South Coast railway line, New South Wales

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South Coast line
CityRailinterblue.png
Mode Interurban rail line
Coach service
Owner RailCorp
Operator(s) NSW TrainLink
Connects Central
Wollongong
Port Kembla (branch)
Dapto
Bundanoon (by coach)
Kiama
Bomaderry (Nowra)
Length 153 km
Stations 40
Fleet H, T sets & Endeavour railcars
Depot(s) Mortdale for T sets, Eveleigh for H sets
Line colour Blue/Grey
Key dates
1887 Opened
2012-2013 Quiet services between Central and Dapto/Kiama are introduced

The South Coast Line is an intercity railway line of the NSW TrainLink network. It serves the coastal region to the south of the Sydney metropolitan area including the Illawarra region, most notably the city of Wollongong, and extended services reach as far as Nowra in Shoalhaven.

Line naming[edit]

The physical railway line is operationally and historically known as the Illawarra Line throughout its length from the Illawarra Junction at Redfern to its terminus in Bomaderry. Transport for NSW currently markets the suburban services to Waterfall and Cronulla as the Illawarra line and interurban services south to Wollongong and Bomaderry as the South Coast line.

Description of route[edit]

Suburban section[edit]

The South Coast (Illawarra) line commences at the Illawarra Junction at Redfern. Here, a dive-under allows inter-city services from the South Coast line to cross underneath the main suburban railway lines to access Sydney Terminal.[1] From the Illawarra junction, four tracks head south through the stations of Erskineville and St Peters to Sydenham. Immediately north of Erskineville station, the Illawarra lines are connected to the Illawarra Relief Lines which emerge from underground. These lines form the Eastern Suburbs line which opened in 1979. Heading south from Erskineville, the eastern-most pair of tracks are the Up and Down Illawarra lines which usually carry the Illawarra line passenger services.

A Kiama service waiting to depart from Platform 7. Despite its destination appearing as "Bomaderry/Nowra" the train actually terminates at Kiama and passengers must change for another train to Nowra.

The western-most pair of tracks are the Up and Down Illawarra local tracks which usually carry Bankstown and East Hills line express trains. To the west of the four tracks between Erskineville and Sydenham there is a reservation for a further pair of tracks with partially constructed platforms at Erskineville and St Peters stations. There are current plans to complete these tracks under the Rail Clearways plan, these tracks will be known as the Up and Down Illawarra relief lines.[2]

At Sydenham, six platforms are provided, with Bankstown line services generally using the western-most pair (platforms 1 and 2), East Hills peak hour services using the inner pair (platforms 3 and 4) and Illawarra line services using the easternmost pair of platforms (platforms 5 and 6). South of Sydenham, the Bankstown line branches off in a westwards direction. The Botany Goods Line crosses over the Illawarra line via a flyover. The line then reaches Tempe station, before crossing the Cooks River.

South of the Cooks River lies Wolli Creek station, where the East Hills line branches off to the west. The Illawarra line continues south as four tracks through a rock cutting to the stations of Arncliffe (2 island platforms), Banksia (2 side platforms and an island platform) and Rockdale. Rockdale station has five platforms, platform 1 (the most westerly platform) is currently unelectrified and disused but was previously a terminating point for electric passenger trains. South of Rockdale, the line passes through Kogarah station (one island platform 2 & 3 and 2 side platforms 1 & 4) which has a shopping centre built overhead. The line then makes a westerly turn, heading through Carlton and Allawah stations (both with two island platforms).

The next station is Hurstville (2 island platforms), which is where the four track section ends and terminating facilities are provided. Like Kogarah, Hurstville has a shopping centre built above the platforms. South of Hurstville, the line becomes 2 tracks with bidirectional signalling. The line passes through Penshurst and Mortdale (island platforms). At Mortdale is the Mortdale maintenance depot which lies on the eastern side of the tracks with access points from the south of the station. The line then continues to Oatley which has an island platform and a set of points allowing trains to be turned-back.

