Taekwondo

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from TaeKwonDo)
Jump to: navigation, search
Taekwondo
Taekwondo.svg
Italian Taekwondo Championships 2013.jpg
A World Taekwondo Federation Taekwondo sparring match
Also known as Tae-Kwon-Do, Taekwon-Do, Tae Kwon Do, TaeKwonDo, Tae Kwon-Do.
Focus Striking
Country of origin South Korea South Korea
North Korea North Korea
Creator A collaborate effort by representatives from the nine, original kwans.[1] The name taekwondo was suggested by Choi Hong Hi of Oh Do Kwan.
Famous practitioners Hee Il Cho, Chang Keun Choi, Choi Hong Hi, Kwang Jo Choi, Young Il Kong, Han Cha Kyo, Nam Tae Hi, Jong Soo Park, Jung Tae Park, Yeon Hwan Park, Chong Chul Rhee, Steven López, Servet Tazegül, Jade Jones, Anthony Obame, Juan Antonio Ramos, Jhoon Rhee, Ki Ha Rhee, Tran Trieu Quan, S. Henry Cho, Anderson Silva, Bas Rutten, Chan Sung Jung, Chuck Norris, Dan Hardy, Mirko Filipović, Joe Rogan.
Parenthood Taekkyeon, Subak, Okinawan Karate
Olympic sport Since 2000 (WTF regulations)
Korean name
Hangul 태권도
Hanja 跆拳道
Revised Romanization Taegwondo
McCune–Reischauer T'aegwŏndo

Taekwondo /ˌtˌkwɒnˈd/ or /ˌtˌkwɒnˈd/ (Korean 태권도 (hangul) / 跆拳道 (hanja), [tʰɛk͈wʌndo]) is a Korean martial art. It combines combat and self-defense techniques with sport and exercise. Gyeorugi (pronounced [kjʌɾuɡi]), a type of sparring, has been an Olympic event since 2000. Taekwondo was developed by a variety of Korean masters during the 1940s as partial combination of taekkyeon, Okinawan karate, and other traditions.

The name taekwondo was coined by Choi Hong Hi (of the Oh Do Kwan). The World Taekwondo Federation claims that taekwondo development was a collaborative effort by a council consisting of members from the nine original kwans,[1] while the International Taekwon-Do Federation credits Choi Hong Hi solely.[2]

Traditional taekwondo typically refers to the martial art as it was established in the 1950s and 1960s in the South Korean military and in various civilian organizations, including schools and universities. In particular, the names and symbolism of the both the traditional patterns and the newer poomsae often refer to elements of Korean history, culture and religious philosophy. This symbolism is replicated in the Korean flag.

Sport taekwondo was developed in the 1950s and may have a somewhat different focus, especially in terms of its emphasis on speed and competition (as in Olympic sparring). Sport taekwondo is in turn subdivided into two main styles. One style is practiced by International Taekwon-Do adherents and was created in 1955 by Choi Hong Hi. The other style derives from Kukkiwon, the source of the sparring system sihap gyeorugi. This style is now an event at the summer Olympic Games and is governed by the World Taekwondo Federation (WTF). Kukkiwon (World Taekwondo Headquarters) is the traditional center for WTF taekwondo and was founded in 1973 by Dr. Kim Un Yong.

Although there are doctrinal and technical differences between sparring in the two main styles and among the various organizations, the art in general emphasizes kicks and punches thrown from a mobile stance. Taekwondo training generally includes a system of blocks, kicks, punches, and open-handed strikes and may also include various take-downs or sweeps, throws, and joint locks. Pressure points, known as jiapsul, are used, as well as grappling self-defense techniques borrowed from other martial arts such as Japanese judo, Korean hapkido, and Korean wrestling or ssireum.

In Korean, tae (태, ) means "to strike or break with the foot"; kwon (권, ) means "to strike or break with the fist"; and do (도, ) means "way of life". Thus, taekwondo may be loosely translated as "the way of the foot and the hand."[3] The name taekwondo is also written as taekwon-do, tae kwon-do, or tae kwon do by various organizations.

