khan a Grammy for their dual work. Prior to this, Charles returned to the pop charts in another duet, with singer Billy Joel on the song "Baby Grand". In 1989, he recorded a cover of the Southern All Stars' "Itoshi no Ellie" for a Japanese TV advert for the Suntory brand, releasing it in Japan as "Ellie My Love" where it reached No. 3 on its Oricon chart.[36] Charles' 1993 album, My World, became his first album in some time to reach the Billboard 200, whilst his cover of Leon Russell's "A Song for You" would give him a hit on the adult contemporary chart as well as his twelfth and final Grammy.

By the beginning of the 1980s, Charles was reaching younger audiences with appearances in various films and TV shows. In 1980, he appeared in the film The Blues Brothers. Charles' version of "Night Time is the Right Time" was played during the popular Cosby Show episode "Happy Anniversary", although he never appeared on the show in person. In 1985, he appeared alongside a slew of other popular musicians in the USA for Africa charity recording "We Are the World". Charles' popularity increased among younger audiences in 1991 after he appeared in a series of Diet Pepsi commercials, where he popularized the catchphrase "You Got the Right One, Baby", which came from a song by Kenny Ascher, Joseph C. Caro and Helary Jay Lipsitz.[37] In the late 1980s/early 1990s, Charles made appearances on the Super Dave Osbourne TV show, featuring in a series of vignettes where he was somehow driving a car, often as Super Dave's chauffeur. During the sixth season of Designing Women, Charles himself sang "Georgia on My Mind" in place of the instrumental cover version which had featured in the previous five seasons. He also appeared in 4 episodes of the popular TV comedy The Nanny, playing Sammy in Seasons 4 & 5 during 1997-98. From 2001-2002, Charles appeared in commercials for the New Jersey Lottery to promote its "For every dream, there's a jackpot" campaign.

Charles appeared at two separate Presidential inaugurations, performing for Ronald Reagan's second inauguration in 1985, and for Bill Clinton's first in 1993.[38] On October 28, 2001, several weeks after the terrorist attacks of September 11, Charles appeared during Game 2 of the World Series between the Arizona Diamondbacks and New York Yankees and performed "America the Beautiful". In 2003, Ray Charles headlined the White House Correspondents Dinner in Washington, D.C., which was attended by the President, First Lady, Colin Powell and Condoleezza Rice.

Also in 2003, Charles presented one of his greatest admirers, Van Morrison, with his award upon being inducted in the Songwriters Hall of Fame, and the two sang Morrison's song "Crazy Love" (the performance appears on Morrison's 2007 album The Best of Van Morrison Volume 3). In 2003, Charles performed "Georgia On My Mind" and "America the Beautiful" at a televised annual electronic media journalist banquet held in Washington, D.C. His final public appearance came on April 30, 2004, at the dedication of his music studio as a historic landmark in the city of Los Angeles.[17]

Personal life[edit]

Marriages and children[edit]

Ray Charles was married twice, and had twelve children with ten different women. Charles' first child Evelyn was born in 1949 to his then girlfriend, Louise Flowers. Charles' first marriage was to Eileen Williams, and lasted from July 31, 1951 to 1952.

Charles' second marriage to Della Beatrice Howard Robinson (called "B" by Charles) began on April 5, 1955, and lasted 12 or 13 years. Their first child together, Ray Jr., was born in 1955. Charles was not in town for the birth as he was playing a show in Texas; at first, he was afraid to hold his son because he was so small, but he got over his fear after a few months. The couple had two further children, David (1958) and Robert (1960). During their marriage, Charles felt that his heroin addiction took a toll on Della.[10]

Charles had a six-year-long affair with Margie Hendricks, one of the original Raelettes, and in 1959 the pair had a son together, Charles Wayne. His affair with Mae Mosely Lyles resulted in another daughter, Raenee, born in 1961. In 1963, Charles had a daughter, Sheila Raye Charles Robinson, with Sandra Jean Betts. In 1966, Charles' daughter Alicia was born to a woman who remains unidentified, and another daughter, Alexandra, was also born to Chantal Bertrand. Charles divorced from Della Howard in 1977, and later that year Charles had a son, Vincent, with Arlette Kotchounian. A daughter, Robyn, was born a year later to Gloria Moffett. Charles' youngest child, son Ryan Corey, was born in 1987 to Mary Anne den Bok. Charles' long-term girlfriend and partner at the time of his death was Norma Pinella.

