Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk

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Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk
Thomas de Mowbray Ist Duke of Norfolk.svg
Arms of Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk
Spouse(s) Elizabeth le Strange
Elizabeth Arundel

Issue

Thomas de Mowbray, 4th Earl of Norfolk
John de Mowbray, 2nd Duke of Norfolk
Elizabeth Mowbray
Isabel Mowbray
Margaret Mowbray
Father John de Mowbray, 4th Baron Mowbray
Mother Elizabeth de Segrave
Born 22 March 1367 or 1368
Died 22 September 1399
Venice, Italy
Buried Venice

Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk, KG, Earl Marshal (22 March 1367 or 1368 – 22 September 1399) was an English peer. As a result of his involvement in the power struggles which led up to the fall of Richard II, he was banished and died in exile in Venice.

Family[edit]

Mowbray was the second son of John de Mowbray, 4th Baron Mowbray, and Elizabeth de Segrave, suo jure Lady Segrave, daughter and heiress of John de Segrave, 4th Baron Segrave, by Margaret, daughter and heiress of Thomas of Brotherton, son of Edward I.[1] He had an elder brother, John de Mowbray, 1st Earl of Nottingham, and three sisters, Eleanor, Margaret and Joan (for details concerning his siblings see the article on his father, John de Mowbray, 4th Baron Mowbray).

Career[edit]

Depiction of Mowbray, Arundel, Gloucester, Derby and Warwick demanding of Richard II that he let them prove by arms the justice of their rebellion

In April 1372, custody of both Thomas and his elder brother, John, was granted to Blanche Wake, a sister of their grandmother, Joan of Lancaster.[2]

On 10 February 1383, he succeeded his elder brother, John Mowbray, 1st Earl of Nottingham, as Baron Mowbray and Segrave, and was created Earl of Nottingham on 12 February 1383.[3] On 30 June 1385 he was created Earl Marshal for life, and on 12 January 1386 he was granted the office in tail male.[4] He fought against the Scots and then against the French. He was appointed Warden of the East March towards Scotland in 1389, a position he held until his death.

He was one of the Lords Appellant to King Richard II who deposed some of the King's court favourites in 1387. The King's uncle, Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester, was imprisoned at Calais, where Nottingham was Captain. When Gloucester was killed in 1397, it was probably at the King's orders and probably with Nottingham's involvement. On 29 September 1397 he was created Duke of Norfolk.[4][3]

In 1398, Norfolk quarrelled with Henry of Bolingbroke, 1st Duke of Hereford (later King Henry IV), apparently due to mutual suspicions stemming from their roles in the conspiracy against the Duke of Gloucester. Before a duel between them could take place, Richard II banished them both. Mowbray left England on 19 October 1398.[5] While in exile, he succeeded as Earl of Norfolk when his grandmother, Margaret, Duchess of Norfolk, died on 24 March 1399.[5]

He died of the plague at Venice on 22 September 1399.[3] Hereford returned to England in 1399 and usurped the crown on 30 September 1399; shortly afterward, on 6 October 1399, the creation of Mowbray as Duke of Norfolk was annulled by Parliament, although Mowbray's heir retained his other titles.[5][3]

Marriages and issue[edit]

Arms of Thomas de Mowbray as Earl Marshall, Surrey Roll, ca.1395

He married firstly, after 20 February 1383, Elizabeth le Strange (c. 6 December 1373 – 23 August 1383), suo jure Lady Strange of Blackmere, daughter and heiress of John le Strange, 5th Baron Strange of Blackmere, by Isabel Beauchamp, daughter of Thomas Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick, by whom he had no issue.[3]

He married secondly Elizabeth Arundel (c.1372 – 8 July 1425), widow of Sir William Montagu, and daughter of Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel, by Elizabeth Bohun, daughter of William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton, by whom he had two sons and three daughters:[3]

Shakespeare[edit]

Mowbray's quarrel with Bolingbroke and subsequent banishment are depicted in the opening scene of Shakespeare's Richard II.[7] Thomas Mowbray (as he is called in the play) prophetically replies to King Richard's "Lions make leopards tame" with the retort, "Yea, but not change his spots." Mowbray's death in exile is announced later in the play by the Bishop of Carlisle.

Ancestry[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Richardson III 2011, pp. 206-7.
  2. ^ Cokayne 1936, p. 780.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Richardson III 2011, p. 208.
  4. ^ a b Cokayne 1936, p. 385.
  5. ^ a b c Cokayne 1936, p. 603.
  6. ^ a b c d e Richardson III 2011, p. 2010.
  7. ^ McConnell, Louise (2000). Dictionary of Shakespeare, p. 194. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. ISBN 1-57958-215-X.

References[edit]

  • Cokayne, George Edward (1936). The Complete Peerage, edited by H.A. Doubleday and Lord Howard de Walden IX. London: St. Catherine Press. 
  • Richardson, Douglas (2011). Everingham, Kimball G., ed. Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families II (2nd ed.). Salt Lake City. ISBN 1449966381. 
  • Richardson, Douglas (2011). Everingham, Kimball G., ed. Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families III (2nd ed.). Salt Lake City. ISBN 144996639X. 
  • Richardson, Douglas (2011). Everingham, Kimball G., ed. Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families IV (2nd ed.). Salt Lake City. ISBN 1460992709. 
Political offices
Preceded by
The Lord Maltravers
(Lord Marshal)
Lord Marshal
1383–1397
Succeeded by
The Duke of Surrey
(Earl Marshal)
Earl Marshal
1397—1398
Peerage of England
New title Duke of Norfolk
1st creation
1397—1399
Vacant
Forfeit 1399, Restored 1425
Title next held by
John de Mowbray
Preceded by
Margaret Manny
Earl of Norfolk
3rd creation
1399
Succeeded by
Thomas de Mowbray
New creation Earl of Nottingham
2nd creation
1383—1399
Preceded by
John de Mowbray
Baron Mowbray
1379—1399
Baron Segrave
1379—1399