History[edit]

The oldest Korean martial art was an amalgamation of unarmed combat styles developed by the three rival Korean Kingdoms of Goguryeo, Silla, and Baekje,[4] where young men were trained in unarmed combat techniques to develop strength, speed, and survival skills. The most popular of these techniques was ssireum and subak, with taekkyeon being the most popular of the components of subak. The Northern Goguryeo kingdom was a dominant force in Northern Korea and North Eastern China prior to the 1st century CE, and again from the 3rd century to the 6th century. Before the fall of the Goguryeo Dynasty in the 6th century, the Shilla Kingdom asked for help in training its people for defense against pirate invasions. During this time a few select Silla warriors were given training in taekkyeon by the early masters from Goguryeo. These Shilla warriors then became known as the Hwarang. The Hwarang set up a military academy for the sons of royalty in Silla called Hwarang-do, which means "the way of flowering manhood." The Hwarang studied taekkyeon, history, Confucian philosophy, ethics, Buddhist morality, social skills, and military tactics. The guiding principles of the Hwarang warriors were based on Won Gwang's five codes of human conduct and included loyalty, filial duty, trustworthiness, valor, and justice. Taekkyeon spread throughout Korea as the Hwarang traveled all around the peninsula to learn about the other regions and people.[citation needed]

In spite of Korea's rich history of ancient and martial arts, Korean martial arts faded into obscurity during the late Joseon Dynasty. Korean society became highly centralized under Korean Confucianism, and martial arts were poorly regarded in a society whose ideals were epitomized by its scholar-kings.[5] Formal practices of traditional martial arts such as subak and taekkyeon were reserved for sanctioned military uses. However, taekkyeon persisted into the 19th century as a folk game during the May-Dano festival, and was still taught as the formal military martial art throughout the Joseon Dynasty.[4]

Early progenitors of taekwondo who were able to study in Japan were exposed to Japanese martial arts, including karate, judo, and kendo,[6] while others were exposed to the martial arts of China and Manchuria, as well as to the indigenous Korean martial art of taekkyeon.[7][8] [9][10]

When the Japanese occupation of Korea ended in 1945, Korean martial arts schools (kwan) began to open in Korea.[7][11] There are differing views on the origins of the arts taught in these schools. Some believe that they taught martial arts that were based primarily upon the traditional Korean martial arts taekkyeon and subak,[10][12][13][14][15] while others believe that taekwondo was derived from native Korean martial arts with influences from neighboring countries.[7][16][17][18][19][20] Still others believe that these schools taught arts that were almost entirely based upon karate.[21][22][23]

In 1952, at the height of the Korean War, there was a martial arts exhibition in which the kwan displayed their skills. In one demonstration, Nam Tae Hi smashed 13 roof tiles with a punch. Following this demonstration, South Korean President Syngman Rhee instructed Choi Hong Hi to introduce the martial arts to the Korean army. By the mid-1950s, nine kwan had emerged. Syngman Rhee ordered that the various schools unify under a single system. The name "taekwondo" was submitted by either Choi Hong Hi (of the Oh Do Kwan) or Duk Sung Son (of the Chung Do Kwan), and was accepted on April 11, 1955. As it stands today, the nine kwan are the founders of taekwondo,[1] though not all of the kwans used the name. The Korea Taekwondo Association (KTA) was formed in 1959-1961 to facilitate the unification.[6][13][24]

In the early 1960s, taekwondo made its début worldwide with assignment of the original masters of taekwondo to various countries. Standardization efforts in South Korea stalled, as the kwans continued to teach differing styles. Another request from the Korean government for unification resulted in the formation of the Korea Tae Soo Do Association, which changed its name back to the Korea Taekwondo Association in 1965 following a change of leadership. The International Taekwon-Do Federation was founded in 1966, followed by the World Taekwondo Federation in 1973.

