|Latin: Academia Lugduno-Batava|
Motto in English
|Bastion of Freedom|
|Type||Public research university|
|Rector||Prof. mr. Carel Stolker|
|Location||Leiden, South Holland, The Netherlands|
|Nobel Laureates||Jacobus van 't Hoff, Hendrik Lorentz, Pieter Zeeman, Johannes Diderik van der Waals, Tobias Asser, Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, Albert Einstein, Willem Einthoven, Albert Szent-Györgyi, Enrico Fermi, Gerrit Jan van Heuven Goedhart, Igor Tamm, Jan Tinbergen, Nikolaas Tinbergen, Tjalling Koopmans, Nicolaas Bloembergen|
Leiden University (Dutch: Universiteit Leiden), located in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands. The university was founded in 1575 by William, Prince of Orange, leader of the Dutch Revolt in the Eighty Years' War. The Dutch Royal Family and Leiden University still have a close relationship; Queens Juliana and Beatrix and King Willem-Alexander are all former students.
Leiden University has seven faculties, over 50 departments and enjoys an outstanding international reputation. In 2013 Leiden was the highest ranked university in the Netherlands in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, where it was rated as the 64th best university worldwide and 61st for international reputation. Shanghai Jiao Tong University's 2011 Academic Ranking of World Universities ranked Leiden University as the 65th best university worldwide. The Times Higher Education World University Rankings consistently rank Leiden University as the best university in Continental Europe for Arts and Humanities. The University is associated with ten leaders and Prime Ministers of the Netherlands including the current Prime Minister Mark Rutte, nine foreign leaders, among them the 6th President of the United States John Quincy Adams, a Secretary General of NATO, a President of the International Court of Justice and sixteen recipients of the Nobel Prize (including renowned physicists Albert Einstein and Enrico Fermi). The university came into particular prominence during the Dutch Golden Age, when scholars from around Europe were attracted to the Dutch Republic due to its climate of intellectual tolerance and Leiden's international reputation. During this time Leiden was home to such figures as René Descartes, Rembrandt, Hugo Grotius, Baruch Spinoza and Baron d'Holbach. The university is a member of the Coimbra Group, the Europaeum and the League of European Research Universities.
Albert Einstein was known as a professor at Leiden University. Einstein regularly taught Leiden students for a few weeks per year. His first lecture at Leiden was about "Ether and Relativity Theory".
Leiden University houses more than 40 national and international research institutes.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (February 2013)|
In 1575, the emerging Dutch Republic did not have any universities in its northern heartland. The only other university in the Habsburg Netherlands was the University of Leuven in southern Leuven, firmly under Spanish control. The scientific renaissance had begun to highlight the importance of academic study, so Prince William founded the first Dutch university in Leiden, to give the Northern Netherlands an institution that could educate its citizens for religious purposes, but also to give the country and its government educated men in other fields. It is said the choice fell on Leiden as a reward for the heroic defence of Leiden against Spanish attacks in the previous year. Ironically, the name of Philip II of Spain, William's adversary, appears on the official foundation certificate, as he was still the de jure count of Holland. Philip II replied by forbidding any subject to study in Leiden. Originally located in the convent of St Barbara, the university moved to the Faliede Bagijn Church in 1577 (now the location of the University museum) and in 1581 to the convent of the White Nuns, a site which it still occupies, though the original building was destroyed by fire in 1616.
The presence within half a century of the date of its foundation of such scholars as Justus Lipsius, Joseph Scaliger, Franciscus Gomarus, Hugo Grotius, Jacobus Arminius, Daniel Heinsius and Gerhard Johann Vossius, rapidly made Leiden university into a highly regarded institution that attracted students from across Europe in the 17th century. Renowned philosopher Baruch Spinoza was based close to Leiden during this period and interacted with numerous scholars at the university. The learning and reputation of Jacobus Gronovius, Herman Boerhaave, Tiberius Hemsterhuis and David Ruhnken, among others, enabled Leiden to maintain its reputation for excellence down to the end of the 18th century.