Como Bridge

The line then crosses the Georges River over the Como Bridge, which opened in 1972 replacing an older single track bridge which still exists to the east of the present structure and is used as a cycleway. The line enters the Sutherland Shire, passing through Como station (which was moved to its present, new site with the opening of the new bridge in 1972), and Jannali (side platforms) before reaching Sutherland.

At Sutherland, three platforms are provided. The Cronulla Line branches off in an eastwards direction south of the station. The former short branch line to Woronora Cemetery branched in a westerly direction at the south of the platforms. The line opened on 28 July 1900 and closed on 27 August 1944.[3] The line then continues south through Loftus, Engadine, and Heathcote (all side platform stations). South of Loftus, the former Royal National Park line branched off, this has now been converted into a tram line connecting to the Sydney Tramway Museum, and connections to the mainline have been severed. The final station for the operation of suburban services is Waterfall station, which is an island platform. At Waterfall, there is a train stabling yard and a train turnback (shunting road) south of the station. South of Waterfall is the site of the 2003 Waterfall train disaster.

Inter-urban section[edit]

The end of the line at Bomaderry station

The line then heads south through the challenging terrain of the Royal National Park and Illawarra escarpment. The line makes a steep descent down to Wollongong. The original alignment through the towns of Helensburgh and Lilyvale which opened in 1888 was bypassed by a new route in 1915. A new station at Helensburgh (island platform) was subsequently opened with the new alignment.[4] A set of points allows the turnback of trains at Helensburgh. The line then proceeds through several tunnels down the Illawarra escarpment through the hamlets of Stanwell Park and Coalcliff.

South of Coalcliff, the line becomes single track as it passes through the Clifton Tunnel, before becoming double track again near Scarborough station. The line then proceeds south through the northern suburbs of Wollongong, then Wollongong and its southern suburbs. A terminating platform is provided at Thirroul, which is used to terminate peak hour services from Sydney, as well as local services.

At Coniston south of Wollongong, an electrified branch line heads east to Port Kembla. At Unanderra, the line to Moss Vale branches off to head west over the Illawarra escarpment to join the Main South line. Double tracking ends at Unanderra, and the line continues south as a single line track. The line continues south through Kembla Grange where a simple platform serves the Kembla Grange racecourse. The line then reaches Dapto where a passing loop is provided. Dapto was the southern extent of electrification until 2001[5]

The line then passes south through the hamlet of Albion Park Rail (where another crossing loop is provided) to reach Kiama, the current extent of electrification. South of Kiama, the line continues as a single track non-electrified line through rolling dairy pastures via several tunnels to the towns of Gerringong and Berry before arriving at its terminus at the town of Bomaderry on the northern bank of the Shoalhaven River. At Bomaderry, sidings connect to The Manildra Group's starch mill.[6]

Port Kembla branch[edit]

L set train at Cringila (no longer in service)

At Coniston, an electrified branch line proceeds east to the industrial suburb of Port Kembla with three intermediate stations.

The line is double track as far as just west of Port Kembla North and is used by freight trains as well as local CityRail passenger services. A stabling yard is provided at Port Kembla for overnight storage of electric trains.

History[edit]

