Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant

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"Vermont Yankee" redirects here. For the U.S. Supreme Court decision, see Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Corp. v. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc..
Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant
Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant.jpg
Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant is located in Vermont
Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant
Location of Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant
Location Vernon, VT
Coordinates 42°46′44″N 72°30′47″W / 42.77889°N 72.51306°W / 42.77889; -72.51306Coordinates: 42°46′44″N 72°30′47″W / 42.77889°N 72.51306°W / 42.77889; -72.51306
Status Operational
Commission date November 30, 1972
Operator(s) Entergy
Nuclear power station
Reactor type BWR-4/Mark I containment
Reactor supplier General Electric
Power generation
Nameplate capacity 620 MW
Annual generation 4,703 GWh

Vermont Yankee is an electricity generating nuclear power plant, located in the town of Vernon, Vermont, in the northeastern United States. It generates 620 megawatts (MWe) of electricity at full power. The plant was designed by General Electric, and is a boiling water reactor (BWR). Entergy, the present owner, has scheduled the plant to cease operations in late 2014. The plant began commercial operations in 1972 under different ownership. In 2008, the plant provided 71.8% of all electricity generated within Vermont, which amounted to 35% of the entire electricity consumed in the state. The plant is on the Connecticut River, upstream of the Vernon, Vermont Hydroelectric Dam. The Connecticut River reservoir pool created by the Vernon dam is drawn upon by Vermont Yankee for its cooling water.

The plant's initial 40-year operating license was scheduled to expire in March 2012; the license was extended for 20 years by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in March 2011. Vermont Yankee's continued operations was complicated by the Vermont state legislature's enactment of a law providing the state legislature authority to determine the continued operation of the plant, in addition to the federal government. Entergy requested a new state certificate of public good (CPG),[1] but the Vermont legislature voted in February 2010 against allowing renewed permission to operate. In January 2012, Entergy won a court case, invalidating the state's veto power on continued operations. On August 28, 2013, Entergy announced that economic factors, notably the lower cost of electricity provided by competing natural gas-fired power plants, had led Entergy to cease operations and schedule the decommissioning of the plant in the fourth quarter of 2014.[2]

There have been many anti-nuclear protests about Vermont Yankee since the 1970s, including large protests following the Japanese Fukushima nuclear disaster in March 2011 and on the date of the original operating license expiry in March 2012.

Design and function[edit]

Electricity generation sources for Vermont

Vermont Yankee is a BWR-4 Boiling water reactor that uses a Mark I containment structure. It provided 71.8% of all electricity generated in Vermont in 2008[3] and meets 35% of the overall electricity requirements of the state.[4]

It was originally designed and constructed for 500 MW electrical output. In 2006, it was upgraded to 620 MW electrical output. The reactor produces 1912 MW of heat which is converted to electricity at 32% efficiency.[5] In comparison, the average residential power demand for all of Vermont in 2012 was 239 MW.[6]

The reactor core holds up to 368 fuel assemblies, and 89 control rods.[7] The spent fuel pool is allowed to contain up to 3353 spent fuel assemblies.[7]

Ownership and operational license[edit]

On July 31, 2002, Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC (EVY) purchased Vermont Yankee from Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Corporation (VYNPC) for $180 million. Entergy received the reactor complex, nuclear fuel, inventories, and related real estate. The liability to decommission the plant, as well as related decommissioning trust funds of approximately $310 million, was also transferred to Entergy. The acquisition included a 10-year power purchase agreement (PPA) under which three of the former owners committed to purchase a portion of the electricity produced by the reactor at a cost of approximately 4.5 cents per kilowatt hour.[8]

Vermont Yankee employs approximately 600 people including the employees that work out of the corporate office on Old Ferry Road in Brattleboro, VT.[9]

As a result of an NRC approved Extended Power Uprate (EPU), Vermont Yankee achieved its new rated power of 1,912 MWth (120% of its original licensed thermal power of 1,593 MW-thermal) on May 6, 2006. The power increase was carried out in steps to allow collection of data on the reactor's steam dryer at various power levels, in accordance with the NRC imposed power ascension test plan.

In 1978, the Vermont Yankee reactor was the subject of Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Corp. v. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc., an important United States Supreme Court administrative law case which ruled that courts cannot impose procedures upon the NRC as this exceeds their power of judicial review.