At the end of the nineteenth century, Leiden University again became one of Europe's leading universities. At the world’s first university low-temperature laboratory, professor Heike Kamerlingh Onnes achieved temperatures of only one degree above absolute zero of −273 degrees Celsius. In 1908 he was also the first to succeed in liquifying helium and can be credited with the discovery of the superconductivity in metals.
Kamerlingh Onnes was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1913. Three other professors received the Nobel Prize for their research performed at Universiteit Leiden: Hendrik Antoon Lorentz and Pieter Zeeman received the Nobel Prize for their pioneering work in the field of optical and electronic phenomena, and the physiologist Willem Einthoven for his invention of the string galvanometer, which among other things, enabled the development of electrocardiography.
These Nobel prize winners, but also the physicists Albert Einstein, Enrico Fermi and Paul Ehrenfest, the Arabist and Islam expert Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje, the law expert Cornelis van Vollenhoven and historian Johan Huizinga, were among those who pushed the university into a place of international prominence during the 1920s and 1930s. In 2005 the manuscript of Einstein on the quantum theory of the monatomic ideal gas (the Einstein-Bose condensation) was discovered in one of Leiden's libraries.
At present, Leiden has a firmly established international position among the top research institutes in many fields, including the natural sciences, medicine, social and behavioural sciences, law, arts and letters. Of the seventy-three Spinozapremie (the highest scientific award of The Netherlands), eighteen were granted to professors of the Universiteit Leiden. Literary historian Frits van Oostrom was the first professor of Leiden to be granted the Spinoza award for his work on developing the NLCM centre (Dutch literature and culture in the Middle Ages) into a top research centre. Other Spinozapremie winners are linguists Frederik Kortlandt and Pieter Muysken, mathematician Hendrik Lenstra, physicists Carlo Beenakker, Jan Zaanen and Dirk Bouwmeester, astromers Ewine van Dishoeck, Martijn Franx and Alexander Tielens, transplantation biologist Els Goulmy, clinical epidemiologist Frits Rosendaal, pedagogue Rien van IJzendoorn, archeologists Wil Roebroeks and Corinne Hofman, neurologist Michel Ferrari, classicist Ineke Sluiter, social psychologist Naomi Ellemers. Among other leading professors are Wim Blockmans, professor of Medieval History, and Willem Adelaar, professor of Amerindian Languages.
The portraits of many famous professors since the earliest days hang in the university aula, one of the most memorable places, as Niebuhr called it, in the history of science.
The University Library, which has more than 5.2 million books and fifty thousand journals, also has a number of internationally renowned special collections of western and oriental manuscripts, printed books, archives, prints, drawings, photographs, maps, and atlases. It houses the largest collections worldwide on Indonesia and the Caribbean. Scholars from all over the world visit Leiden University Library, the oldest in the Netherlands. The research activities of the Scaliger Institute focus on these special collections and concentrate particularly on the various aspects of the transmission of knowledge and ideas through texts and images from antiquity to the present day.
Among the institutions affiliated with the university are The KITLV or Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies (founded in 1851), the observatory 1633; the natural history museum, with a very complete anatomical cabinet; the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden (National Museum of Antiquities), with specially valuable Egyptian and Indian departments; a museum of Dutch antiquities from the earliest times; and three ethnographical museums, of which the nucleus was Philipp Franz von Siebold's Japanese collections. The anatomical and pathological laboratories of the university are modern, and the museums of geology and mineralogy have been restored.
The Hortus Botanicus (botanical garden) is the oldest botanical garden in the Netherlands, and one of the oldest in the world. Plants from all over the world have been carefully cultivated here by experts for more than four centuries. The Clusius garden (a reconstruction), the 18th century Orangery with its monumental tub plants, the rare collection of historical trees hundreds of years old, the Japanese Siebold Memorial Museum symbolising the historical link between East and West, the tropical greenhouses with their world class plant collections, and the central square and Conservatory exhibiting exotic plants from South Africa and southern Europe.
Research at Leiden is well developed. There are many university research institutes and Leiden participates in over forty nation-wide research schools, twelve of which being located in the heart of Leiden. In 2012 Leiden entered into a strategic alliance with Delft University of Technology and Erasmus University Rotterdam in order for the universities to increase the quality of their research and teaching. The university is also the unofficial home of the Bilderberg Group, a meeting of high-level political and economic figures from North America and Europe. In the past hundred years rare honorary degrees have been granted to figures such as Winston Churchill and Nelson Mandela.