Illawarra (Sth Coast) Line
002.0 km from Main Suburban Line
2.8 km Erskineville
4.8 km St Peters
5.3 km Sydenham
Metropolitan Goods line to Botany
Bankstown Line to Liverpool
6.8 km Tempe
Cooks River
East Hills Line to Macarthur
7.3 km Wolli Creek (to Airport Line)
8.4 km Arncliffe
9.6 km Banksia
10.4 km Rockdale
11.6 km Kogarah
12.7 km Carlton
13.7 km Allawah
014.8 km Hurstville
16.1 km Penshurst
17.1 km Mortdale
18.3 Oatley
Georges River
21.2 km Como
22.2 km Jannali
24.5 km Sutherland
Woronora Cemetery Branch
Cronulla branch to Cronulla
26.3 km Loftus
National Park branch
30.8 km Engadine
33.2 km Heathcote
038.7 km Waterfall
Waterfall Cutting (originally Waterfall Tunnel)
Sth Waterfall Temporary Junction
Cawley Loop
Cawley Tunnel
Helensburgh Temporary Junction
Old Helensburgh Tunnel
46.4 km Helensburgh
Helensburgh (1st site - closed)
Helensburgh Tunnel
Metropolitan Tunnel
Old Metropolitan Tunnel
Metropolitan Junction
Metropolitan Colliery branch
Lilyvale No. 1 Tunnel
Lilyvale No. 2 Tunnel
Lilyvale (1st site - closed)
Lilyvale Tunnel
Lilyvale (2nd site - closed)
54.6 km Otford
Otford Tunnel
Bald Hill Tunnel
56 km Stanwell Park
Stanwell Park (1st site - closed)
Stanwell Park Tunnel
Stanwell Park Viaduct
Stanwell Creek Tunnel
59.3 km Coalcliff
Coalcliff Colliery sidings
Coal Cliff South
Clifton Tunnel
Clifton
62.5 km Scarborough
64.4 km Wombarra
66.2 km Coledale
68.6 km Austinmer
070.2 km Thirroul
Bulli Coal siding
Bulli Colliery
72.2 km Bulli
74 km Woonona
75.6 km Bellambi
77 km Corrimal
78 km Towradgi
79.4 km Fairy Meadow
81.3 km North Wollongong
082.9 km Wollongong
84.1 km Coniston
Port Kembla Inner Harbour lines
Port Kembla Line to Port Kembla
86.3 Lysaghts
Dendrobium Colliery siding
87.7 km Cringila
Port Kembla Steelworks rail network
88.8 km Port Kembla North
Port Kembla Outer Harbour lines
90.2 km Port Kembla
88.3 km Unanderra
Unanderra- Moss Vale line to Moss Vale
91.6 km Kembla Grange Racecourse
Wongawilli Colliery siding
95.1 km Dapto
Yallah
Tallawarra Power Station siding
103.3 km Albion Park
105.5 km Oak Flats
Croom Tunnel
110.7 km Dunmore (Shellharbour)
Dunmore Quarry siding
113.4 km Minnamurra
Bombo Quarry siding
117.6 km Bombo
Kiama Tunnel
119.2 km Kiama
Omega Tunnels (x4)
Omega
128.6 km Gerringong
Toolijooa
140.8 km Berry
Jaspers Brush
Manildra starch mill siding
153.4 km Bomaderry (Nowra)

A Sydney to Kiama railway was authorised by the New South Wales Parliament in April 1881.[7] Construction of the various sections was awarded by tender and commenced in October 1882.[7]

The Illawarra Line branched off the Main Suburban Railway south of Redfern, at Eveleigh (Illawarra Junction). The line opened to Hurstville in 1884, Sutherland in 1885, Waterfall in 1886 and Clifton through to Wollongong and North Kiama (Bombo) in 1887.[8] The missing Waterfall to Clifton section comprised four large brick-arch culverts (and many small ones) and eight tunnels with a total length of over 4 km, delaying its opening until 1888.[7] Kiama and Bomaderry (servicing Nowra) opened in 1893.[8] The line was originally double track to Hurstville and continued as a single track, but was duplicated to Waterfall (except for the Como to Sutherland section) in 1890.[7] In 1886 a branch line was opened to Audley in the Royal National Park, which closed in 1991. In 1917 the Thirroul Locomotive Depot opened to service the steam trains on the South Coast line and it closed in 1965.

Terrible Tunnel[edit]

A steep ruling grade of 1 in 40 faced up (Sydney bound) trains almost all the way between Stanwell Park station and Otford. The main problem was the 1550 m long Otford Tunnel, which took the railway through Bald Hill from the coast at Stanwell Park to the Hacking River valley. The steep 1 in 40 grade and tight clearances meant that soot, smoke and heat could become unbearable, especially when a south-easterly wind blew into the southern portal or when a train stalled in the tunnel.[7] [9]

A Mr B Chamberlain wrote about a stalled passenger train in 1890:[7]

Even with the windows closed, the carriages were filled with smoke and steam, women fainted and children screamed until the train backed down to Stanwell Park, and was finally staged up to Otford in two trips.

