Terry and the Pirates (comic strip)
Terry and the Pirates was an action-adventure comic strip created by cartoonist Milton Caniff. Captain Joseph Patterson, editor for the Chicago Tribune New York News Syndicate, had admired Caniff’s work on the children's adventure strip Dickie Dare and hired him to create the new adventure strip, providing Caniff with the title and locale. The Dragon Lady leads the evil pirates, which conflict is diminished in priority when World War II started.
The daily strip began October 22, 1934, with the Sunday color pages beginning December 9, 1934. Initially, the storylines of the daily strips and Sunday pages were different, but on August 26, 1936 they merged into a single storyline. In 1946, Caniff won the first Cartoonist of the Year Award from the National Cartoonists Society for his work on Terry and the Pirates.
The strip was read by 31 million newspaper subscribers between 1934 and 1946.
Characters and story 
The adventure begins with young Terry Lee, "a wide-awake American boy," arriving in contemporary China with his friend, two-fisted journalist Pat Ryan. Seeking a lost gold mine they meet George Webster "Connie" Confucius, interpreter and local guide. Initially, crudely drawn backgrounds and stereotypical characters surrounded Terry as he matched wits with pirates and various other villains. He developed an ever larger circle of friends and enemies, including Big Stoop, Captain Judas, Cheery Blaze, Chopstick Joe, Cue Ball and Dude Hennick.
Most notable of all was the famed femme fatale, the Dragon Lady, who started as an enemy and later, during the war, became an ally. Caniff included a number of non-American women who fought the heroes and had the funny habit of referring to themselves in the third person. These included the Dragon Lady herself and crooks and spies like Sanjak and Rouge. In a rather bold move for a 1940s comic strip, Sanjak was hinted at being a lesbian and cross-dresser with designs on Terry's girlfriend April Kane. Caniff purportedly named the character after an island next to the isle of Lesbos.
Over time, due to a successful collaboration with cartoonist Noel Sickles, Caniff dramatically improved to produce some of the most memorable strips in the history of the medium. Ray Bailey, Caniff's assistant on Terry and the Pirates, went on to create his own adventure strip, Bruce Gentry.
Major characters 
Terry Lee: A young teenager when the series begins, excitable and loving adventure. As the series goes on, he matures and ends up joining the U.S. Air Force, becoming a pilot. After the war, he works for the government in the post-war territories.
Pat Ryan: Terry's friend and mentor, a writer but also a man of action who helps his young protegee out of scrapes. When World War II begins, he joins the U.S. Navy and sees action in the Pacific.
Connie: George Webster Confucius, a Chinese man Terry and Pat hire as a guide. He speaks in Pidgin English and refers to himself in the third person but is fiercely loyal to the duo. He eventually works with Pat as part of the Chinese resistance against the Japanese in the war.
Big Stoop: A 9-foot-tall (2.7 m) Mongol who Connie helped when he was being picked on by bullies and sticks with the trio out of gratitude. Immensely strong and mute, he earns his nickname from "he stoops to conquer." It is revealed he was once a servant of the Dragon Lady, who cut out his tongue when he was young, earning her his hatred. He works with Connie in the Chinese resistance during the war.
The Dragon Lady: A beautiful but cold pirate queen who clashes with Terry and Pat constantly. As the Japanese invade China, she becomes a resistance leader, attacking Japanese forces, making it clear it is not out of patriotism but wanting to keep her riches intact. It is hinted she is in love with Pat but unable to give up her rule for him. After the war ends, she goes back to her criminal roots.
Burma: Real name unknown, a con artist, former pirate confederate and sultry singer but with a good heart. She meets up with Terry and Pat several times and she and Terry share a romantic connection but Burma is afraid of letting it go further. She's identifable by her habit of singing "St. Louis Blues."
Normandie Drake: The true love of Pat's life, an heiress who he grew close to when he worked for her father. However, her high-society aunt refused to see her marry a "commoner" and whisked her away to an arranged marriage to the weak-willed Tony Sandhurst. She and Pat meet again but she says she has to stick by Tony as she's pregnant with Tony's child. They meet again later during the War with Normandie's child Merilly now four years old. Despite the discovery Tony is working with the Axis, Normandie still refuses to divorce him.
Raven Sherman: An heiress who used her fortune for missionary work in China, meeting with Pat. They seem romantic but she ends up falling for pilot Dude Hennick. She dies in Hennick's arms after sustaining injuries from Captain Judas and is buried in the China desert. Her death in October 1941 led to Milton Caniff receiving annual reminders of her passing.