The university has no central campus; its buildings are spread over the city. Some buildings, like the Gravensteen, are very old, while buildings like Lipsius and Gorlaeus are much more modern. The university is divided into seven major faculties which offer approximately 50 undergraduate degree programmes and over 100 graduate programmes. In recent years the university has also expanded to The Hague which is home to Leiden University College The Hague a liberal arts and sciences college and the departments of Public Administration, International Relations and Politics. It occupies a number of buildings in the historic centre of the city including a college building in Lange Voorhout.
Most of the university's departments offer their own degree programme(s). Undergraduate programmes lead to either a B.A., B.Sc. or LL.B. degree. Other degrees, such as the B.Eng. or B.F.A., are not awarded at Leiden University.
- African Languages and Cultures
- Arabic, Persian and Turkish Languages and Cultures 
- Art History
- Biomedical Sciences
- Bio-Pharmaceutical Sciences
- Chinese Languages and Cultures
- Comparative Indo-European Linguistics
- Computer Science
- Cultural Anthropology and Development Sociology
- Dutch Language and Literature
- Dutch Studies 
- Educational Sciences
- Egyptian Languages and Cultures (Egyptology)
- English Language and Culture
- French Language and Culture
- German Language and Culture
- Hebrew and Aramaic Languages and Cultures
- Indian American Studies
- Indology (South and central Asia)
- Indonesian Languages and Cultures
- International Relations and Organisations
- International Studies
- Italian Language and Culture
- Japanese Languages and Cultures
- Korean Languages and Cultures
- Latin American Studies & Spanish
- Law (General Dutch Law track)
- Liberal Arts and Sciences
- Life Science and Technology
- Medicine (6-year track)
- Molecular Science and Technology
- Near Eastern Studies
- New Persian Languages and Cultures (Turkish)
- Notarial Law
- Political Science 
- Public Administration
- Russian Studies
- Slavic Languages and Literatures
- Southeast Asia and Oceania Languages and Cultures
- Tax Law
- World Religion Studies
|Medicine / LUMC||Website|
|Mathematics and Natural Sciences||Website|
|Social and Behavioural sciences||Website|
|Campus The Hague||Website|
Students can choose from a range of graduate programmes. Most of the above-mentioned undergraduate programmes can be continued with either a general or a specialised graduate program. Leiden University offers more than 100 graduate programs leading to either MA, MSc, MPhil, or LLM degrees. The MPhil. is a special research degree and only awarded by selected departments of the university (mostly in the fields of Arts, Social Sciences, Archeology, Philosophy, and Theology). Admission to these programmes is highly selective and primarily aimed at those students opting for an academic career.
Some of the notable graduate programmes are
- Air and Space Law
- Asian Studies
- Industrial Ecology M.Sc. (track)
- DNA Computing
- Biopharmaceutical Sciences
- European Law
- European and International Business Law
- European Union Studies
- Evolutionary and Ecological Sciences
- Functional Genomics
- ICT in Business
- Public International Law
- International Relations and Diplomacy
- International Tax Law
- Islamic Studies
- Life Science and Technology
- Media Technology
- Philosophy of a Specific Discipline
In addition, most departments, affiliated (research) institutes or faculties offer doctorate programmes or positions, leading to the PhD degree. Most of the PhD programmes offered by the university are concentrated in several research schools or institutes.