Substance abuse and legal issues[edit]

Charles first tried drugs when he played in McSon Trio, and was eager to try them as he thought they helped musicians create music and tap into their creativity. He experimented first with marijuana, and later became addicted to heroin, which he struggled with for sixteen years. He was first arrested in the 1950s, when he and his bandmates were caught backstage with loose marijuana and drug paraphernalia, including a burnt spoon, syringe and needle. The arrest did not deter Charles' drug use, which only escalated as he became more successful and made more money.[20]

Charles was arrested again on a narcotics charge on November 14, 1961, whilst waiting in an Indiana hotel room before a performance. The detectives seized heroin, marijuana and other items. Charles, then 31, stated that he had been a drug addict since the age of 16. The case was dismissed because of the manner in which the evidence was obtained,[39] but Charles's situation did not improve until a few years later. Individuals such as Quincy Jones and Reverend Henry Griffin felt that those around Charles were responsible for his drug use.[citation needed]

In 1964, Charles was arrested for possession of marijuana and heroin.[20] Following a self-imposed stay[39] at St. Francis Hospital in Lynwood, California, Charles received five years' probation. Charles responded to the saga of his drug use and reform with the songs "I Don't Need No Doctor", "Let's Go Get Stoned", and the release of Crying Time, his first album since having kicked his heroin addiction in 1966.[40][41]

Other interests[edit]

Charles liked to play chess, using a special board with raised squares and holes for the pieces.[42] In a 1991 concert, he referred to Willie Nelson as "my chess partner".[43] In 2002, he played and lost to American Grandmaster (chess) and former U.S. Champion Larry Evans.[44]

In 2001, Morehouse College honored Charles with the Candle Award for Lifetime Achievement in Arts and Entertainment, and later that same year granted him an honorary doctor of humane letters. Charles and his longtime business manager, Joe Adams, also gave a gift of $1 million to Morehouse, where Charles had approved plans for the building of the Ray Charles Performing Arts Center.[45]

Death[edit]

In 2003, Charles had successful hip replacement surgery and was originally planning to go back on tour, until he began suffering from other ailments. Charles died at his home in Beverly Hills, California on June 10, 2004, surrounded by family and friends,[46][47] as a result of acute liver disease.[3] He was 73 years old. His funeral took place on June 18, 2004, at the First AME Church in Los Angeles, with musical peers such as Little Richard in attendance.[48]B.B. King, Glen Campbell, Stevie Wonder and Wynton Marsalis each played a tribute at Charles' funeral.[49] Charles was interred in the Inglewood Park Cemetery.

Star on Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6777 Hollywood Blvd

His final album, Genius Loves Company, was released two months after his death, and consists of duets with various admirers and contemporaries: B.B. King, Van Morrison, Willie Nelson, James Taylor, Gladys Knight, Michael McDonald, Natalie Cole, Elton John, Bonnie Raitt, Diana Krall, Norah Jones and Johnny Mathis. The album won eight Grammy Awards, including Best Pop Vocal Album, Album of the Year, Record of the Year and Best Pop Collaboration with Vocals for "Here We Go Again" with Norah Jones, and Best Gospel Performance for "Heaven Help Us All" with Gladys Knight; he also received nods for his duets with Elton John and B.B. King. The album included a version of Harold Arlen's "Over the Rainbow" sung as a duet with Johnny Mathis, which was played at Charles' memorial service.[49]

Two more posthumous albums were released: Genius & Friends (2005), a selection of duets recorded from 1997 to 2005 with artists of Charles' choice, including "Big Bad Love" with Diana Ross; and Ray Sings, Basie Swings (2006), which combined archive Ray Charles live vocal performances from the mid-1970s recorded from the concert mixing board with new instrumental tracks specially recorded by the contemporary Count Basie Orchestra and other musicians, to create a "fantasy concert" recording.

