Chinese aircraft carrier Liaoning

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Career (Soviet UnionUkraine)
Name: RigaVaryag
Namesake: Russian cruiser Varyag (1899)
Ordered: 1983
Builder: Nikolayev South
Nevskoye Planning and Design Bureau
Laid down: December 6, 1985
Launched: December 4, 1988
Completed: Uncompleted (68%)
Fate: Phased out in 1995
Career (China)
Name: Liaoning
(Chinese: 中国人民解放军海军辽宁舰)
Namesake: Liaoning Province, China
Builder: Dalian Shipbuilding Industry
Completed: 2011
Commissioned: September 25, 2012
Status: In active service
General characteristics for Varyag as originally designed
Class & type: Admiral Kuznetsov-class aircraft carrier
Displacement: 53 050 tons (Standard-load)[1][irrelevant citation]
59 100 tons (Full-load)[1]
67 500 tons (Max-load) [2]
Length: 304.5 m (999 ft) o/a
270 m (890 ft) w/l
Beam: 75 m (246 ft) o/a
35 m (115 ft) w/l
Draft: 8.97 m (29.4 ft)
Installed power: Steam
Propulsion: Steam turbines, 8 boilers, 4 shafts, 200,000 hp (150 MW)
2 × 50,000 hp (37 MW) turbines
9 × 2,011 hp (1,500 kW) turbogenerators
6 × 2,011 hp (1,500 kW) diesel generators
4 × fixed pitch propellers (before engines removed in Ukraine)
Speed: 32 knots (59 km/h; 37 mph) (before engines removed in Ukraine)
Range: 3,850 nautical miles (7,130 km; 4,430 mi) at 32 knots (before engines removed in Ukraine)
Endurance: 45 days
Complement: 1,960 crew
626 air group
40 flag staff
3,857 rooms

After refit:
3 × Type 1030 CIWS
3 × HQ-10 (18 Cell Missile system)
2 × ASW 12 tube rocket launchers

As designed:
8 × AK-630 AA guns (6 × 30 mm, 6,000 round/min/mount, 24,000 rounds)
8 × CADS-N-1 Kashtan CIWS (each 2 × 30 mm Gatling AA plus 16 3K87 Kortik SAM)
12 × P-700 Granit SSM
18 × 8-cell 3K95 Kinzhal SAM VLS (192 vertical launch missiles; 1 missile per 3 seconds)
RBU-12000 UDAV-1 ASW rocket launchers (60 rockets)
Aircraft carried: Shenyang J-15
Changhe Z-8
As designed:
× 30 fixed wing aircraft[3]
× 24 helicopters

Liaoning (CV-16) (Chinese: 中国人民解放军海军辽宁舰; pinyin: Zhōngguó Rénmín Jiěfàngjūn Hǎijūn Liáoníng Jiàn), is the first aircraft carrier commissioned into the People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN). She is classified as a training ship, intended to allow the Navy to practice with carrier usage.

Originally laid down as the Admiral Kuznetsov class multirole aircraft carrier Riga for the Soviet Navy, she was launched on December 4, 1988 and renamed Varyag in 1990. The stripped hulk was purchased in 1998 by the People's Republic of China and towed to Dalian Shipyard in north eastern China. After being completely rebuilt and undergoing sea trials, the ship was commissioned into the PLAN as Liaoning on September 25, 2012.



The ship was laid down as Riga at Shipyard 444 (now Nikolayev South) in Mykolaiv, Ukraine on December 6, 1985.[4][5] Design work was undertaken by the Nevskoye Planning and Design Bureau.[6] Launched on December 4, 1988, the carrier was renamed Varyag in late 1990, after the famous cruiser. Often referred to as an aircraft carrier, the vessel's design implied a mission different from carriers of the United States Navy, Royal Navy or French Navy. The Russian-language term used by her builders to describe the ships is "тяжёлый авианесущий крейсер" tyazholiy avianesushchiy kreyser (TAKR or TAVKR) "heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser", intended to support strategic missile-carrying submarines, surface ships, and maritime missile-carrying aircraft of the Russian fleet. The Soviet Union and later Russia argued that the ships are not aircraft carriers under the Montreux Convention and not subject to the tonnage limits imposed on these ships in traveling through the Bosphorus.[7][8]

Construction ceased by 1992, with the ship structurally complete but without electronics. With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, ownership was transferred to Ukraine; the ship was laid up, unmaintained, and then stripped. By early 1998, she lacked engines, a rudder, much of her operating systems, and was put up for auction.[9] In April 1998, Ukrainian Trade Minister Roman Shpek announced the winning bid of $20 million from Chong Lot Travel Agency Ltd., a Hong Kong-based company, which proposed to tow Varyag out of the Black Sea, through the Suez Canal and around southern Asia to Macau, where they would moor the ship and convert it into a floating hotel and casino, similar to the Kiev in Tianjin and Minsk at Minsk World in Shenzhen.[5] Before the auction was closed, officials in Macau had warned Chong Lot that they would not be permitted to berth Varyag in the harbor. Chong Lot is owned by Chin Luck (Holdings) Company of Hong Kong; four of Chin Luck's six board members live in Yantai, China, the location of a major navy shipyard, the chairman is a former career military officer with the People's Liberation Army.[5] The sale of the carrier was successfully closed in 1998.[10]