Research schools and affiliated institutes
Leiden University has more than 50 research and graduate schools and institutes. Some of them are fully affiliated with one faculty of the university, while others are interfaculty institutes or even interuniversity institutes.
|ASC||African Studies Centre Leiden|
|CML||Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML)|
|CRC||Crisis Research Centre|
|CTI||Centre for Language and Identity|
|CWTS||Centre for Science and Technology Studies|
|The Meijers Research Institute||Research School for Legal Studies|
|eLaw@Leiden||Centre for Law in the Information Society|
|Grotius Centre||Research Centre for International Legal Studies|
|GSS||Leiden Graduate School of Science|
|Historical Institute||Leiden University Institute for History|
|Huizinga Instituut||Research Institute and Graduate School for Cultural History|
|IBL||Institute of Biology Leiden|
|IIAS||International Institute for Asian Studies|
|IIASL||International Institute of Air and Space Law|
|IOPS||Interuniversity Graduate School of Psychometrics and Sociometrics|
|ITC||International Tax Centre (ITC)|
|LACDR||The Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research|
|LCMBS||Leiden Centre for Molecular BioScience|
|Leyden Academy||Leyden Academy on Vitality and Ageing|
|LGSAS||Leiden Graduate School for Archeology|
|LIACS||Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science|
|LIAS||Leiden Institute for Area Studies|
|LIBC||Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition|
|LIC||Leiden Institute of Chemistry|
|LION||Leiden Institute of Physics|
|LISOR||Leiden Institute for the Study of Religion|
|LUCAS||Leiden University Centre for the Arts in Society|
|LUCL||Leiden University Centre for Linguistics|
|LUMC||Leiden University Medical Centre|
|LUMI||Mathematical Institute of Leiden University|
|Mediëvistiek||Netherlands Research School for Medieval Studies|
|NIG||Netherlands Institute of Government|
|NINO||Netherlands Institute for the Near East|
|NOVA||Netherlands Research School for Astronomy|
|N.W. Posthumus Instituut||Netherlands Research Institute and School for Economic and Social History|
|OIKOS||National Research School in Classical Studies|
|Onderzoekschool Kunstgeschiedenis||Dutch Postgraduate School for Art History|
|OSL||Netherlands Research School for Literary Studies|
|PALLAS||Pallas Institute for Cultural Disciplines|
|Sterrewacht Leiden||Leiden Astronomical Observatory|
|The Europa Institute||Leiden Law School|
|Van Vollenhoven Institute||Research Institute for Law, Governance and Development|
Notable alumni and professors
- Piet Aalberse, politician
- Nasr Hamid Abu Zayd, theologian
- John Quincy Adams, 6th President of U.S.A.
- Princess Aimée of Orange-Nassau, van Vollenhoven-Söhngen
- Nebahat Albayrak, politician
- Johannes Alberti, theologian
- Bernhard Siegfried Albinus, anatomist
- Alexander, Prince of Orange
- Princess Anita of Orange-Nassau, van Vollenhoven-van Eijk
- Ayaan Hirsi Ali, activist
- János Apáczai Csere, mathematician
- Jacobus Arminius, theologian
- Tobias Asser, Nobel laureate (Peace 1911)
- Touraj Atabaki, academic
- Caspar Barlaeus, theologian
- Johann Bartsch, physician
- Beatrix, Queen of the Netherlands
- Kune Biezeveld, theologian
- Nicolaas Bloembergen, Nobel laureate (Physics 1981)
- Herman Boerhaave, physician
- Bart Bok, astronomer
- Frits Bolkestein, Netherlands Deputy Prime Minister 2005-06
- Gerardus Johannes Petrus Josephus Bolland, philosopher
- Ben Bot, politician
- Alexander Boswell, judge
- Rolf Bremmer, academic
- Laurens Jan Brinkhorst, politician
- Thomas Browne, writer
- Sebald Justinus Brugmans, botanist
- Ian Buruma, writer
- Kofi Abrefa Busia, Prime Minister of Ghana 1969–72
- Ditmir Bushati, Albanian politician
- John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute, U.K. Prime Minister 1762–63