Legacy[edit]

Influence on music industry[edit]

Statue by Andy Davis in Ray Charles Plaza in Albany, Georgia

Charles possessed one of the most recognizable voices in American music. In the words of musicologist Henry Pleasants (music critic):

Sinatra, and Bing Crosby before him, had been masters of words. Ray Charles is a master of sounds. His records disclose an extraordinary assortment of slurs, glides, turns, shrieks, wails, breaks, shouts, screams and hollers, all wonderfully controlled, disciplined by inspired musicianship, and harnessed to ingenious subtleties of harmony, dynamics and rhythm... It is either the singing of a man whose vocabulary is inadequate to express what is in his heart and mind or of one whose feelings are too intense for satisfactory verbal or conventionally melodic articulation. He can’t tell it to you. He can’t even sing it to you. He has to cry out to you, or shout to you, in tones eloquent of despair — or exaltation. The voice alone, with little assistance from the text or the notated music, conveys the message.[50]

His style and success in the genres of rhythm and blues and jazz had an influence on a number of highly successful artists, including Elvis Presley, Aretha Franklin, Stevie Wonder, Van Morrison and Billy Joel. According to Joe Levy, a music editor for Rolling Stone, "The hit records he made for Atlantic in the mid-50's mapped out everything that would happen to rock 'n' roll and soul music in the years that followed".[51] Charles was also an inspiration to former Pink Floyd member Roger Waters, who told the Turkish newspaper Hurriyet: "I was about 15. In the middle of the night with friends, we were listening to jazz. It was "Georgia on My Mind", Ray Charles's version. Then I thought 'One day, if I make some people feel only one twentieth of what I am feeling now, it will be quite enough for me.'"[52]

Ray, a biopic portraying his life and career between 1930 and 1979, was released in October 2004, starring Jamie Foxx as Charles. Foxx won the 2005 Academy Award for Best Actor for the role.

On December 7, 2007, the Ray Charles Plaza was opened in his hometown of Albany, Georgia, featuring a revolving, lighted bronze sculpture of Charles seated at a piano. The plaza's dedication was attended by his daughter Sheila Raye Charles.

Awards and Honors[edit]

In 1979, Charles was one of the first musicians born in the state to be inducted into the Georgia State Music Hall of Fame.[53] Charles' version of "Georgia On My Mind" was also made the official state song for Georgia.[54]

In 1981 he was given a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, and was one of the first inductees to the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame at its inaugural ceremony in 1986.[55] He also received the Kennedy Center Honors in 1986.[56] In 1987, he was awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. In 1991, he was inducted to the Rhythm & Blues Foundation, and was presented with the George and Ira Gershwin Award for Lifetime Musical Achievement during the 1991 UCLA Spring Sing.[57] In 1993, he was awarded the National Medal of Arts.[58] In 1998 he was awarded the Polar Music Prize together with Ravi Shankar in Stockholm, Sweden.

In 2004 he was inducted to the National Black Sports & Entertainment Hall of Fame.[59] The Grammy Awards of 2005 were dedicated to Charles.

In 2003, Charles was awarded an honorary degree by Dillard University, and upon his death he endowed a professorship of African-American culinary history at the school, the first such chair in the nation.[60] A $20 million performing arts center at Morehouse College was named after Charles and was dedicated in September 2010.[61]

The United States Postal Service issued a forever stamp honoring Ray Charles as part of it Musical Icons series on September 23, 2013.