Since 2000, taekwondo has been one of only two Asian martial arts (the other being judo) that are included in the Olympic Games. It became a demonstration event at the 1988 games in Seoul, and became an official medal event at the 2000 games in Sydney. In 2010, taekwondo was accepted as a Commonwealth Games sport.[25]

One source estimated that as of 2009, taekwondo was practiced in 123 countries, with over 30 million practitioners and 3 million individuals with black belts throughout the world.[citation needed] The South Korean government in the same year published an estimate of 70 million practitioners in 190 countries.[26]

Features[edit]

Flying double side kick
A jumping reverse hook kick

Taekwondo is known for its emphasis on high kicking and fast kick techniques, which distinguishes it from other popular martial arts and combat sports such as karate. However, the World Taekwondo Federation (WTF) believes that because the leg is the longest and strongest limb a martial artist has, kicks therefore have the greatest potential to execute powerful strikes with the least chance of retaliation.[citation needed]

Taekwondo as a martial art is popular with people of both genders and of many ages. Physically, taekwondo develops strength, speed, balance, flexibility, and stamina. An example of the union of mental and physical discipline is the breaking of wooden boards, bricks, or tiles, which requires both physical mastery of the technique and mental concentration to focus one's power.[citation needed]

A taekwondo student typically wears a uniform (dobok 도복/道服, doh'-bok), often white but sometimes black (or other colors), with a belt (ddi 띠, dee) tied around the waist. There are at least three major styles of dobok, with the most obvious differences being in the style of jacket: (1) the cross-over front jacket that resembles traditional Asian clothing, (2) the V-neck jacket (no cross-over) typically worn by WTF practitioners, and (3) the vertical-closing front jacket (no cross-over) typically worn by ITF practitioners. The belt color and any insignia thereon indicate the student's rank. In general, the darker the color, the higher the rank. The school or place where instruction is given is called the dojang (도장, doh'-jang). The grandmaster of the dojang is called a gwanjangnim (관장님, gwon'-jong-nim); the master (senior instructor or head of dojang) is called sabeomnim (사범님, sah'-bum-nim); the instructor is called gyosannim (교사님, gyoh'-sah-nim); and the assistant instructor is called jogyonim (조교님, joh'-gyoh-nim).[citation needed] The person's seniority in the dojang is not what distinguishes their title, but rather it is the degree, or dan, of black belt.

Taekwondo is traditionally performed in bare feet, although there are specialist training shoes that can sometimes be worn.

Although each taekwondo club or school is different, a student typically takes part in most or all of the following:[27]

  • Learning the techniques and curriculum of taekwondo
  • Both anaerobic and aerobic workout, including stretching
  • Self-defense techniques (hosinsool 호신술, hoh'-sin-sool)
  • Patterns (also called forms, poomsae 품새/品勢 poom'-sy, teultoul, or hyeong 형/型 he-yung)
  • Sparring (called gyeorugi 겨루기 gyee-oh-roo'-gee, or matseogi 맞서기 mat-see-oh'-gee in the ITF), which may include 7-, 3-, 2-, and 1-step sparring, free-style sparring, arranged sparring, point sparring, and other types
  • Relaxation and meditation exercises, as well as breathing control
  • Throwing and/or falling techniques (deonjigi 던지기 dee-on-jee'-gee and ddeoreojigi 떨어지기 dee-oh-ree-oh-jee'-gee)
  • A focus on mental and ethical discipline, etiquette, justice, respect, and self-confidence
  • Breaking (gyeokpa 격파 gyee-ohk'-pah or weerok), using techniques to break boards for testing, training, and martial arts demonstrations. Demonstrations often also incorporate bricks, tiles, and blocks of ice or other materials. These technique can be separated into three types:
    • Power breaking – using straightforward techniques to break as many boards as possible
    • Speed breaking – boards are held loosely by one edge, putting special focus on the speed required to perform the break
    • Special techniques – breaking fewer boards but using jumping or flying techniques to attain greater height, distance, or to clear obstacles
  • Examinations to progress to the next rank
  • Garnering strong leadership skills [28][29]

Some schools teach the "sine wave" technique when performing patterns. This involves raising one's center of gravity between techniques, then lowering it as the technique is performed, producing the up-and-down movement from which the term "sine wave" is derived. Other schools teach that one's center of gravity should remain generally constant throughout the performance of a pattern except where the pattern's description states otherwise.[citation needed]

Organizations[edit]

Four concrete paving bricks broken with a knife-hand strike. Breaking techniques are often practiced in taekwondo.

Two of the most popular systems of taekwondo are named solely after their respective organizations: the World Taekwondo Federation (WTF) and the International Taekwon-Do Federation (ITF).