Transfer to China[edit]

In mid-2000, the Dutch International Transport Contractors tugboat Suhaili with a Filipino crew was hired to take Varyag under tow. Chong Lot could not get permission from Turkey to transit the dangerous Bosphorus strait; under the Montreux Treaty of 1936 Turkey is obligated to permit free passage, but has certain sovereignty and refusal rights. The hulk spent 16 months under tow circling in the Black Sea while high-level PRC officials negotiated on Chong Lot's behalf, offering Chinese tourism as an incentive to permit the ship's passage. In late 2001, Turkey relented from its position that the vessel posed too great a danger to the bridges of Istanbul, allowing the transit.[citation needed] On November 2, Varyag, escorted by other twenty-seven vessels, completed its six-hour passage through the Dardanelles without incident, making for Gallipoli and Çanakkale at 5.8 knots (10.7 km/h; 6.7 mph).[11]

Varyag under tow in İstanbul

On November 3, Varyag was caught in a force 9 gale and broke adrift while passing the Greek island of Skyros. Sea rescue workers tried to re-capture the hulk as it drifted toward the island of Euboea. A seven-member crew remained on board as six tugboats tried to re-establish their tow. After many failed attempts to reattach the lines, a Greek coast guard helicopter landed on Varyag and picked up four of the seven crew. One tug managed to make a line fast to the ship that day, but high winds severely hampered efforts to secure the ship. On November 6, Aries Lima (reported as both Dutch and Portuguese), a sailor from the tug Haliva Champion, died after a fall while attempting to reattach the tow lines. On November 7, the hulk was taken back under tow.[citation needed]

The Suez Canal does not permit passage of "dead" ships — those without an on-board power source — so the hulk was towed through the Strait of Gibraltar, around the Cape of Good Hope, and through the Straits of Malacca at an average speed of 6 knots (11 km/h) across the 15,200-nautical-mile (28,200 km) journey, calling for supplies at Piraeus, Greece; Las Palmas, Canary Islands; Maputo, Mozambique; and Singapore en route. It entered Chinese waters on February 20, 2002, and arrived March 3 at Dalian Shipyard in northeastern China. The costs included $25 million to the Ukrainian government for the hull, nearly $500,000 in transit fees, and $5 million for the towing.[citation needed] While the Varyag was stated to become a casino, in February 2002 Chong Lot was not awarded casino licenses by Macau.

Modernization and refit[edit]

In 2008, Robert Karniol, the Asia editor of Jane's Defence Weekly, said: "The Chinese haven't seen this type of carrier before and it could be very useful to them. They are trying to vacuum up as much know-how as they can".[12] Liu Huaqing, a senior admiral of the PLAN and proponent of naval modernization, has spoken of the 21st century as the "century of the sea" and called for naval modernization over several decades.[13] There has been resistance within the PLAN towards Liu Huaqing's vision for an extensive Chinese navy, including debates between developing aircraft carriers and submarines.[13]

Ex-Varyag undergoing refit at Dalian in 2011

The Varyag was moved in June 2005 to a dry dock at Dalian (38°56′06″N 121°36′51″E / 38.935°N 121.6141°E / 38.935; 121.6141 (Varyag)). Her hull was sandblasted, scaffolding erected, and the island was painted in a red marine primer to treat metal corrosion. On October 24, 2006, the Kommersant online newspaper reported that Russia planned to sell up to 50 Su-33 fighters to China through Rosoboronexport, in a $2.5 billion deal. In March 2009 Moskovskij Komsomolets reported that negotiations had collapsed over Russian fears that China might undercut Russian exports by producing cheaper versions of the Su-33 equipped with Chinese systems, similar to the Shenyang J-11 and the Su-27.[14]

In 2007, Jane's Fighting Ships stated that the ship would possibly be named Shi Lang and assigned pennant number 83, but that these were unconfirmed.[15] Jane's Navy International noted in October 2007 that "refurbishment work and fitting out is continuing and the vessel is expected to begin initial sea trials in 2008".[16] At the end of 2008, the Asahi Shimbun reported that the carrier was "nearing completion".[17] On April 27, 2009 the carrier was reported to have been moved into another dry dock, " install engines and other heavy equipment".[18] Sensors that have been observed are Type 348 active electronically scanned array (AESA) Radar (4 arrays) and Sea Eagle radar. Weapons observed have been the Type 1030 CIWS, and the FL-3000N missile system. It has also been observed that the old anti-ship missile tubes will not be used, freeing up internal space for hangar or storage use. Russia has similar plans to modernize its sister ship Kuznetsov.[19]