Contributions to Civil Rights Movement[edit]

On March 15, 1961, shortly after the release of the hit song "Georgia on My Mind" (1960), Charles (who was born in Albany, Georgia) was scheduled to perform at a dance at Bell Auditorium in Augusta, Georgia, but cancelled the show after learning from students of Paine College that the larger auditorium dance floor would be restricted to whites, while blacks would be obligated to sit in the Music Hall balcony. Charles left town immediately after letting the public know why he wouldn't be performing, but the promoter went on to sue Charles for breach of contract, and Charles was fined $757 in Fulton County Superior Court in Atlanta on June 14, 1962. The following year, Charles did perform at a desegregated Bell Auditorium concert together with his backup group the Raelettes on October 23, 1963,[62][63][64] and was not banned from performing thereafter in Georgia as depicted in the 2004 film Ray.[65] On December 7, 2007, Ray Charles Plaza was opened in Albany, Georgia, with a revolving, lighted bronze sculpture of Charles seated at a piano.[57]

The Ray Charles Foundation[edit]

Founded in 1986, The Ray Charles Foundation maintains the mission statement of financially supporting institutions and organizations in the research of hearing disorders.[66] Originally known as "The Robinson Foundation for Hearing Disorders", it was renamed in 2006, and has since provided financial donations to numerous institutions involved in hearing loss research and education.[67] Specifically, the purpose of the Foundation has been "to administer funds for scientific, educational and charitable purposes; to encourage, promote and educate, through grants to institutions and organizations, as to the causes and cures for diseases and disabilities of the hearing impaired and to assist organizations and institutions in their social educational and academic advancement of programs for the youth, and carry on other charitable and educational activities associated with these goals as allowed by law".[68] The organization's philanthropic views stem from Charles' own views on giving, as the musician often contributed cochlear implant donations to those who could not afford the procedure. Charles was recorded as saying that the reason he has given so much more time and money to the hearing compared, rather than the visually impaired, was that music saved his life, and he wouldn't know what to do if he couldn't experience it.[citation needed]

Recipients of donations include Benedict College, Morehouse College and numerous other universities.[69] The foundation has previously taken action against donation recipients who do not use funds in accordance to its mission statement, such as the Albany State University which was made to return its $3 Million donation after not using its funds for over a decade.[70] The foundation currently houses its executive offices at the historic RPM International Building, originally the home of Ray Charles Enterprises, Inc, and now also home to the Ray Charles Memorial Library on the first floor, which was founded on September 23, 2010 (what would have been Charles' 80th birthday). The library was founded to "provide an avenue for young children to experience music and art in a way that will inspire their creativity and imagination", and is not open to the public without reservation, as the main goal is to educate mass groups of underprivileged youth and provide art and history to those without access to such documents.[71]

Discography[edit]

Filmography[edit]