April Kane: A Southern belle who wins Terry's heart. She works as Pat's secretary when he is an agent of the Dragon Lady but leaves when she's blackmailed over (false) information on her brother. She returns in 1944, having spent the last few years in a Japanese prison camp. The experience has made her harder and she tries to manipulate pilot Flip Corkin to make Terry jealous and tries to set up an air field at an island the army is using for a base. However, she learns the army is pulling out and is last seen left alone on the island.
Flip Corkin: Terry's flight instructor for the Air Force, who delivers the famed Sunday page lecture on military duty.
Taffy Tucker: Flip's girlfriend, an Army nurse. She briefly develops amnesia and is rescued by Pat, the two connecting romantically. But she goes back to Flip after regaining her memory.
Hotshot Charlie: Charles C. Charles, a comically flippant Boston pilot who becomes Terry's best friend in the Air Force. After the war ends, he is stifled by civilian life and jumps at the chance to help Terry out in post-war Asia doing government work.
Recurring characters 
Captain Blaze: A boisterous English pirate who helps Terry and Pat out against the Dragon Lady, later returning to help Pat out in China.
Captain Judas: A debonair criminal who clashes with the heroes several times. A former partner of Burma's, he sustains severe facial burns when she throws a lamp in his face. He shoved Raven out of a truck, leading to her fatal injuries before being shot by Dude Hennick and presumably killed.
Papa Pyzon: A corpulent criminal Terry and Pat meet in China who later returns as an Axis agent during the war.
Nasty: Nastalathia Smythe-Heatherstone, a young heiress Terry and Burma rescue from a crashed plane. Her bratty and selfish attitude drives them crazy and nearly gets them killed. Years later, the now grown Nasty returns to involve Terry and Charlie in her efforts to ship food to Chinese refugees, which is really an attempt to win Terry. She tries to woo Charlie to get at Terry.
Tony Sandhurst: Normandie's rich but immoral husband, who puts himself above everyone. He tries to have Pat put in jail for ruining his business and is later revealed to be working for the Axis during the War and becomes a criminal kingpin in the post-war period.
Hu Shee: The Dragon Lady's aide and confidante who sometimes impersonates her for some missions. She seems interested in a romance with Terry. She is apparently drowned under a sinking ship with new love, pirate Johnny Jingo.
Cheery Blaze: Captain Blaze's hefty daughter who hates her father with a passion. She returns during the war working with the Axis but is arrested for her crimes.
Singh-Singh: A dim-witted would-be warlord who clashes with Pat and the Dragon Lady. He later marries Cheery Blaze but is arrested with her.
Chopstick Joe: An underworld figure who is a friendly rival of the Dragon Lady.
Dude Hennick: An old friend of Pat's, an ace pilot who helps the heroes out. He goes to work for Raven Sherman, the two falling in love but she ends up dying in his arms. He vanishes from the strip and a Christmas, 1945 strip has Caniff saying he based the character on a pilot friend, Frank Cliff, who was killed in Shanghai and "Dude died with him."
Sanjak: A Frenchwoman who dresses like a man, using a monocle to hypnotize people. She works for the Axis, impersonating a pilot to infiltrate Terry's Air Force base and is apparently killed in a crashing plane.
Jos Goode: A Southern soldier who serves with Pat, Connie and Big Stoop in the Pacific.
Snake Tumblin: A fellow pilot of Terry's, he's apparently killed in a crashing plane. However, Caniff's final strips show him seemingly alive but blinded.
Jane Allen: An Army nurse who falls in love with Snake. She and Terry seem to be getting closer but when she sees a picture of Snake alive, she leaves Terry on the tarmac in Caniff's final strip.
During World War II 
Caniff became increasingly concerned by the contemporary Second Sino-Japanese War, but he was prevented by his syndicate from identifying the Japanese directly. Caniff referred to them as "the invaders", and they soon became an integral part of the storyline.
After America's entry into World War II, Terry joined the United States Army Air Forces. The series then became almost exclusively about WWII with much action centering around a US Army base in China. This change of tone is considered the end of the strip's prime, although it remained highly acclaimed. Terry gained a new mentor in flying instructor Colonel "Flip" Corkin, a character based on the real-life Colonel Philip "Flip" Cochran of the 1st Air Commando Group. Comic relief was provided by fellow flyer Hotshot Charlie. Pat, Connie and Big Stoop still made occasional guest appearances as marine commandos, while the Dragon Lady and her pirates became Chinese guerrillas fighting the Japanese.
One of the highlights of this period was the October 17, 1943 Sunday page: Corkin gives the recently commissioned Terry a speech on his responsibilities as a fighter pilot, including the need to consider all those who have contributed to the development of his plane, respect his support crew, spare a thought for those killed in the fighting and respect military bureaucracy which, for better or for worse, has kept the American army going for over 150 years. In an unusual honor, the episode was read aloud in the U.S. Congress and added to the Congressional Record.
