Glossary of alternative medicine
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This is a glossary for terms and concepts being used in Alternative Medicine a large category of practices that fall outside the scope of conventional medicine.
|Previous NCCAM domains|
- Acupuncture is the practice of inserting very thin needles in specific acupuncture points or combinations of points on the body.
- Alternative Medical Systems is the name of a NCCAM classification for those forms of alternative medicine that are built upon a "complete system of ideas and practice". It can include:
- Anthroposophical medicine was invented in the early twentieth century by Rudolf Steiner and Ita Wegman. Practitioners supplement anthroposophical ideas with conventional therapies and homeopathic remedies. Anthroposophical doctors must have a recognized medical degree (M.D., D.O., or equivalent).
- Anthroposophic Pharmacy is the process of developing treatments according to anthroposophic theories. Anthroposophic medicinal products are primarily used within anthroposophic medicine.
- Aromatherapy is the use of essential oils and other aromatic compounds, primarily to affect mood.
- Attachment therapy is a form of therapy aimed at children with alleged 'attachment disorders', usually fostered or adopted children. It is substantially based on outdated notions of suppressed rage due to early adverse experiences. Traditionally it uses a variety of confrontational and physically coercive techniques of which the most common form is holding therapy, accompanied by parenting methods which emphasize obedience. Following implication in a number of child death and maltreatment cases in the USA there has been a recent move away from coercion by some leading theorists and practitioners. It is largely unvalidated.
- Bates method is related to the visual acuity. It is based on the belief that errors in visual accommodation are due to mental strain, and that vision may be improved by appropriate relaxation techniques.
- "Biologically based therapies", is the precise name of a NCCAM classification, for alternative treatments that use substances found in nature and/or some other natural therapy. It can include:
- The Biomedical model of health is a conceptual model of illness that excludes psychological and social factors and includes only biological factors in an attempt to understand a person's illness. According to this model, health constitutes the freedom from disease, pain, or defect, thus making the normal human condition health. The model's focus on the physical processes, such as the pathology, the biochemistry and the physiology of a disease, does not take into account the role of social factors or individual subjectivity. The model also overlooks the fact that the diagnosis (that will affect treatment of the patient) is a result of negotiation between doctor and patient.
- Body work is any therapeutic, healing, or personal development work that involves some form of touching, energetic work, or the physical manipulation of a practically oriented physical and somatic understanding of the body.
- CAM is an acronym for complementary and alternative medicine, a large range of treatments and theories on the nature of health and illness, many of them unrelated, which have in common that they are not commonly employed by the conventional medical establishment.
- Chelation therapy is the use of chelating agents such as EDTA to remove heavy metals from the body. While in conventional medicine, chelation therapy is used only to treat heavy metal poisoning, some alternative practitioners advocate the use of chelation therapy to treat coronary artery disease.
- Chinese medicine – the group of philosophies embodied by Chinese medicine are, more accurately, referred to as Oriental Medicine with roots in many different Asian countries. This millennia-old Asian medical tradition works to bring balance to the body through acupuncture, massage, Eastern herbalism, diet; and lifestyle changes such as martial arts and meditation.
- The practice of Chiropractic is a manual therapy involving the manipulation of the vertebral subluxation to restore proper, motion, biomechanics, and nerve flow from the brain to the body.
- Christian Science a religious movement founded by Mary Baker Eddy (1821–1910) which augments and modifies Christianity with her own ideas. Christian Scientists believe the material world is an illusion and so illness too is not real, but an "error" which can be corrected with special kinds of prayer, and not by medicine.
- Colorpuncture is an alternative medicine practice asserting that light can be used to stimulate acupuncture points for the purpose of balancing energy in the body and promoting healing and better health. It is also called color light acupuncture in North America. It is a form of color therapy.
- Complementary medicine is treatments that are used alongside ("complementary to") conventional medicine.
- Diet-based therapy uses a variety of diets in order to improve health and longevity, to control weight, as well as to treat specific health conditions like high cholesterol.
- The Doctrine of signatures was developed around 1500 and claims that a plant's physical appearance reveals its medical value. The Doctrine of Signatures is often associated with Western herbalism.
- Eclectic medicine was a nineteenth-century system of medicine used in North America that treated diseases by the application of single herbal remedies to effect specific cures of certain signs and symptoms.
- Energy medicine is the name of a NCCAM classification, for alternative treatments that involve the use of veritable (i.e., that which can be measured) and putative (i.e., that which have yet to be measured) energy fields. It can include:
- Exercise-based therapy uses a variety of traditional forms of physical movement, in order to improve health and longevity, to increase, lengthen & tone muscle mass, gain flexibility, as well as to treat specific health conditions and to relieve stress. It can include:
- Feldenkrais Method is an educational system centered on movement, aiming to expand and refine the use of the self through awareness.
- Flower essence therapy is regarded by some as a sub-category of homeopathy which uses homeopathic dilutions of flowers. This practice was begun by Edward Bach with the Bach flower remedies but is now practiced much more widely.