- Paulus Buys, Grand Pensionary of Holland 1572–84
- Boediono, Vice President of Indonesia
- Archibald Cameron, Jacobite physician
- Hendrik Casimir, physicist
- Carolus Clusius, botanist
- Jacques Cohen, embryologist
- Job Cohen, politician
- Prince Constantijn of the Netherlands
- Jodocus Crull, miscellaneous writer
- Petrus Cunaeus, academic
- Charles Ruijs de Beerenbrouck, Netherlands Prime Minister 1918–25, 1929–33
- Michiel Jan de Goeje, orientalist
- Geertruida de Haas-Lorentz, physicist
- Jaap de Hoop Scheffer, 11th Secretary-General of NATO
- Pieter de la Court, economist
- René Descartes, philosopher
- Willem de Sitter, physicist
- Gijs de Vries, politician
- Jouke de Vries, academic
- Hendrik de Wit, botanist
- Johan de Witt, Grand Pensionary of Holland 1653–72
- Tim de Zeeuw, astronomer
- Nicolaas Diederichs, President of South Africa 1975–78
- Edsger W. Dijkstra, computer scientist
- Volkert Doeksen, CEO
- Ana Dolidze, lawyer
- Janus Dousa, statesman
- Paul Ehrenfest, physicist
- Willem Einthoven, Nobel laureate (Medicine 1924)
- Albert Einstein, Nobel laureate (Physics 1921)
- Simon Episcopius, theologian
- Paul Sophus Epstein, physicist
- Enrico Fermi, Nobel laureate (Physics 1938)
- Henry Fielding, novelist
- Paul Fleming, poet
- Prince Floris of Orange-Nassau
- John Lauder, Lord Fountainhall, jurist
- Prince Frederick of the Netherlands
- Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg
- Richard D. Gill, professor of mathematical statistics
- Thomas Girdlestone, physician
- Franciscus Gomarus, theologian
- Johann Georg Graevius, academic
- Jacobus Gronovius, academic
- Hugo Grotius, jurist
- Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX, Vice-President of Indonesia 1973–78
- Jan Hamer, chemist
- Mohammad Hatta, First Vice President of Indonesia
- David Hartley (the Younger), politician
- Erik Hazelhoff Roelfzema, RAF pilot, Dutch spy
- Daniel Heinsius, scholar
- Tiberius Hemsterhuis, philologist
- Paul Hermann, botanist and physician
- Rosalyn Higgins, President of the International Court of Justice
- Johannes Hudde, politician and mathematician
- Johan Huizinga, historian
- Christiaan Huygens, mathematician and physicist
- Constantijn Huygens, Jr., statesman
- Michael Ignatieff, Canadian politician
- Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, Nobel laureate (Physics 1913)
- Johan Hendrik Caspar Kern, linguist
- Pieter Kooijmans, judge of the International Court of Justice
- Ton Koopman, conductor
- Tjalling Charles Koopmans, Nobel laureate (Economics 1975)
- Hendrik Anthony Kramers, physicist
- Dirk Willem van Krevelen, chemical engineer and scientist
- Abraham Kuijper, theologian and politician (Prime Minister 1901–05)
- Erik Kwakkel, codicologist
- Jona Lendering, historian
- Hendrik Lenstra, mathematician
- Justus Lipsius, philologist
- Hendrik Antoon Lorentz, Nobel laureate (Physics 1902)
- Peter Mair, political scientist
- Princess Margriet of the Netherlands
- Paul-Henri Marron, French Reformed pastor
- Eric Mazur, physicist
- Richard Mead, physician
- Pieter Moree, mathematician
- Victor Muller, CEO
- Peter Simon Pallas, zoologist
- Antonie Pannekoek, astronomer and political theorist
- Thomas Parker, minister and scholar
- Alexander Pechtold, Dutch politician
- Perizonius, scholar
- Nicolaas Gerard Pierson, Netherlands Prime Minister 1897–1901
- Theodoor Gautier Thomas Pigeaud, academic
- Senarath Paranavithana, archaeologist and epigraphist
- Archibald Pitcairne, physician
- Ronald Plasterk, scientist and politician
- Prijono, politician
- Hans Ras, academic
- Caspar Georg Carl Reinwardt, botanist
- Caspar Reuvens, archaeologist
- John Robinson, Pilgrim Fathers pastor
- Wil Roebroeks, archaeologist
- Olaus Rudbeck, scientist and university rector
- David Ruhnken, scholar