In 2009, the PLAN constructed a full scale logistics, training deck and island mock-up at the Wuhan Naval Research facilities near Huangjia Lake, Wuhan.[20][21] On June 8, 2011, the Chief of the General Staff of the People's Liberation Army, Gen. Chen Bingde made the first acknowledgement of the ship's existence from China's armed forces, stating that the carrier "is being built, but has not been completed." The ship would be used for training and as a model for a future indigenously-built ship. Qi Jianguo, assistant to the chief of the PLA's general staff said "All of the great nations in the world own aircraft carriers — they are symbols of a great power."[22] On July 27, 2011, the Chinese Defense Ministry announced it was refitting the vessel for "scientific research, experiment and training."[23]

Sea trials and handover[edit]

On 10 August 2011, the ex-Varyag began sea trials. An RSIS analyst noted that China still had a long way to go to make her operational, but was determined to do so.[24] On 15 August 2011, she docked in Dalian, completing her first four-day sea trial.[25] On 29 November 2011 the carrier left port for her second set of trials.[26][27] In December 2011 the ship was photographed by satellite while undertaking sea trials.[28] The carrier completed her eighth sea trial between 7 June and 21 June 2012 and returned to Dalian. In July 2012, the ship set out for the longest sea trials thus far, 25 days, and there was speculation that this would have involved testing the launching and recovery of aircraft.[29]

According to the China Times, the carrier completed sea trials in early August 2012 and loaded Shenyang J-15 aircraft and KJ-88, YJ-83K, and YJ-91 missiles in preparation for weapons systems trials.[30] Reuters analysis suggests the role of the ship will be mostly training and evaluation ahead of the building of domestic carriers, with only a limited operational role. Flight control software, avionics, weapons and radars remain to be developed. Reuters reports PLA officers stating the carrier is far from operational with extensive further trials and exercises required.[31]

On 23 September 2012, the aircraft carrier was handed over to the PLAN, and was commissioned on 25 September 2012.[32] At the commissioning ceremony, the carrier was officially named Liaoning, in honour of the province in which she was retrofitted.[13][33] On 26 December 2012, the People's Daily reported that it will take 4 to 5 years for the Liaoning to reach full capacity, mainly due to training and coordination requirements due this being the first operational aircraft carrier in the PLAN's possession.[34] As it is currently a training ship, Liaoning is not assigned to any of China's operation fleets.[35]

On 7 April 2014, U.S. Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel became the first foreign visitor to take a tour of the Liaoning during a wider trip to China to discuss cybersecurity and address China's military buildup in the East China Sea. Secretary Hagel had asked to see the ship in early 2014, and the request was accepted in advance of his arrival. Hagel and a number of his staff toured the vessel at Yuchi Naval Base, observing the medical facilities, living quarters, flight deck, bridge, and flight control station. They received a briefing about the carrier and also had refreshments with junior officers. The Pentagon said that Secretary Hagel was pleased to visit the Liaoning and was impressed by the professionalism of the officers and crew.[36]

During sea trials, the Liaoning once experienced a steam burst in the engine compartment which forced crew to evacuate some parts of the ship, and the ship lost power. The problem was ultimately resolved and power was restored, although the time duration of the problem has not been released by military officials.[37]

Aircraft handling[edit]

On 4 November 2012, the People's Liberation Army website (Chinese: 中国军网) reported that J-15s had performed carrier touch-and-go training.[38][39] On 25 November 2012, China announced that J-15s had made five successful arrested landings on Liaoning.[40][41][42][43] In June 2013, a second round of flight tests began on board Liaoning, with personnel from the fleet air arm of the Brazilian Navy providing carrier training support to the Chinese Navy.[44][not in citation given][45][better source needed] In August 2014, Chinese state media reported that at least two pilots had been killed testing jets slated to operate from the Liaoning. The circumstances of their deaths are unknown and it is likely that at least two aircraft had been lost.[46][47]