- Folk medicine is the collection of procedures traditionally used for treatment of illness and injury, aid to childbirth, and maintenance of wellness.
- Grahamism, named for Sylvester Graham, recommended hard mattresses, open bedroom windows, chastity, cold showers, loose clothing, pure water and vigorous exercise.
- Herbalism is the practice of making or prescribing herbal remedies for medical conditions.
- Heroic medicine is any medicine or method of treatment that is aggressive or daring in a dangerously ill patient. It generally includes the pre-scientific treatments of 18th-century doctors, such as bloodletting.
- Holism is the study and advocacy of wholeness in health, science, politics, or any other area of life.
- Hydrotherapy is the external use of water in the medical treatment of disease, such as through the use of baths, the application of hot and cold compresses or sheet packs, and shower sprays. These applications typically use water as a medium for delivery of heat and cold to the body, capitalising on the thermoregulatory properties of the body for therapeutic effect.
- Integrative medicine as defined by National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine combines conventional medical treatments and CAM treatments for which there is some claimed scientific evidence of their safety and effectiveness. Integrative medicine also adopts the term "integrative health" which incorporates mental, spiritual and community wellness with personal health.
- Iridology (also known as iridodiagnosis) is an alternative medicine technique whose proponents believe that patterns, colors, and other characteristics of the iris can be examined to determine information about a patient's systemic health. Practitioners match their observations to iris charts which divide the iris into zones corresponding to specific parts of the human body.
- Life extension is a movement the goal of which is to live longer through intervention, and to increase maximum lifespan or average lifespan, especially in mammals. Researchers of life extension are a subclass of biogerontologists known as "biomedical gerontologists". See also the List of life extension related topics.
- Lifestyle is the particular attitudes, habits, or behaviors associated with an individual.
- Lifestyle diseases are diseases that appear to increase in frequency as countries become more industrialized and people live longer.
- Manipulative and body-based methods, is the precise name of a NCCAM classification, for alternative treatments that are based on manipulation and/or movement of one or more parts of the body. It can include:
- Manual Lymphatic Drainage (MLD) is a type of gentle massage which is believed by proponents to encourage the natural circulation of the lymph through the body.
- The mind-body connection idea says that the causes, development, and outcomes of an illness are determined as much from the interaction of psychological and social factors as they are due to the biological factors of health. Many mind-body therapists take the definition of "mind-body connection" further and state that the root cause of illness is actually in the mind and spirit, and that for complete and permanent eradication of an illness, the cause must be addressed and cure focused there.
- Mind-Body Intervention is the name of a NCCAM classification, that covers a variety of techniques designed to enhance the mind's capacity to affect bodily function and symptoms. It can include:
- "Nature cure" is the progenitor of naturopathy in Europe. It postulates that all disease is due to violations of nature's laws, and that true healing consists in a return to natural habits.
- Natural health is an eclectic self-care system of natural therapies that purports to build and restore health by working with the natural recuperative powers of the human body.
- Naturopathy is the eclectic practice of Naturopathic Doctors (N.D.) using many different natural therapies as treatment. The original method of treatment of Naturopathy was the water cure.
- Natural therapy is the treatment method used by advocates of natural health.
- NCCAM classifications – The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, or NCCAM, has classified complementary and alternative therapies into five different categories, or domains:
- Whole Medical Systems
- Mind-Body Intervention
- Biologically Based Therapy
- Manipulative and body-based methods
- Energy Therapy
- Qigong is an exercise aspect of Chinese medicine. Qigong is mostly taught for health maintenance purposes, but there are also some who teach it, especially in China, for therapeutic interventions. There are hundreds of different schools, and it is also an adjunct training of many East Asian martial arts.
- Reiki is a form of treatment developed by Mikao Usui in Japan around 1922. Practitioners use their hands on or above the patient in order to control, increase or open up a postulated energy, "ki", in the body. Training is usually through short courses, after which one can become certified as a "Reiki master".
- Siddha Medicine
- Systems medicine, or systems health, looks at the dynamic systems of the human body as part of an integrated whole, incorporating biochemical, physiological, and environment interactions that sustain life. Systems medicine draws on theories from holistic medicine, systems science and systems biology when developing a comprehensive approach that considers an individual’s health in light of their genomics, behavior and the external environment.
- Thalassotherapy – the use of seawater as a form of therapy. Thalassotherapy was popular in England during the second half of the eighteenth century, with Doctor Richard Russell credited as playing a significant role in its popularity.
- Therapeutic music – music played live at the bedside of persons who are faced with physical, emotional, and spiritual challenges, generally in the person’s home, a hospice or in a clinical setting.
- Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a system of health care which is based on the Chinese notion of harmony and balance inside the human body as well as harmony between the body and its outside environment. TCM can include or address the following components:
- Chinese martial arts
- Chinese pulse diagnosis
- Coin rubbing
- Five Elements
- Food therapy
- San Jiao
- Tao Yin
- TCM model of the body
- Trigger point
- Tui na
- Yin and yang
- Zang Fu theory
- History of traditional Chinese medicine
- Traditional Japanese medicine – Pre-Western Japanese medicine was strongly influenced by traditional Chinese medicine and is often seen as a sub-category of TCM. It includes the following practices:
- Uropathy is a specialized branch of alternative medicine, including any sort of oral or external application of urine for medicinal or cosmetic purposes, see urine therapy.