Television[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Biography at the Wayback Machine (archived October 12, 2007) Official web site. Retrieved September 22, 2013.
  2. ^ a b Van Morrison. "100 Greatest Artists of All Time. No. 10: Ray Charles". Rolling Stone (946). Retrieved June 13, 2010. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Ray Charles, American Legend, Dies at 73". NPR. June 11, 2004. Retrieved September 25, 2014. 
  4. ^ Unterberger, Richie. Biography: Ray Charles. AllMusic. Retrieved November 26, 2009.
  5. ^ a b VH1 (2003), p. 210.
  6. ^ "Show 15 - The Soul Reformation: More on the evolution of rhythm and blues. [Part 1] : UNT Digital Library". Digital.library.unt.edu. May 11, 1969. Retrieved September 10, 2010. 
  7. ^ Guide Profile: Ray Charles. About.com. RetrievedDecember 12, 2008.
  8. ^ "Soul Survivor Ray Charles". Rolling Stone. Retrieved November 9, 2008.
  9. ^ Tyrangiel, Josh. Review: Modern Sounds in Country and Western Music. Time. Retrieved July 21, 2009.
  10. ^ a b c d e f Charles, Ray; Ritz, David (1992). Brother Ray. Spring Street, New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80482-4. 
  11. ^ Bronson, Fred (1997). The Billboard Book of Number One Hits (4th revised and updated ed.). New York, NY, USA: Watson-Guptill Publications. p. 98. ISBN 0-8230-7641-5. 
  12. ^ "100 Greatest Singers of All Time. No. 2: Ray Charles". Billy Joel. rollingstone.com. Retrieved June 13, 2010. 
  13. ^ "A Tribute to Ray Charles", Rolling Stone, issue 952/953, July 8–22, 2004.
  14. ^ a b Lydon, Michael, Ray Charles: Man and Music, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-97043-1, Routledge Publishing, January 22, 2004.
  15. ^ a b "Ray Charles Biography". SwingMusic.Net. Retrieved February 14, 2008. 
  16. ^ "The Genius of Ray Charles", an article about an 1986 segment on Charles from 60 Minutes
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h Bohème Magazine Obituary: Ray Charles (1930 – 2004).
  18. ^ a b c d e f Lydon, Michael: Ray Charles, pp. 29–38.
  19. ^ a b Winski, Norman (1994). Ray Chalres: Singer and Muscian. Los Angeles, California: Melrose Square Publishing. pp. 102–107. ISBN 0-87067-790-X. 
  20. ^ a b c d Lydon, Michael (1998). Ray Charles: Man and Music. New York: Riverhead Books. ISBN 1-57322-132-5. 
  21. ^ [1][dead link]
  22. ^ "Quincy Jones Biography". Achievement.org. Retrieved 22 December 2014. 
  23. ^ Jacob Katel (November 22, 2012). "Henry Stone: Legendary Soul — Page 1 - News — Miami". Miami New Times. Retrieved February 14, 2013. 
  24. ^ Dahl, Bill (November 18, 1954). "profile". Allmusic.com. Retrieved September 10, 2010. 
  25. ^ a b c d Ray Charles, Bluesy Essence of Soul. The New York Times. Retrieved December 12, 2008.
  26. ^ breath of life » RAY CHARLES / “I Can’t Stop Loving You”. Kalamu. Retrieved August 13, 2008.
  27. ^ RS Biography - Ray Charles 1930-2004. Rolling Stone. Retrieved August 14, 2008.
  28. ^ The RS 500 Greatest Songs of All Time: 44) Georgia on My Mind. Rolling Stone. Retrieved August 14, 2008.
  29. ^ Hit The Road Jack by Ray Charles. Songfacts. Retrieved August 14, 2008.
  30. ^ a b Cooper (1998), pp. 20&n dash;22.
  31. ^ Charles & Ritz 2004, p. 248.
  32. ^ Lydon 1998, pp. 213–16.
  33. ^ "Ray Charles Biography". PianoFiles. 
  34. ^ Heard, Chris (February 14, 2005). "Lasting influence of legend Ray Chalres". BBC News. Retrieved October 9, 2014. 
  35. ^ "SNL Transcripts: Ray Charles: 11/12/77". Snltranscripts.jt.org. November 12, 1977. Retrieved September 10, 2010. 
  36. ^ List of best-selling international singles in Japan of 1989, Extract from the Year-End chart posted by oricon.