The WTF was founded in 1973, with roots in the Korean Taekwondo Association (KTA). The KTA Central Dojang opened in South Korea in 1972, and a few months later, the name was changed to Kukkiwon. The following year, the WTF was formed. The International Olympic Committee recognized the WTF and taekwondo sparring in 1980.

Although the terms "WTF" and "Kukkiwon" are often mistakenly used interchangeably, Kukkiwon is a completely different organization which trains and certifies instructors, and issues official dan and poom certificates worldwide. Kukkiwon has its own unique physical building that contains the administrative offices of Kukkiwon (World Taekwondo Headquarters) in Seoul, South Korea and is the system of taekwondo. In contrast, the WTF is a tournament committee, and is not technically a style or a system.

The ITF was founded in 1966 by Choi Hong Hi as a splinter group from the KTA. After Choi's death in 2002, a number of succession disputes splintered the ITF into three different groups, all claiming to be the original. These three bodies are all private organizations. Two are located in Austria and one in Canada. The unofficial training headquarters of the ITF is located at the Taekwondo Palace in Pyongyang, North Korea, and was founded in the mid-1990s.

There are many other private organizations, such as the World Traditional Taekwondo Union and American Taekwondo Association which promotes the Songahm style of taekwondo, and Rhee Taekwon-Do which taught the military style of taekwondo. Events and competitions held by private organizations are mostly closed to other taekwondo students. However, the WTF-sanctioned events allow any person, regardless of school affiliation or martial arts style, to compete in WTF events as long as he or she is a member of the WTF Member National Association in his or her nation, which allows anyone to join. The major technical differences among these many organizations revolve around the patterns (called hyeong 형, poomsae 품새, or teul 틀), which are sets of prescribed formal sequences of movements that demonstrate mastery of posture, positioning, and technique; differences in the sparring rules for competition; and martial arts philosophy.

In addition to these private organizations, the original schools (kwans) that formed the organization that would eventually become Kukkiwon continue to exist as independent fraternal membership organizations that support the WTF and Kukkiwon. The official curriculum of the kwans is that of Kukkiwon. The kwans also function as a channel for the issuing of Kukkiwon dan and poom certification (black belt ranks) for their members.

Ranks, belts, and promotion[edit]

Taekwondo ranks are typically separated into "junior" and "senior," or "student" and "instructor," sections. The junior section typically consists of ten ranks indicated by the Korean word geup 급 (also Romanized as gup or kup). The junior ranks are usually identified by belts of various colors, depending on the school, so these ranks are sometimes called "color belts". Geup rank may be indicated by stripes on belts rather than by colored belts. Students begin at tenth geup (often indicated by a white belt) and advance toward first geup (often indicated by a red belt with a white or black stripe).

The senior section is typically made up of nine ranks. Each rank is called a dan 단, also referred to as "black belt" or "degree" (as in "third dan" or "third-degree black belt"). Black belts begin at first degree and advance to second, third, and so on. The degree is often indicated on the belt itself with stripes, Roman numerals, or other methods, but sometimes black belts are plain and unadorned regardless of rank.

To advance from one rank to the next, students typically complete promotion tests in which they demonstrate their proficiency in the various aspects of the art before their teacher or a panel of judges. Promotion tests vary from school to school, but may include such elements as the execution of patterns, which combine various techniques in specific sequences; the breaking of boards to demonstrate the ability to use techniques with both power and control; sparring and self-defense to demonstrate the practical application and control of techniques; physical fitness usually with push-ups and sit-ups; and answering questions on terminology, concepts, and history to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the art. For higher dan tests, students are sometimes required to take a written test or submit a research paper in addition to taking the practical test.

Promotion from one geup to the next can proceed rapidly in some schools, since schools often allow geup promotions every two, three, or four months. Students of geup rank learn the most basic techniques first, and then move on to more advanced techniques as they approach first dan. Many of the older and more traditional schools often take longer to allow students to test for higher ranks than newer, more contemporary schools, as they may not have the required testing intervals.

In contrast, promotion from one dan to the next can take years. The general rule is that a black belt may advance from one rank to the next only after the number of years equivalent to their current rank. For example, a newly promoted third-degree black belt may not be allowed to advance to fourth-degree until three years have passed. Some organizations also have age requirements related to dan promotions, and may grant younger students poom 품 (junior black belt) ranks rather than dan ranks until they reach a certain age.