- Water cure (therapy) in the therapeutic sense is a course of medical treatment by hydrotherapy. In the nineteenth century, the term "Water Cure" was used synonymously with "hydropathy", which itself is the 19th century term for hydrotherapy. Conceptually, water cures include a broad range of practices – essentially any therapeutic uses of water. See Water cure (therapy) and Hydrotherapy for further discussion and links.
- Wellness has been used in CAM contexts since Halbert L. Dunn began using the phrase "high level wellness" in the 1950s, based on a series of lectures at a Unitarian Universalist Church in Arlington, VA. Wellness is generally used to mean a healthy balance of the mind-body and spirit that results in an overall feeling of well-being.
- Yoga is a diverse and ancient East Indian practise. There are many different styles and schools of yoga. It is generally a combination of breathing exercises, physical postures, and meditation, that calms the nervous system and balances body, mind, and spirit. It is thought to prevent specific diseases and maladies by relaxing the body, deepening respiration and calming the mind. Yoga has been used to lower blood pressure, reduce stress, and improve flexibility, concentration, sleep, and digestion. It has also been used as supplementary therapy for such diverse conditions as cancer, diabetes, asthma, and AIDS.
Notes and references
- U.S. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. What is CAM?
- Chaffin M, Hanson R, Saunders BE et al. (2006). "Report of the APSAC task force on attachment therapy, reactive attachment disorder, and attachment problems". Child Maltreat 11 (1): 76–89. doi:10.1177/1077559505283699. PMID 16382093.
- Annandale, The Sociology of Health and Medicine: A Critical Introduction, Polity Press, 1998
- Cocilovo, A (1999). "Colored light therapy: overview of its history, theory, recent developments and clinical applications combined with acupuncture". Am J Acupunct 27 (1–2): 71–83. PMID 10513100.
- NCCAM Energy Medicine Overview
- Feinstein, PhD, Eden: Six Pillars of Energy Medicine: Clinical Strengths of a Complementary Paradigm , Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 2008, 14(1), 44–54, accessed 1/27/08; also pdf version of the article
- Guyton, Arthur C.; Hall, John E. (2006). Textbook of Medical Physiology (11th ed.). Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders. ISBN 0-7216-0240-1.
- Kozier, Barbara; Erb, Glenora; Olivieri, Rita (1991). Fundamentals of Nursing: Concepts, Process and Practice (4th ed.). Redwood City, California: Addison-Wesley. pp. 1335–1336. ISBN 0-201-09202-6 More than one of
- Thrash, Agatha; & Calvin Thrash (1981). Home Remedies: Hydrotherapy, Massage, Charcoal and Other Simple Treatments. Seale, Alabama: Thrash Publications. ISBN 0-942658-02-7.
- California Institute of Integral Studies. (2009). Integrative Health Studies Program Guide: Glossary of Terms. San Francisco: California Institute of Integral Studies.
- Cline D; Hofstetter HW; Griffin JR. Dictionary of Visual Science. 4th ed. Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston 1997. ISBN 0-7506-9895-0
- Ayyadurai, VA Shiva; Chopra, Deepak. "Systems Health: The Future of Medicine".
- "Systems Health - Dr. VA Shiva Ayyadurai". Retrieved 11 February 2013.
- Federoff, Howard; Gostin, Lawrence O. (2009). "Evolving from Reductionism to Holism: Is There a Future for Systems Medicine?". Journal of the American Medical Association 302 (9): 994–996.
- Angus Stevenson, ed. (2007). "Definition of Thalasso therapy". Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. 2: N-Z (6th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 3225. ISBN 978-0-19-920687-2. Note: Thalasso therapy is a sub-definition under the listing for Thalasso.
- Gray, Fred (2006). Designing the Seaside: Architecture, Society and Nature. London: Reaktion Books. pp. 46–47. ISBN 1-86189-274-8. Retrieved 8 December 2009.
- Angus Stevenson, ed. (2007). "Definition of Water Cure". Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. 2: N–Z (6th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 3586. ISBN 978-0-19-920687-2. Note: Definition is under the general listing for water (noun), alphabetically in the sub-listing for phrases. This section begins on p.3585, but the definition for Water Cure is found in the top part of the first column on p.3586. The phrases are in alphabetical order, so it's just a matter of going down the list.
- Unsigned article (1910). "Hydropathy". In …. The Encyclopaedia Britannica XIV. London: The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company. pp. 165–166. Retrieved 2010-04-21.
- "Water cure definition per Webster's 1913 dictionary". Retrieved 6 December 2009.
- DUNN HL (1959). "High-Level Wellness for Man and Society". Am J Public Health Nations Health (Scanned & PDFdoi:10.2105/AJPH.49.6.786. PMC 1372807. PMID 13661471.) 49 (6): 786–92.