Spent fuel[edit]

In the early 2000s Vermont Yankee's spent fuel pool was nearing capacity.[citation needed] With no projected date for operations to start at the national long-term nuclear waste storage facility at Yucca Mountain Repository, Entergy Nuclear obtained approval[citation needed] for dry-cask storage of spent fuel [10] to avoid exceeding the pool's licensed capacity and allow operations to continue beyond 2012, the end of the original operating license term.

Vermont Yankee began the first stage of its dry-cask storage program in May 2008.[citation needed] The first fully loaded 97-short-ton (88 t) cask was accidentally dropped onto the refueling floor from a height of about 4 inches (100 mm) after being raised from the spent fuel pool. The accident was attributed to failure of a relay in the overhead crane, rated at 110 short tons (100 t). (The crane reportedly was tested in 1975 with only about 70% of the weight of a fully loaded cask.)[citation needed] In August 2008, Vermont Yankee successfully completed the first stage of its dry-storage program with the transfer of a fifth cask from the reactor building to a storage pad located above the 500-year floodplain of the Connecticut River.[citation needed] A large, specially designed cask-moving machine transported the casks, each containing 68 spent fuel assemblies, to the pad. Most of the spent fuel continues to be stored in the spent fuel pool.

Cooling water[edit]

Vermont Yankee uses the Connecticut River as its source of cooling water for its two major water systems: the circulating water system and the service water system. The circulating water system removes heat from the power generation process of the plant by cooling the plant's main condenser. The service water system cools both safety and non-safety related auxiliary components in the nuclear facility and the turbine facility of the plant, and additionally absorbs decay heat from the reactor's cooling systems in emergencies or in times when the reactor is shutdown.

Closure/extension planning[edit]

Entergy Vermont Yankee applied to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for a license extension of 20 years on January 27, 2006.[11] In early 2010, the Vermont State Senate voted 26–4 to block the Vermont Public Service Board (PSB) from considering continued operation of Vermont Yankee.[12]

On May 20, 2010, the NRC released a report on Vermont Yankee:

Based on the results of this inspection, the NRC determined that Entergy-Vermont Yankee (ENVY) appropriately evaluated the contaminated ground water with respect to off-site effluent release limits and the resulting radiological impact to public health and safety; and that ENVY complied with all applicable regulatory requirements and standards pertaining to radiological effluent monitoring, dose assessment, and radiological evaluation. No violations of NRC requirements or findings of significance were identified.[13]

On March 10, 2011 the NRC voted to conclude proceedings regarding renewal of the operating license for the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station near Brattleboro, Vermont, for an additional 20 years.[14] On March 21, 2011 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued their renewal of the operating license for the Vermont Yankee plant for an additional 20 years.;[15] the renewed license will expire March 21, 2032.

On April 14, 2011, Entergy, the owner of Vermont Yankee, sued the state of Vermont to stay open despite the Senate's blocking vote.[16][17]

On August 14, 2013, the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit ruled on Wednesday, upholding a lower court’s decision that allowed the Vermont Yankee plant to keep running despite a seven-year effort by the Vermont Legislature to close it, finding that states are “pre-empted” from regulating safety by the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, which made safety a federal responsibility.[18]

On August 27, 2013, Entergy announced the plant will be closing in 2014.

Controversy and operations[edit]


Cooling for the plant's steam condenser is provided by circulating water through it, drawn from the adjacent Connecticut river. This water does not come in contact with the nuclear reactor and is not radioactive. The cooling towers are used to cool water returning from the condenser before it is discharged back into the river at times when it is too warm to comply with the environmental discharge permit. In 2007 the fourth cell of the west cooling tower collapsed, spilling some of the non-radioactive, cooling water.[19] The collapse was an "industrial safety event," which did not threaten the integrity of the reactor or release any radiation into the environment. The NRC stated that the remaining cooling tower had enough capacity to allow the plant to operate at full output, however, until September 16, 2007 the reactor was kept at 50% power.

The cause of the collapse was found to be corrosion in steel bolts and rotting of lumber. Entergy has asserted that future inspections will be much more stringent in order to prevent further problems.