- Mark Rutte, Netherlands Prime Minister
- Ali Sastroamidjojo, Prime Minister of Indonesia
- Joseph Justus Scaliger, theologian and scholar
- Henry G. Schermers, jurist
- Edith Schippers, politician
- Rutger Jan Schimmelpenninck, Grand Pensionary of Holland 1805-6
- Gerard Schouw, politician
- William Sherard, botanist
- Boudewijn Sirks, academic
- Jan Six, politician
- Willebrord Snell, astronomer
- Rudolph Snellius, mathematician and linguist
- Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje, orientalist
- Achmad Soebardjo, diplomat
- Soenario, politician
- Soetan Sjahrir, Prime Minister of Indonesia 1945-47
- Myles Standish, military leader
- Jan Steen, painter
- Martinus Theunis Steyn, lawyer, Orange Free State president
- Pieter Steyn, Grand Pensionary of Holland 1749–72
- Dirk Jan Struik, mathematician
- Franciscus Sylvius, physician and scientist
- Albert Szent-Györgyi, Nobel laureate (Medicine 1937)
- Morris Tabaksblat, CEO
- Igor Tamm, Nobel laureate (Physics 1958)
- Johan Rudolf Thorbecke, Netherlands Prime Minister 1871–72
- Jan Tinbergen, Nobel laureate (Economics 1969)
- Nikolaas Tinbergen, Nobel laureate (Medicine 1973)
- Nicolaes Tulp, surgeon and politician
- Christianus Cornelius Uhlenbeck, linguist and anthropologist
- Coenraad van Beuningen, diplomat
- Armin van Buuren, musician
- Ludolph van Ceulen, mathematician
- Jan Kappeyne van de Coppello, Netherlands Prime Minister 1877–79
- Johannes van den Driesche, theologian
- Adriaen van der Donck, lawyer
- Lousewies van der Laan, politician
- Max van der Stoel, politician
- Bram van der Stok, aviator
- Johannes Diderik van der Waals, Nobel laureate (Physics 1910)
- Thomas van Erpe, orientalist
- Melanie Schultz van Haegen, politician
- Gerrit Jan van Heuven Goedhart, Nobel laureate (Peace 1954)
- Gijsbert Karel van Hogendorp, Netherlands Prime Minister 1813–14
- Egbert van Kampen, mathematician
- Pieter van Musschenbroek, scientist
- Rembrandt van Rijn, painter
- Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff, Nobel laureate (Chemistry 1901)
- Cornelis van Vollenhoven, academic
- Pieter van Vollenhoven, royalty
- Ronald Venetiaan, Surinam President
- Maxime Verhagen, Netherlands Deputy Prime Minister
- Paul Verhoeven, film Director
- Gerard Verschuuren, geneticist
- Gisbertus Voetius, theologian
- Thomas von der Dunk, historian
- Gerhard Johann Vossius, theologian
- Wilhelmina, Queen of the Netherlands 1890–1948
- John Wilkes, politician
- William I, Prince of Orange, royalty
- Willem-Alexander, Prince of Orange, King of the Netherlands
- Willem Witteveen, legal scholar and politician
In the 2009 THE–QS World University Rankings list the University of Leiden was ranked inside the top 100 for the fourth consecutive year. However, in 2010 it dropped 22 places in the QS World University Rankings to 82nd from its position of 60th in the 2009 THE-QS Rankings (in 2010 Times Higher Education World University Rankings and QS World University Rankings parted ways to produce separate rankings). In the 2012 QS World University Rankings Leiden was named in 75th place. In the Academic Ranking of World Universities compiled by Shanghai Jiaotong University Leiden has been in the top hundred universities worldwide since the table's inception in 2003 and in 2012 was ranked 73rd overall.
An overview of the THE-QS Rankings up to 2013:
|2004||131 ( 53)|
|2005||138 ( 7)|
|2006||90 ( 48)|
|2007||84 ( 6)|
|2008||64 ( 20)|
|2009||60 ( 4)|
|2010||82 ( 22)|
|2011||88 ( 6)|
|2012||75 ( 13)|
|2013||64 ( 9)|
An overview of the Academic Ranking of World Universities up to 2013:
|2004||63 ( 15)|
|2006||72 ( 9)|
|2007||71 ( 1)|
|2008||76 ( 5)|
|2009||72 ( 4)|
|2010||70 ( 2)|
|2011||65 ( 5)|
|2012||73 ( 8)|
|2013||74 ( 1)|
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- BBC NEWS | Europe | Student unearths Einstein paper.