Black belt ranks may have titles associated with them, such as "master" and "instructor", but taekwondo organizations vary widely in rules and standards when it comes to ranks and titles. What holds true in one organization may not hold true in another, as is the case in many martial art systems. For example, achieving first dan ranking with three years' training might be typical in one organization, but considered too quick in another organization, and likewise for other ranks. Similarly, the title for a given dan rank in one organization might not be the same as the title for that dan rank in another organization.

In the International Taekwon-Do Federation, instructors holding 1st to 3rd dan are called Boosabum (assistant instructor), those holding 4th to 6th dan are called Sabum (instructor), those holding 7th to 8th dan are called Sahyun (master), and those holding 9th dan are called Saseong (grandmaster).[30] This system does not, however, necessarily apply to other taekwondo organizations.

In the World Taekwondo Federation, Students holding 1st-3rd dan are considered an Instructor, but generally have much to learn. Students who hold a 4th - 6th dan are considered Masters and must be at least 18 years old. Masters who hold a 7th - 9th dan are considered a Grand-Master. This rank also holds an age requirement of 40+ (age requirement for this belt is not 100% certain).

Philosophy[edit]

Since taekwondo was developed in several different kwans, there are several different expressions of taekwondo philosophy. For example, the tenets of the ITF are said to be summed up by the last two phrases in the ITF Student Oath: "I shall be a champion of freedom and justice" and "I shall build a more peaceful world."[citation needed] Many forms of taekwondo, however, are based on what are called the "Five Tenets of Tae Kwon Do", which are: courtesy (ye ui), integrity (yom chi), perseverance (in nae), self-control (guk gi), and indomitable spirit (baekjul boolgool).[31]

Competition[edit]

Taekwondo competition typically involves sparring, breaking, patterns, and self-defense (hosinsul). In Olympic taekwondo competition, however, only sparring (using WTF competition rules) is performed.[32]

There are two kinds of competition sparring: point sparring, in which all strikes are light contact and the clock is stopped when a point is scored; and Olympic sparring, where all strikes are full contact and the clock continues when points are scored.[citation needed]

World Taekwondo Federation[edit]

Official WTF trunk protector (hogu), forearm guards and shin guards

Under World Taekwondo Federation and Olympic rules, sparring is a full-contact event and takes place between two competitors in an area measuring 8 meters square.[33] A win can occur by points, or if one competitor is unable to continue (knockout) the other competitor wins.[34] Each match consists of three semi-continuous rounds of contact, with one minute's rest between rounds. There are two age categories: 14–17 years and 18 years and older. Depending on the type of tournament and club, competitors may also wear fist protectors, foot protectors, instep guards, helmets, or mouth guards.

Points are awarded for permitted, accurate, and powerful techniques delivered to the legal scoring areas; light contact does not score any points. The only techniques allowed are kicks (delivering a strike using an area of the foot below the ankle) and punches (delivering a strike using the closed fist).[35] In most competitions, points are awarded by three corner judges using electronic scoring tallies. Several A-Class tournaments, however, are now experimenting with electronic scoring equipment contained within the competitors' body protectors. This limits corner judges to scoring only attacks to the head. Some believe that the new electronic scoring system will help to reduce controversy concerning judging decisions,[36] but this technology is still not universally accepted.[37]

Beginning in 2009, a kick or punch that makes contact with the opponent's hogu (the body guard that functions as a scoring target) scores one point. If a kick to the hogu involves a technique that includes fully turning the attacking competitor's body, so that the back is fully exposed to the targeted competitor during execution of the technique (spinning kick), an additional point is awarded. A kick to the head scores three points; as of October 2010 an additional point is awarded if a turning kick was used to execute this attack.[38] Punches to the head are not allowed. As of March 2010, no additional points are awarded for knocking down an opponent (beyond the normal points awarded for legal strikes).