The cooling tower collapse caused Vermont's then governor, Jim Douglas, to question the reliability of the power station:[20] In March 2008, a State Senate committee recommended that the Legislature appoint a panel to oversee an independent review of the plant's reliability. The panel gave Vermont Yankee a generally positive review. "What this report suggests to me is there is not a cause or reason to seek the closure of the plant because of operational or safety concerns," said Public Service Commissioner, David O'Brien.[21]

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission performed a tri-annual inspection July–August 2008. It found three "minor faults." An Associated Press report said that it had won "high marks."[22]


In May 2009, the vice-president of operations at Vermont Yankee told the PSB during the reliability review that he did not believe there was any radioactively contaminated underground piping at the plant, but that he would check and respond to the panel.[23] In October 2009, Arnold Gundersen, a member of a special oversight panel convened by the Vermont General Assembly, confirmed that radioactive contamination had been detected in underground pipes. An Entergy spokesperson told Vermont Public Radio (VPR) that the earlier testimony was a "miscommunication."[23] On June 4, 2010, VPR reported that, because they had provided misleading information, Entergy Nuclear would be liable for legal expenses incurred by certain parties.[24]


In January 2010, it was reported that tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, had been discovered in a sample of ground water taken from a monitoring well the previous November.[25] The level of the isotope was initially below the acceptable limit for drinking water set by the Environmental Protection Agency.[26] By mid-January, however, the level had risen to 20,000 picocuries per liter (pCi/l), the federal limit for drinking water. The head of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission told Vermont’s congressional delegation that the agency would devote more resources to addressing concerns about Vermont Yankee, and that he expected the source of the tritium leak would be located within the next several weeks.[27]

On February 4, 2010, Vermont Yankee reported that ground water samples from a newly dug monitoring well at the reactor site were found to contain about 775,000 pCi of tritium per liter (more than 37 times the federal limit). On February 5, 2010, samples from an underground vault were found to contain 2.7 million pCi/l.[28] On February 14, 2010, the source of the leak was found to be a pair of steam pipes inside the Advanced Off-Gas (AOG) pipe tunnel. The pipes were repaired, stopping the leak.[25]

Samples taken from the river and other drinking water sources by the Vermont Department of Health showed no detectable levels of tritium.[29] The New Hampshire Department of Health and Human Services made a similar statement after several tests of the river.[30]

During the search for the source of the tritium leak, other radionuclides were found in the soil at the site. Levels of cesium-137 were found to be three to ten times higher than background levels. Silt in a pipe tunnel contained 2,600 picocuries/kg, but contamination outside the pipe tunnel was limited to a small volume, about 150 cubic feet (4.2 m3) of soil. According to the Vermont State Department of Health, there was no health risk from the cesium, as the quantities were small and it had not migrated.[29]

Since cesium-137 is a fission product, it is an indicator of a nuclear fuel leak, but the consensus was that the cesium-137 probably leaked from defective fuel assemblies during or prior to 2001, when the last leak of that type was reported by Vermont Yankee. (Problems with fuel rods were common in the 1970s and 1980s.)[31]

In early November, 2010, a water leak[32] caused by a faulty weld caused a "conservative" four-day shutdown while the pipe involved was repaired. A company spokesman said that "if plant managers had known on Sunday night what they knew on Monday, they might have tried to fix the leak while the plant kept running."[33]

In 2010, Vermont Electric Power Company constructed a new substation, designated as the Vernon Substation, on the Vermont Yankee site to serve as the site's new main transmission facility and to connect a new 345 kV transmission line to Central Vermont as part of its Southern Loop project. The aging Entergy-owned Vermont Yankee substation could not handle the additional line or any additional transformers and VELCO desired to have a utility owned and controlled substation for what is probably the state's most important interconnection point. Additionally, the local 115 kV system was relying exclusively on Entergy's single 345 kV to 115 kV transformer. The construction of the Vernon substation included a second 345 kV to 115 kV transformer to supplement the existing Entergy owned transformer. The additional transformer also provided redundancy for Vermont Yankee's source of offsite power. The four transmission lines that formerly connected directly to the Vermont Yankee substation now connect to the Vernon substation, and three tie-lines, one at 115 kV and two at 345 kV, connect the Vermont Yankee substation to the Vernon substation. Each 345 kV tie line is capable of carrying the full power output of the plant.