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- Last Modified: 06-09-2011. "Webpage Biology". Prospectivestudents.leiden.edu. Retrieved 2012-09-26.
- Last Modified: 06-09-2011. "Webpage Bio-Pharmaceutical Sciences". Prospectivestudents.leiden.edu. Retrieved 2012-09-26.
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- "Webpage Dutch Studies". Hum.leiden.edu. Retrieved 2012-09-26.
- Humanities Faculty Web Editors Last Modified: 06-05-2010. "Egyptian Language and Culture". Hum.leiden.edu. Retrieved 2012-09-26.
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- Humanities Faculty Web Editors Last Modified: 08-03-2012. "French Language and Culture". Hum.leiden.edu. Retrieved 2012-09-26.
- Humanities Faculty Web Editors Last Modified: 08-03-2012. "German Language and Culture". Hum.leiden.edu. Retrieved 2012-09-26.
- "History". History.leidenuniv.nl. Retrieved 2012-09-26.
- Humanities Faculty Web Editors Last Modified: 10-08-2011. "Hebrew and Aramic Studies". Hum.leiden.edu. Retrieved 2012-09-26.
- "Indian American Studies". Hum.leidenuniv.nl. Retrieved 2012-09-26.
- Humanities Faculty Web Editors Last Modified: 06-05-2010. "Languages and Cultures of India and Tibet". Hum.leiden.edu. Retrieved 2012-09-26.
- Humanities Faculty Web Editors Last Modified: 06-05-2010. "Indonesian Studies". Hum.leiden.edu. Retrieved 2012-09-26.
- "International studies". Hum.leiden.edu. Retrieved 2012-09-26.
- Humanities Faculty Web Editors Last Modified: 08-03-2012. "Italian Language and Culture". Hum.leiden.edu. Retrieved 2012-09-26.
- Humanities Faculty Web Editors Last Modified: 01-03-2012. "Japanese Studies". Hum.leiden.edu. Retrieved 2012-09-26.
- Humanities Faculty Web Editors Last Modified: 10-08-2011. "Korean Studies". Hum.leiden.edu. Retrieved 2012-09-26.
- Humanities Faculty Web Editors Last Modified: 10-08-2011. "Latin American Studies". Hum.leiden.edu. Retrieved 2012-09-26.
- Humanities Faculty Web Editors Last Modified: 06-05-2010. "New Persian & Turkish". Hum.leiden.edu. Retrieved 2012-09-26.
- Last Modified: 08-11-2011. "Political Science". Prospectivestudents.leiden.edu. Retrieved 2012-09-26.
- Last Modified: 08-11-2011. "Public Administration". Prospectivestudents.leiden.edu. Retrieved 2012-09-26.
- Humanities Faculty Web Editors Last Modified: 01-09-2011. "Russian Studies". Hum.leiden.edu. Retrieved 2012-09-26.
- Humanities Faculty Web Editors Last Modified: 10-08-2011. "Slavic Languages and Cultures". Hum.leiden.edu. Retrieved 2012-09-26.
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- "European Law". En.mastersinleiden.nl. Retrieved 2012-09-26.
- "ICT in Business Programme". Iib.liacs.nl. Retrieved 2012-09-26.
- "International Tax Law". En.mastersinleiden.nl. Retrieved 2012-09-26.
- "Islamic Studies". En.mastersinleiden.nl. Retrieved 2012-09-26.
- "Life sciences". En.mastersinleiden.nl. Retrieved 2012-09-26.
- "Media Technology (MSc)". Mediatechnology.leiden.edu. Retrieved 2012-09-26.
- "Toxicology". En.mastersinleiden.nl. Retrieved 2012-09-26.
- "Institute of Environmental Sciences". Cml.leiden.edu. 2012-09-20. Retrieved 2012-09-26.
- "Crisis and Security Management". En.mastersinleiden.nl. Retrieved 2012-09-26.
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- Otterspeer, Willem (2008). The Bastion of Liberty. Leiden University Today and Yesterday. Amsterdam University Press. ISBN 978-90-8728-030-7.
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