The referee can give penalties at any time for rule-breaking, such as hitting an area not recognized as a target, usually the legs or neck. Penalties are divided into "Kyong-go" (warning penalty) and "Gam-jeom" (deduction penalty). Two "Kyong-go" are counted as an addition of one point for the opposing contestant. However, the final odd-numbered "Kyong-go" is not counted in the grand total.[39]

At the end of three rounds, the competitor with most points wins the match. In the event of a tie, a fourth "sudden death" overtime round, sometimes called a "Golden Point", is held to determine the winner after a one-minute rest period. In this round, the first competitor to score a point wins the match. If there is no score in the additional round, the winner is decided by superiority, as determined by the refereeing officials.[38]

Until 2008, if one competitor gained a 7 point lead over the other, or if one competitor reached a total of 12 points, then that competitor was immediately declared the winner and the match ended. These rules were abolished by the WTF at the start of 2009. In October 2010 the WTF reintroduced a point-gap rule, stating that if a competitor has a 12-point lead at the end of the second round or achieves a 12-point lead at any point in the third round, then the match is over and that competitor is declared the winner.[38]

International Taekwon-Do Federation[edit]

Common styles of ITF point sparring equipment

The International Taekwon-Do Federation's sparring rules are similar to the WTF's rules, but differ in several aspects.

  • Hand and foot attacks to the head are allowed.[40]
  • The scoring system is:
    • 1 point for: Punch to the body or head.
    • 2 points for: Jumping kick to the body or kick to the head
    • 3 points for: Jumping kick to the head
  • The competition area may vary between 10×10 meters and 20×20 meters in international championships.

Competitors do not wear the hogu (although they are required to wear approved foot and hand protection equipment, as well as optional head guards). This scoring system varies between individual organisations within the ITF; for example, in the TAGB, punches to the head or body score 1 point, kicks to the body score 2 points, and kicks to the head score 3 points.

A continuous point system is utilized in ITF competition, where the fighters are allowed to continue after scoring a technique. Full-force blows are allowed, but judges penalize any competitor with disqualification if they injure their opponent and he can no longer continue (although these rules vary between ITF organizations). At the end of two minutes (or some other specified time), the competitor with more scoring techniques wins.

Fouls in ITF sparring include: attacking a fallen opponent, leg sweeping, holding/grabbing, or intentional attack to a target other than the opponent.[41]

ITF competitions also feature performances of patterns, breaking, and 'special techniques' (where competitors perform prescribed board breaks at great heights).

Other organizations[edit]

American Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) competitions are very similar, except that different styles of pads and gear are allowed.[citation needed]

Apart from WTF and ITF tournaments, major taekwondo competitions (all featuring WTF taekwondo only) include:

WTF taekwondo features in all multi-sport games except the Small Island Games. It was accepted as a Commonwealth Games sport in June 2010.

Safety[edit]

Although taekwondo competitors have an apparently substantial risk of injury, most injuries are minor. A 2009 meta-analysis reported that an average of about 8% of competitors are injured per exposure to competition. Age, gender, and level of play did not significantly affect the injury rate.[42] The legs are the most common location for injuries, and bruising is the most common injury type.

Injuries may occur if students are taught to block punches in a formal manner (chamber position, perfect angles, etc.) even when sparring. When comparing the speed of a punch and the reaction time taken to block effectively, it is difficult to block a punch. Many taekwondo schools teach students blocking for grading and classwork, and dodging or parrying for sparring.

Korean commands[edit]

In taekwondo, Korean language commands are often used. Korean numerals may be used as prompts or commands, or for counting repetition exercises. Often, students count in Korean during their class, and during tests they are usually asked what certain Korean words mean. These words are fairly common amongst taekwondo schools, but accuracy of pronunciation can vary widely.

Romanization Hangeul Hanja English
Charyeot (chah-ryuht') 차렷 Attention
Gyeongnye (kyuhng-nyeh) 경례 Bow
Baro (bah'-roh or pah'-roh) 바로 Return
Shwieo (shwee-uh) 쉬어 At ease (relax)
Hyushik (hyoo'-sheek) 휴식 Rest period (break)
Gihap (kee'-hahp) 기합 Yell (shout)
Junbi (joon'-bee) 준비 Ready
Shijak (shee-jahk') 시작 Begin (start)
Gallyeo (kahl'-lyuh) 갈려 Break (separate)
Gyesok (kyeh'-sohk) 계속 Continue
Geuman (geuh'-mahn) 그만 Finish (stop)
Dwiro dora (dwee'roh doh'-rah) 뒤로 돌아 About face (180 degrees)
Haesan (heh'-sahn) 해산 Dismissed