During the week of January 17, 2011, tritium was detected at a level of 9,200 picocuries per liter (below the federally required reporting level) in an area 150–200 feet north of the location where it was detected a year earlier. According to the State's radiological health chief at the Vermont Health Department, Bill Irwin, and Vermont Yankee spokesman, Larry Smith, the source of the leak is not yet known. Irwin and Governor Peter Shumlin expressed concern about the discovery.[34]


On January 19, 2012, Judge J. Garvan Murtha of United States District Court in Brattleboro ruled that the state of Vermont could not force Vermont Yankee to close down, as the legislation that attempted to do so was based on radiological safety arguments that are the exclusive concern of the NRC. The judge also held that the state cannot force the plant’s owner, Entergy, to sell electricity from the reactor to in-state utilities at reduced rates as a condition of continued operation.[35]


On June 7, 2013, Vermont's Public Service Board issued Entergy a Certificate of Public Good to install an outdoor diesel generator to replace a tie line from the nearby hydroelectric station as its station blackout power source. The outdoor generator would only operate if the plant's main emergency diesel generators located inside the turbine building were to fail. The outdoor generator is a self-contained unit that does not require cooling water from the plant's cooling water systems. The new generator would power instrumentation in the control room and would be capable of providing emergency AC power to one train of each of the plant's emergency cooling systems.[36] On August 27, 2013, Entergy announced in a press release that it would close Vermont Yankee by the end of 2014. Among the reasons cited for the closure were ongoing low energy prices resulting from increased shale gas production, and the high operating costs of the plant.[37]

Protests and politics[edit]

Esther Poneck led the New England Coalition on Nuclear Pollution in opposing construction of Vermont Yankee in 1971. In the 1970s and 1980s there were many anti-nuclear protests at Vermont Yankee which attempted to block access to the plant.[38] More recent protests include:

  • January 2006: 100 anti-nuclear supporters demonstrated at the front door of Entergy Nuclear, and eleven people were arrested for trespassing.[39]
  • April 2009: About 150 activists marched from Montpelier's City Hall to the State House to urge lawmakers to back development of clean energy sources such as wind power and solar power; the marchers had gathered 12,000 signatures in support of closing Vermont Yankee.[40]
  • January 2010: A coalition of anti-nuclear activists participated in a 126-mile walk from Brattleboro to Montpelier in an effort to block the re-licensing of Vermont Yankee. About 175 people took part in the March, some joining for the day and some for longer stretches.[41]

In February 2010, the Vermont Senate voted 26 to 4 against allowing the PSB to consider re-certifying the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Plant after 2012, citing radioactive tritium leaks, misstatements in testimony by plant officials, a cooling tower collapse in 2007, and other problems.[42] Some businesses in Vermont were concerned there was an absence of a clear plan to replace the electricity generated by the plant. A spokesman for IBM, the largest private employer in the state, and the state's largest consumer of electricity, said "we have to be smarter than this".[43] Larry Reilly, president of Central Vermont Public Service Corp., Vermont's largest utility, stated in 2011 that he was untroubled by the prospect of closure: "There's plenty of power out there"."[44] Analysis by researchers at the University of Vermont estimated that an increase of "slightly more than 3 percent" in the retail price of electricity in Vermont would result from closing Vermont Yankee.[5]

Governor Peter Shumlin is a prominent opponent of the Vermont Yankee. Two days after Shumlin was elected governor in November 2010, Entergy sought offers to purchase the plant.[45] The company withdrew the plant from consideration for sale in late March 2011.[46]

In March 2011, 600 people gathered for a weekend protest outside the Vermont Yankee plant, in the wake of the Fukushima I nuclear accidents.[47] On March 22, 2011, the day after the NRC issued Vermont Yankee's license extension, Vermont's congressional delegation—Senator Patrick Leahy (D), Senator Bernie Sanders (I), and Representative Peter Welch (D)—issued a joint statement decrying the NRC's action and noting the similarity of Vermont Yankee to units then in partial meltdown at the Fukushima Daiichi power station, Japan.[48]

In March 2012, more than 130 protesters were arrested at the corporate headquarters of the Vermont Yankee nuclear power plant, on the first day of the plant's operation after the expiration of its original 40-year license.[49]