Regarding the crew, Chamberlain wrote:[7]

While the passenger with closed windows in an up train had an unpleasant journey… the unfortunate enginemen underwent a shocking ordeal. On tender engines both knelt on the footplate, coats over heads, to breathe the air coming from under the engine, the apron plate being raised for this purpose. Though the air was hot from passing around or through the ash pan, it was none the less welcome.

Attempts were made to overcome the problem with a ventilation shaft and chimney in the early 1890s and a blower system installed in 1909.[7]

Stanwell Creek viaduct

Many goods trains were routinely divided at Stanwell Park and taken through to Waterfall in stages, effectively increasing the number of train movements on the line. The increasing congestion and steepness led to construction of a double track deviation, which opened between Waterfall and Helensburgh in 1914, Helensburgh and Otford in 1915, and Otford and Coalcliff (bypassing the by now infamous Otford Tunnel) in 1920. The deviation avoided the steep grades with a more winding route featuring sharp curves, deep cuttings, new tunnels and a curved viaduct over Stanwell Creek that required 3 million bricks in its construction. Although the new route was 5 km longer it reduced the ruling grade from 1 in 40 to around 1 in 80.[7] Of the original eight tunnels in this section only the Clifton Tunnel remains in use and is the only single track section between Sydney and Unanderra.

In 1924, work began on a 57 km line connecting Unanderra with Moss Vale on the Great Southern line, which opened in 1932. It enabled the transportation of limestone from the Southern Highlands to the coast at Port Kembla. See: Unanderra - Moss Vale railway line.

Electrification of the South Coast Line was completed in stages reaching from Sydney to Loftus in 1926, Waterfall in 1980, Helensburgh in 1984, Wollongong in 1985-86, Dapto in 1993 and Kiama in 2001. The Kiama to Nowra section remains unelectrified.

Major structural problems with the Stanwell Creek viaduct were identified in late 1985, with one span close to collapsing and another badly cracked, requiring substantial repairs and stabilising work.[7]

On 31 January 2003, an Intercity Tangara passenger train (G7) derailed at high speed south of Waterfall station after its driver suffered a heart attack. The Waterfall train disaster resulted in seven fatalities and multiple injuries.

Passenger services[edit]

OSCAR train at Wollongong Station

The South Coast line passenger services currently consist of electric double deck multiple unit trains that operate between Bondi Junction or Central and either Wollongong, Kiama or Port Kembla. Diesel shuttle trains connect at Wollongong or Kiama and operate to Nowra. Although electrified to Wollongong in 1985, several diesel trains operated between Sydney and Nowra until 1991, one of which was the South Coast Daylight Express, operated as a locomotive hauled train of Budd and Tulloch type passenger cars which included catering facilities.[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Illawarra Line. Railcorp track diagram, 9 September 2002
  2. ^ "TIDC". TIDC. Retrieved 14 December 2006. 
  3. ^ The Woronora Cemetery Branch Railway, Neve, Peter Australian Railway Historical Society Bulletin, August 1993 pp187–195
  4. ^ The Helensburgh Deviation, Singleton, C.C. Australian Railway Historical Society Bulletin May 1966 pp97-106
  5. ^ "RIC Annual report 2001-2002" (PDF). Railcorp. Retrieved 8 January 2007. 
  6. ^ "Submission of shoalhaven City, 9 May 2005" (PDF). Parliament of Australia. Retrieved 8 January 2007. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Oakes, John (2009) [2003]. Sydney's Forgotten Illawarra Railways (2nd rev. ed.). Sydney: Australian Railway Historical Society, NSW Division. pp. 11, 12, 23, 24, 26, 54–56, 60, 73, 79–85. ISBN 978-0-9805106-6-9. 
  8. ^ a b "South Coast line". www.nswrail.net. Retrieved 26 November 2006. 
  9. ^ Tunnels on Australian Railways, by William A. Bailey, Austrail Publications, 1974, page 40-41
  10. ^ Walters, C. The Last Daylight. Railway Digest 1991, ARHS NSW.

External links[edit]