The intensely patriotic Caniff, who donated design and illustration work to the military, created a free variant of Terry and the Pirates for the military newspaper Stars and Stripes. Originally starring the beautiful adventuress Burma, it was racier than the regular strip, and complaints caused Caniff to rename it Male Call to avoid confusion. Male Call was discontinued in 1946.
Caniff leaves the strip 
Although Terry and the Pirates had made Caniff famous, the strip was owned by the syndicate, which was not uncommon at the time. Seeking creative control of his own work, Caniff left the strip in 1946, his last Terry strip being published on December 29. The following year he launched Steve Canyon, an action-adventure strip that ran until shortly after his death in 1988.
After Caniff's departure, Terry and the Pirates became a "zombie strip" and was assigned to Associated Press artist George Wunder. Wunder drew highly detailed panels, but some critics, notably Maurice Horn, claimed that it was sometimes difficult to tell one character from another and that his work lacked Caniff's essential humor. Nevertheless, he kept the strip going for another 27 years until its discontinuation on February 25, 1973, by which time Terry had become a full-grown man and reached the rank of Colonel.
On March 26, 1995, the Brothers Hildebrandt did a revised, updated version of the strip under the direction of Michael Uslan. The Dragon Lady was a Vietnam war orphan in this update. The Hildebrandt/Uslan team left the strip and was replaced on April 1, 1996 with Dan Spiegel taking over as artist and Jim Clark as writer. The strip ended on July 27, 1997.
NBM, under its Flying Buttress Comics Library line, reprinted all of the Caniff Terry strips (10/22/34 to 12/29/46) in two hardcover series as well as in a series of trade paperbacks. The first 12-volume series contained all of the dailies and the Sundays in black and white. The second 12-volume series contained all of the Sundays in color with each page split between two pages. The daily strips were also printed by NBM in a 25-volume softcover edition (reprinting all of the dailies and the Sundays that ran concurrent storylines) with the strips in a smaller size and a lower quality than the hardcover volumes.
Kitchen Sink Press began a new hardcover reprint series with dailies and Sundays (in color and presented complete on one page, including title bars in the strips from the first year that were omitted from the NBM series), but discontinued it after only two volumes. These out-of-print series can be hard to find.
In March 2007, IDW Publishing announced a new imprint, the Library of American Comics. It published quarterly collections of six hardcover editions reprinting the Sunday strips with their original color alongside the daily strips. The books are 11” x 8.5” oblong and retailed at $49.99 each. The first volume, published September 2007, reprinted strips from October 1934 through the end of 1936. The sixth and last volume appeared in early 2009.
In popular culture 
In 1953, Canada Dry offered a "premium giveaway" with a case of its ginger ale—one minibook in a trilogy series of Terry and the Pirates strips by Wunder printed by Harvey Comics. Other incarnations of Caniff's work included a television series and a radio show. The August–September 1953 issue (#6) of Mad featured a satire by Wally Wood entitled "Teddy and the Pirates" where Teddy and Half-Shot Charlie encounter the Dragging Lady.
Terry and the Pirates has been cited[where?] by fellow comic illustrator Doug Wildey as one of his main inspirations for the 1964 Hanna Barbera television cartoon Jonny Quest. Robert Culp said[where?] that the comic strip Terry and the Pirates was his inspiration for the "tone" and "spirit" and "noir heightened realism" of the 1965 NBC TV series, I Spy, when he was writing the pilot. Umberto Eco's novel The Mysterious Flame of Queen Loana references Terry and the Pirates, and its title comes from the Italian translation of one of the various adventures.
See also 
- List of Terry and the Pirates comic strips
- Terry and the Pirates (radio serial)
- Terry and the Pirates (serial)
- Terry and the Pirates (TV series)
- [[R.C. Harvey|Harvey, Robert C.]] (2002). Milton Caniff Conversations. University Press of Mississippi. p. 12. ISBN 1-57806-437-6.
- Applegate, David. "Coming Out in the Comic Strips"
- Robert C. Harvey (ed.), Milton Caniff: Conversations. University Press of Mississippi, 2002, page 231.
- Toonopedia: Terry and the Pirates
- "Big Deals: Comics’ Highest-Profile Moments," Hogan's Alley #7, 1999
- Historical Markers (Erie, Pennsylvania): Philip Cochran
- Thrilling Adventures
- Terry and the Pirates (1940 movie) at the Internet Movie Database
- Terry and the Pirates (1950s television series) at the Internet Movie Database
- Billy Ireland Cartoon Library & Museum: Milton Caniff Collection
- George Wunder Cartoons 1947–1970 at Syracuse University (original Terry and the Pirates artwork)