In March 2013, more than 500 people, carrying banners and chanting "shut it down", marched through downtown Brattleboro in protest against Vermont Yankee.[50]

Seismic risk[edit]

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's estimate of the risk each year of an earthquake intense enough to cause core damage to the reactor at Vermont Yankee was 8.1×10−6 per year, according to an NRC study published in August 2010.[51][52]

Surrounding population[edit]

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission defines two emergency planning zones around nuclear power plants: a plume exposure pathway zone with a radius of 10 miles (16 km), concerned primarily with exposure to, and inhalation of, airborne radioactive contamination, and an ingestion pathway zone of about 50 miles (80 km), concerned primarily with ingestion of food and liquid contaminated by radioactivity.[53]

The 2010 U.S. population within 10 miles (16 km) of Vermont Yankee was 35,284, an increase of 1.4 percent in a decade, according to an analysis of U.S. Census data for The 2010 U.S. population within 50 miles (80 km) was 1,533,472, an increase of 2.9 percent since 2000. Cities within 50 miles include Brattleboro (6 miles to city center); Keene, N.H., (16 miles to city center); Fitchburg, Mass., (38 miles to city center), Greenfield, Mass., and Northampton, Mass.[54]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Entergy: No need to plan for VY closing". 
  2. ^ "Entergy to Close, Decommission Vermont Yankee". PR Newswire. 
  3. ^ Vermont Nuclear Profile Energy Information Administration, September 2010.
  4. ^ "US Nuclear Plants; Vermont Yankee". Energy Information Administration. March 18, 2005. Retrieved 2007-03-15. 
  5. ^ a b Richard Watts, Paul Hines, Jonathan Dowds, "The Debate over Re-Licensing the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant", The Electricity Journal, Volume 23, Issue 4, May 2010, Pages 59–67, ISSN 1040-6190, doi:10.1016/j.tej.2010.04.005.
  6. ^ U.S. Energy Information Administration. "2012 Average Monthly Bill- Residential". Retrieved 2014-10-06.  From EIA: 309019 customers * 565 kWh / month*customer. To find average: * 12 months/1 year * 1 year/366 days (2012 was leap year) * 1 day / 24 hours =~ 238518 kW
  7. ^ a b Facility Operating License – Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC and Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station), Docket No. 50-271, License No. DPR-28 Amendment No. 5, 208, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, July 31, 2002
  8. ^ Smith, Robert (September 1, 2002). "Vermont Yankee finally sold to Entergy". Vermont Business Magazine. Retrieved 2009-03-26. 
  9. ^ Cosgrove, Brian, a spokesman for Entergy (July 1, 2008). "Entergy is vital to future of state". The Burlington Free Press. 
  10. ^ "NRC Dry-Cask Storage". March 29, 2012. 
  11. ^ "Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station – License Renewal Application". Nuclear Regulatory Commission. February 27, 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-15. 
  12. ^ "Senate votes to close Vermont Yankee nuclear plant in 2012". Burlington Free Press. February 24, 2010. Retrieved 2011-06-02. 
  13. ^ "Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station - Ground Water Monitoring Inspection Report 05000271/2010006". Retrieved 2010-05-28. 
  14. ^ "NRC Will Renew Vermont Yankee Operating License for an Additional 20 Years" (PDF). NRC. March 10, 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-21. 
  15. ^ NRC license renewal letter March 22, 2011
  16. ^ "Vermont Yankee Nuclear Plant Owner Entergy Sues State To Stay Open". Huffington Post. April 18, 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-16. 
  17. ^ Democracy Now news April 19, 2011
  18. ^ Wald, Matthew L. (August 14, 2013). "Appeals Court Blocks Attempt by Vermont to Close a Nuclear Plant". The New York Times. 