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Sik, Kang Won; Lee Kyong Myung (1999). A Modern History of Taekwondo. Seoul: Pogyŏng Munhwasa. ISBN 978-89-358-0124-4. 
  2. ^ NY Times 2002/06/29
  3. ^ "World Taekwondo Federation". What Is Taekwondo. Retrieved 8 February 2012. 
  4. ^ a b Capener, Steven D.; H. Edward Kim (ed.) (2000). Taekwondo: The Spirit of Korea (portions of). Korea: Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Republic of Korea. "Korea has a long history of martial arts stretching well back into ancient times. Written historical records from the early days of the Korean peninsula are sparse, however, there are a number of well-preserved archeological artifacts that tell stores of Korea’s early martial arts.", "taekwondo leaders started to experiment with a radical new system that would result in the development of a new martial sport different from anything ever seen before. This new martial sport would bear some important similarities to the traditional Korean game of taekkyon." 
  5. ^ Cummings, B. (2005). Korea's Place in the Sun. New York, NY: W.W. Norton. 
  6. ^ a b Park, S. W. (1993): About the author. In H. H. Choi: Taekwon-Do: The Korean art of self-defence, 3rd ed. (Vol. 1, pp. 241–274). Mississauga: International Taekwon-Do Federation
  7. ^ a b c Glen R. Morris. "The History of Taekwondo". 
  8. ^ Cook, Doug (2006). "Chapter 3: The Formative Years of Taekwondo". Traditional Taekwondo: Core Techniques, History and Philosophy. Boston: YMAA Publication Center. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-59439-066-1. 
  9. ^ Choi Hong Hi (1999). "ITF Information interviews with General Choi.". The Condensed Encyclopedia Fifth Edition. Archived from the original on 2009-09-18.  Young Choi's father sent him to study calligraphy under one of the most famous teachers in Korea, Mr. Han II Dong. Han, in addition to his skills as a calligrapher, was also a master of taekkyeon, the ancient Korean art of foot fighting. The teacher, concerned over the frail condition of his new student, began teaching him the rigorous exercises of taekkyeon to help build up his body.
  10. ^ a b "Brief History of Taekwondo". Long Beach Press-Telegram. 2005. 
  11. ^ Choi Young-ryul, Jeon Jeong-Woo (2006). "Comparative Study of the Techniques of Taekwondo and Taekkyon" (of publication = Academic Journal). Institution of physical exercise, Korea. pp. 197~206. 
  12. ^ "About Tae Kwon Do". The World Taekwondo Federation. 
  13. ^ a b "Historical Background of Taekwondo". The Korea Taekwondo Association (KTA). 
  14. ^ "Tae Kwon Do". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. 
  15. ^ "Comparing Styles of Taekwondo, Taekkyon and Karate(Video)". TaekwondoBible.com. "we compare styles of Taekwondo, Taekkyon and Karate in their Kyorugi(sparring). In this comparison, we can see the clear and distinct similarity of Taekwondo and Taekkyon (the old style of Taekwondo). As far as the essence of martial arts is the technical system of attack and defense, sparring style of each martial art will show directly the similarities of martial arts." 
  16. ^ Lawler, Jennifer (1999). "The History of Tae Kwon Do". The Secrets of Tae Kwon Do. Chicago: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 1-57028-202-1. 
  17. ^ 허인욱 (In Uk Heo) (January 2004). "형성과정으로 본 태권도의 정체성에 관하여 (A Study on Shaping of the Taekwondo)". 체육사학회지 (Korean Journal of History for Physical Education) (in Korean with English abstract) 14 (1): 79–87. Retrieved 2008-06-27. "Some of grand masters of five dojangs (道場, Taekwondo Gymnasium), which is unified as TKD afterwards, trained Karate during their stay in Japan as students. And the others trained martial arts in Manchuria. Therefore it can' be described as TKD is developed by influence of Karate only. And considering the fact that the main curriculum of those five dojangs was centered on kicking technique originate from Korean folk, so we know that the current TKD seems to be affected by Korean traditional martial arts." 