  37. ^ [2][dead link]
  38. ^ "Internet Movie Database Bio on Ray Charles". Imdb.com. Retrieved September 10, 2010. 
  39. ^ a b "Show 16 - The Soul Reformation: More on the evolution of rhythm and blues. [Part 2] : UNT Digital Library". Digital.library.unt.edu. Retrieved September 18, 2010. 
  40. ^ "Answers.com". Answers.com. Retrieved September 10, 2010. 
  41. ^ "PBS.org". PBS.org. May 17, 2006. Retrieved September 10, 2010. 
  42. ^ "The chess games of Ray Charles". Chessgames.com. Retrieved 22 December 2014. 
  43. ^ Charles, Ray (2005). Genius & Friends (CD). Burbank, CA: Atlantic Records. Event occurs at Track 13 2:22. 
  44. ^ "Chess News — GM Larry Melvyn Evans (1932–2010)". ChessBase.com. Retrieved December 30, 2011. 
  45. ^ Morehouse College Website.
  46. ^ D'angelo, Joe. "Ray Charles Dead at 73". mtv.com. Retrieved January 1, 2012. 
  47. ^ Evans, Mike. Ray Charles: The Birth of Soul. Retrieved January 1, 2012. 
  48. ^ "Little Richard has heart attack | St. Catharines Standard". Stcatharinesstandard.ca. Retrieved April 25, 2014. 
  49. ^ a b "Many Pay Respects to Ray Charles". CBS News. June 10, 2004. Retrieved November 25, 2006. 
  50. ^ Pleasants, H. (1974). The Great American Popular Singers. Simon and Schuster
  51. ^ Pareles, Jon (June 10, 2004). "Ray Charles, Who Shaped American Music, Dies at 73". New York Times. Retrieved 30 September 2014. 
  52. ^ Oskay, Cinar. "Roger Waters, Cinar Oskay roportaji: 'Muziginizin hatirlanmasi sizin icin onemli mi?’" (in Turkish). Hurriyet. Retrieved August 4, 2013. 
  53. ^ "List of Inductees". Georgia Music Hall of Fame. 1979–2007. Archived from the original on October 15, 2006. Retrieved November 25, 2006. 
  54. ^ "State Song". Georgia Secretary of State. 1979. 
  55. ^ "Inductees". Rock and Roll Hall of Fame & Museum. Archived from the original on November 23, 2006. Retrieved November 25, 2006. 
  56. ^ "List of Kennedy Center Honorees". Kennedy Center. 1986. Retrieved November 25, 2006. 
  57. ^ a b "Calendar & Events: Spring Sing: Gershwin Award". UCLA. 
  58. ^ "Lifetime Honors — National Medal of Arts". Nea.gov. Retrieved September 10, 2010. 
  59. ^ "Hall of Fame". National Black Sports & Entertainment. 2004. Retrieved November 25, 2006. 
  60. ^ Read, Mimi (February 23, 2005). "A Gift to Black Cuisine, From Ray Charles". New York Times. Retrieved October 11, 2010. 
  61. ^ "Morehouse Cuts the Ribbon on the Ray Charles Performing Arts Center and Music Academic Building". Morehouse College. Retrieved October 11, 2010. 
  62. ^ "William B. Bell Auditorium". augustaciviccenter.com. Retrieved June 8, 2012. 
  63. ^ Rhodes, Don (July 1, 2004). "Ray Charles gave country music his own touch". The Augusta Chronicle. 
  64. ^ Robert Fontenot, About.com Guide. "How did racism affect Ray Charles?". About.com. Retrieved June 9, 2012. 
  65. ^ "32 Years Ago This Month: Ray Charles Serenades the Legislature". AtlantaMagazine.com. Retrieved January 18, 2013. 
  66. ^ "Mission Statement". Theraycharlesfoundation.org. Retrieved 21 December 2014. 
  67. ^ "Benedict College receives $500,000 gift?". Benedict.edu. Retrieved 21 December 2014. 
  68. ^ "About the Foundation". Theraycharlesfoundation.org. Retrieved 21 December 2014. 
  69. ^ "Morehouse gets $3 million gift from Ray Charles Foundation". Ajc.com. Retrieved 21 December 2014. 
  70. ^ "Ray Charles Foundation wants $3 million gift back". Nydailynews.com. Retrieved 21 December 2014. 
  71. ^ "About the Library". Theraycharlesfoundation.org. Retrieved 21 December 2014. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]