  19. ^ Dale E. Klein (October 31, 2007). "Letter to Senator Kennedy". Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Retrieved March 10, 2012. 
  20. ^ Governor Urges NRC to Approve Independent Safety Assessment[dead link]
  21. ^ Slota, Bianca (March 17, 2009). "Oversight Panel Gives Yankee Go-Ahead". WCAX News. Retrieved 2009-03-18. 
  22. ^ Gram, Dave (September 27, 2008). "Vt. Yankee passes review". The Burlington Free Press. 
  23. ^ a b Barlow, Daniel (February 2, 2010). "Backtracking and in trouble: A detailed timeline on who said what on Vt. Yankee". Barre-Montpelier Times-Argus. Retrieved 2010-04-07. 
  24. ^ "Groups That Challenged Vermont Yankee To Be Reimbursed". Vermont Public Radio. June 7, 2010. Retrieved March 16, 2011. 
  25. ^ a b "Investigation into Tritium Contamination at Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station". 
  26. ^ Gram, Dave (January 7, 2010). "Vt. Yankee Well Tests Shows Radioactive Isotope". Montpelier, Vermont. Associated Press. Retrieved January 11, 2010. 
  27. ^ "Delegation ask NRC for assurances on Vermont Yankee". The Burlington Free Press. January 27, 2010. Retrieved January 27, 2010. [dead link]
  28. ^ "Vermont Yankee zeroes in on possible source of leak". Burlington Free Press, February 6, 2010[dead link]
  29. ^ a b laboratory_testing. Retrieved on 2014-04-12.
  30. ^ "Final" (PDF). 
  31. ^ ""Plant tests pointing to failed fuel rods," Rutland Herald, April 5, 2010". 
  32. ^ Josh Stilts (October 8, 2010). "VY closed to fix leak". Brattleboro Reformer. Retrieved 2010-10-08. 
  33. ^ Wald, Matthew L., "Vermont Yankee Reactor Restarts" The New York Times Green blog, November 11, 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-11.
  34. ^ "Radioactive Tritium Found In New Well At Vermont Yankee". Vermont Public Radio. January 21, 2011. Retrieved March 16, 2011. 
  35. ^ Wald, Matthew L. (January 19, 2012). "Judge Rules Vermont Can’t Shut Nuclear Plant". New York Times. Retrieved January 24, 2013. 
  36. ^ "PSB approves generator at Vermont Yankee". Brattleboro Reformer. June 7, 2013. Retrieved July 1, 2013. 
  37. ^ "Entergy to Close, Decommission Vermont Yankee" (Press release). August 27, 2013. Retrieved August 27, 2013. 
  38. ^ David C. Brody, James R. Acker, Wayne A. Logan (2001). Criminal law Jones & Bartlett Publishers, p. 276.
  39. ^ "Eleven arrested in latest protest over Vermont Yankee". January 17, 2006. 
  40. ^ Barlow, Daniel (April 30, 2009). "Activists stage anti-nuclear rally". 
  41. ^ Anti-nuclear protesters reach capitol Rutland Herald, January 14, 2010.
  42. ^ Wald, Matthew L., Vermont Senate Votes to Close Nuclear Plant The New York Times, February 24, 2010.
  43. ^ Entergy Makes Last Ditch Effort To Save Vermont Yankee, February 22, 2010.
  44. ^ M. D. Drysdale, "New Leadership for Vt.'s Biggest Utility: CVPS's Reilly Not Worried About Vermont Yankee," The Herald of Randolph, April 21, 2011.
  45. ^ Wald, Matthew L., Vermont Nuclear Plant Up for Sale The New York Times, November 4, 2010.
  46. ^ "Entergy: No sale of Vermont Yankee". Burlington Free Press. Mar 30, 2011. 
  47. ^ "Vermont Yankee: Countdown to closure". WCAX. March 21, 2011. 
  48. ^ NRC: Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant ‘Good to Go’ for 20 More Years, March 22, 2011.
  49. ^ Wilson Ring (March 22, 2012). "130 arrested in Vermont Yankee protest". BusinessWeek. 
  50. ^ "Hundreds march in protest of Vermont Yankee plant". March 31, 2013. [dead link]
  51. ^ Bill Dedman, "What are the odds? US nuke plants ranked by quake risk", MSNBC News, March 17, 2011 Retrieved April 19, 2011.
  52. ^ Sheron, B. W. (September 2, 2010). "Safety assessment results...." MSNBC. p. D-6, Table D-1, "weakest link model" column.
  53. ^ "NRC: Backgrounder on Emergency Preparedness at Nuclear Power Plants". 
  54. ^ Bill Dedman, "Nuclear neighbors: Population rises near US reactors", MSNBC, April 14, 2011 Accessed May 1, 2011.

External links[edit]