In August 2014, the Chinese-language Shanghai Morning Post listed that the Liaoning would carry 36 aircraft: 24 Shenyang J-15 fighters; 6 Changhe Z-18F anti-submarine warfare (ASW) helicopters; 4 Changhe Z-18J airborne early warning helicopters; and 2 Harbin Z-9C rescue helicopters. The Chinese carrier aircraft inventory is similar to a balanced combat and support aircraft approach intended for Soviet aircraft carriers, which supported nuclear submarines, large surface combatants, and land-based strike bombers performing anti-access roles. The air wing lacks long-range radar and anti-submarine fixed-wing aircraft, needing support from shore-based aircraft such as Tupolev Tu-154 ASW and Shaanxi Y-8 AWACS aircraft The lack of a carrier onboard delivery aircraft like the U.S. Navy C-2 Greyhound also limits logistics capabilities. The Liaoning would need extensive land-based support to oppose a U.S. Navy carrier battle group; it is potent against the Vietnamese Navy and the Philippine Navy. Deficiencies will likely be corrected with future aircraft carriers, which are expected to be larger with conventional takeoff decks and catapult launching for heavier fighters, plus fixed-wing radar and anti-submarine patrol aircraft.[48] The U.S. Department of Defense noted that the J-15 will have below normal range and armament when operating from the carrier, due to limits imposed by the ski-jump takeoff and arrested carrier landings.[49]

See also[edit]


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  2. ^ John Pike. "Kuznetsov Class - Project 1143.5". Retrieved 2014-08-26. 
  3. ^
  4. ^ Rochlin, G. I; La Porte, T. R; Roberts, H, The Self-Designing High-Reliability Organization: Aircraft Carrier Flight Operations at Sea, Naval War College Review LI (Autumn, 1987; number 3), Footnote 39, archived from the original on December 13, 2006 
  5. ^ a b c Storey, I; Ji, Y, China's Aircraft Carrier Ambitions: Seeking Truth from Rumors 57 (Winter 2004; number 1), Naval War College Review, archived from the original on December 12, 2006 
  6. ^ "Aircraft Carrier Varyag". Retrieved May 9, 2011. [dead link]
  7. ^ 14 San Diego L. Rev. 681 (1976-1977) Kiev and the Montreux Convention: The Aircraft Carrier That Became a Cruiser to Squeeze through the Turkish Straits; Froman, F. David
  8. ^ "The Tbilist and the Montreux Convention". Retrieved December 8, 2011. [dead link]
  9. ^ "Comparison of Chinese Aircraft Carrier Liaoning and Indian INS Vikrant". The World Reporter. 25 August 2013. Retrieved August 25, 2013. [better source needed]
  10. ^ "China’s aircraft-carrier: Name and purpose to be determined". The Economist. 2011-08-11. Retrieved November 26, 2012. 
  11. ^ Jonathan Eyal (July 16, 2011). "China Aircraft Carrier Dreams". Straits Times. [self-published source?]
  12. ^ PLA Navy announces to recruit fighter pilot for its first Aircraft CarrierChinese Military Power Mashup article, September 10, 2008[self-published source?]
  13. ^ a b c Chang, Felix K. (October 2012). "MAKING WAVES: DEBATES BEHIND CHINA’S FIRST AIRCRAFT CARRIER". FOREIGN POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE. p. 6. Retrieved October 24, 2012. 
  14. ^ "Sukhoi Su-33 'Navy Flanker'". Milavia,[self-published source?]
  15. ^ Saunders, Stephen (editor) (2007). Jane's Fighting Ships Vol. 110, 2007-2008. Coulsdon: Jane’s Information Group. p. 122. 
  16. ^ Jon Rosamond, 'China completes joint exercise with UK aircraft carrier,' Jane's Navy International, November 2007, p.6
  17. ^ Minemura, Kenji (December 31, 2008), China to start construction of 1st aircraft carriers next year, Asahi Shimbun, archived from the original on May 26, 2009 
  18. ^ "Chinese Carrier Goes Into Dry Dock". May 14, 2009. Retrieved May 9, 2011. [self-published source?]
  19. ^ "Rebuilding the carrier: new look of Admiral Kuznetsov". Retrieved 2014-08-26. 
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  28. ^ Agencies (December 15, 2011). "US satellite snaps China's first aircraft carrier at sea | World news |". London: Guardian. Retrieved December 15, 2011. 
  29. ^ Yang, Jian (July 12, 2012). "J-15 jets on deck as carrier sets off on longest sea trials". Shanghai Daily. Retrieved January 4, 2014. 
  30. ^ China Times, "China's First Aircraft Carrier Ready To Enter Service: Report", August 6, 2012 [title incomplete]
  31. ^ David Lague (August 29, 2012). "Analysis - China's aircraft carrier: in name only". Reuters. Retrieved September 8, 2012. 
  32. ^ "China’s Navy passes first aircraft-carrier into service". 2012-09-25. Retrieved 2014-08-26. 
  33. ^ Pang Li (September 10, 2012). "China to name its first aircraft carrier 'Liaoning'". 
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  36. ^ Hagel tours China's new aircraft carrier -, 7 April 2014
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  38. ^ "滑跃14°:中国海军起飞的仰角". 解放军报 (Beijing). 4 November 2012. 
  39. ^ "解放军报还原中国航母舰载机触舰复飞瞬间(图)". 中国新闻网 (Beijing). 4 November 2012. 
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  47. ^
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