  18. ^ Patrick Zukeran (2003). "The Origins and Popularity of the Martial Arts". Probe Ministries. [dead link]
  19. ^ Henning, Stanley E. (December 1981). "The Chinese Martial Arts in Historical Perspective". Military Affairs (Society for Military History) 45 (4): 173–179. doi:10.2307/1987462. ISSN 0899-3718. "The Han Dynasty (206 B.C. – 220 A.D.) was a period during which conscript armies, trained in the martial arts, expanded the Chinese empire to Turkestan in the west and Korea in the northeast, where commanderies were established. It is possible that Chinese shoubo was transmitted to Korea at this time, and that it was the antecedent to Korean Taekwondo. According to one recent Korean source, "Taekwondo is known to have had its beginning in the period 209–427 A.D. ..."" 
  20. ^ Jung Kun-Pyo, Lee Kang-Koo (2007). "An Analysis on the various views of Taekwondo History" (of publication = Academic Journal). Institution of Physical science, Korea. pp. 3~12(10 pages). 
  21. ^ Capener, Steven D. (Winter 1995). "Problems in the Identity and Philosophy of T'aegwondo and Their Historical Causes". Korea Journal (Korean National Commission for UNESCO). ISSN 0023-3900. "[dubious ] "... t'aegwondo was first brought into Korea from Japan in the form of Japanese karate around the time of the liberation of Korea from Japanese colonial rule ..."." 
  22. ^ Madis, Eric (2003). "(The Evolution of Taekwondo from Japanese Karate)". In Green, Thomas A. and Joseph R. Svinth. Martial Arts in the Modern World. Praeger Publishers. ISBN 0-275-98153-3. "[dubious ] "...the following essay links the origins of taekwondo to twentieth-century Shotokan, Shudokan, and Shitō-ryū karate and shows how the revised history was developed to support South Korean nationalism." 
  23. ^ Burdick, Dakin (1997). People and Events of Taekwondo's Formative Years. volume 6, issue 1. Journal of Asian Martial Arts. 
  24. ^ Jewell, D. (2005): Rhee Taekwon-Do: A history of taekwondo Retrieved on 23 July 2009.
  25. ^ Williams, Bob (23 June 2010). "Taekwondo set to join 2018 Commonwealth Games after 'category two' classification". The Telegraph. Retrieved 21 November 2010. 
  26. ^ Kim, H.-S. (2009): Taekwondo: A new strategy for Brand Korea[dead link] (21 December 2009). Retrieved on 8 January 2010.
  27. ^ "Taekwondo". Taekwondo Training. Retrieved 6 February 2012. 
  28. ^ http://tkdvegas.com/classes/Leadership
  29. ^ http://baistaekwondo.com/classes/Teen-Martial-Arts
  30. ^ Choi, H. H. (1993): Taekwon-Do: The Korean art of self-defence, 3rd ed. (Vol. 1, p. 122). Mississauga: International Taekwon-Do Federation.
  31. ^ S. Benko, James. "Grand Master, Ph.D". The Tenants Of Tae Kwon Do. ITA Institute. Retrieved 13 March 2013. 
  32. ^ World Taekwondo Federation (2004). "Kyorugi rules". Rules. www.wtf.org. Archived from the original on 2007-07-02. Retrieved 2007-08-11. 
  33. ^ World Taekwondo Federation (2010): Competition rules & interpretation (2 March 2010, p. 5). Retrieved on 31 May 2010.
  34. ^ Article 18
  35. ^ p.26 Article 11
  36. ^ Gomez, Brian (August 23, 2009). "New taekwondo scoring system reduces controversy". The Gazette. 
  37. ^ British taekwondo chief says new judging system is far from flawless[dead link]
  38. ^ a b c World Taekwondo Federation (Oct 7, 2010): Competition rules & interpretation (7 October 2010, pp. 31–32). Retrieved on 27 November 2010.
  39. ^ WTF World Taekwondo Federation
  40. ^ International Taekwon-Do Federation Articles 33 & 34
  41. ^ ITF World Junior & Senior Tournament Rules - Rules and Regulations
  42. ^ Lystad RP, Pollard H, Graham PL (2009). "Epidemiology of injuries in competition taekwondo: a meta-analysis of observational studies". J Sci Med Sport 12 (6): 614–21. doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2008.09.013. PMID 19054714.