West Azerbaijan Province

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This article is about the Iranian province. For other places named Azarbaijan, see Azerbaijan (disambiguation).
West Azerbaijan Province
استان آذربایجان غربی
Province
Map of Iran with West Azerbaijan highlighted
Location of West Azerbaijan within Iran
Coordinates: 37°33′10″N 45°04′33″E / 37.5528°N 45.0759°E / 37.5528; 45.0759Coordinates: 37°33′10″N 45°04′33″E / 37.5528°N 45.0759°E / 37.5528; 45.0759
Country  Iran
Region Region 3
Capital Urmia
Counties 17
Area
 • Total 37,437 km2 (14,455 sq mi)
Population (2012)
 • Total 3,080,576
 • Density 82/km2 (210/sq mi)
Time zone IRST (UTC+03:30)
 • Summer (DST) IRST (UTC+04:30)
Main language(s) Persian (official)
local languages:
Azeri[1][2][3][4]
Kurdish[5]
Armenian
Assyrian[6]

West Azerbaijan Province[7] is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. It is in the northwest of the country, bordering Turkey, Iraq and Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, and the provinces of East Azerbaijan, Zanjan and Kurdistan. The province is part of Region 3.[8]


The province of West Azerbaijan covers an area of 39,487 km², or 43,660 km² including Lake Urmia. In 2006 the province had a population of about 3 million (estimate).[9] The capital city and largest city of the province is Urmia.

Archaeology[edit]

Permanent settlements were established in the province as early as the 6th millennium BC as excavation at sites such as Teppe Hasanlu establish. In Hasanlu, a famous Golden Vase was found in 1958. The province is the location of Tepe Hajji Firuz, site of some of the world's earliest evidence of wine production.[10][11][12] Gooy Teppe is another significant site, where a metal plaque dating from 800 BC was found that depicts a scene from the epic of Gilgamesh.

Ruins such as these and the UNESCO world heritage site at the Sassanid compound of Takht-i-Suleiman illustrate the strategic importance and tumultuous history of the province through the millennia. Overall, the province enjoys a wealth of historical attractions, with 169 sites registered by the Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran.

History[edit]

The region of the modern province as Matiene, as opposed to Atropatene to the east

The major known ancient civilization in the region was that of Mannaeans, a buffer state between Urartian and Assyrian sphere of influence. Mannaeans in turn spoke a language related to Urartian. After the fall of Assyria, the region was known as Mantiene (or Matiene) in Greek sources. Matiene bordered on Atropatene situated east of Lake Urmia. The region subsequently was known as Persarmenia from the second century BC. as late as 11th century AD.

In the late 4th century AD the Sassanids incorporated the area into the neighbouring Adhurpadagan satrapy to the east.[13] The name Adhurpadagan, later Arabicized to Azerbaijan, derives from Atropates,[14][15] an Iranian satrap of Media under the Achaemenid empire, who later was reinstated as the satrap of Media under Alexander of Macedonia.[16]

At 7th century this area was under Islamic rule. After Babak Khorramdin revolted, the grip of the Abbasid caliphate weakened, allowing some native dynasties to rise. Around the 10th century when the region was under rule of Hadhabani Kurds, the medieval geographer Al-Muqaddasi described the area of what is today called West Azerbaijan province as part of Armenia, distinguishing it from the neighboring Azarbaijan:[17]

Arminiya is an important district. Its capital is Dabil and among its towns are Bidlis, Khilat, Arjish, Bargiri, Khuy, Salmas, Urmiya, Dakharraqan, Maragha, Ahar, Marand, Sinjar, Qaliqala, Qandariya, Qal'at, Yunus, Nurin.

The Seljuk Turkic tribes, who were initially resisted by the local Hadhabani Kurds, eventually conquered the region in the 11th and early 12th centuries. During Timurid rule in the 14th century, Khoy gained an important role in all over the region. After Hadhabanis, three other Kurdish principalities, Mukriyans in southern part, Bradosti in the middle and Donboli in the northern part ruled the region for centuries, who temporarily sided with either the Ottomans or Safavids. The battle of DimDim between the Safavids and local Bradosti Kurds took place in this region. After a long and bloody siege led by the Safavid grand vizier Hatem Beg, which lasted from November 1609 to the summer of 1610, the Castle of Dimdim was captured. All the defenders were killed and Shah Abbas I ordered a general massacre in Bradost and Mukriyan (reported by Eskandar Beg, Safavid historian in the book Alam Aray-e Abbasi) and resettled the Afshar tribe in the region while deporting many Kurdish tribes to Khorasan region, where many of their descendants still reside of as of today.

The Safavid control was firmly restored by Shah Abbas but during the Afghan invasion (1722–8) more than a century later, the Ottomans captured the northwestern regions of Iran, until Nadir Shah expelled them and reasserted Iranian suzerainty over the region and far beyond. The Russian (Tsarist) army occupied the region in 1909, and again in 1912–1914 and 1915–1918 period. The Ottomans occupied the region in 1914–1915 and 1918–1919 periods. The Soviet forces occupied the region in 1941, resulting in establishment of a short-lived, Soviet-supported puppet state called the Republic of Mahabad, from November 1945 to November 1946.

The districts of Mākū (Artaz), Ḵoy (Her), Salmās (Zarewand), and Arasbārān (Parspatunikʿ), and the region of Urmia (Parskahaykʿ), according to 19th century administrative division became a part of the northwestern Iranian province of Azerbaijan.[18] In 1937 the province was renamed to Shomal-e gharb (northwestern province) Shortly after it the province of Azerbaijan was divided into a western and eastern part which were renamed to Chaharom (fourth province) and sevom (third province), respectively. In 1961 Fourth province was renamed West Azerbaijan by the Iranian authorities.

Some events in the 19th and 20th centuries are:

  • Shaikh Ubeidullah Attacks, west and south of Lake Urmia in 1880;[19]
  • Simko Insurrections, west of Lake Urmia from 1918 to 1922;[20]
  • The Soviet occupation in 1946;
  • The foundation and destruction of the Republic of Mahabad in 1946;
  • Periodic severe fighting from 1979 until 1990s between Kurdish militia belonging to Kurdish political parties and the Iranian government.[21] During the early 1980s parts of the province were outside central government's control.

Geography and climate[edit]

With an area of 43,660 square kilometers, including Lake Urmia, the province of West Azerbaijan is located on the northwest of Iran.

The climate of the province is largely influenced by the rainy winds of the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean. Cold northern winds affect the province during winter and cause heavy snow.[22]

According to meteorological data, local temperatures vary within the province. Average temperature differs from 9.4 °C in Piranshahr to 11.6 °C in Mahabad, while it is 9.8 °C in Urmia, 10.8 °C in Khoy, 9.4 °C in Piranshahr, and in Mahabad 11.6 °C. According to same data, the highest temperature in the province reaches 34 °C in July, and the lowest temperature is –16 °C in January. Maximum change of temperature in summer is 4 °C and in winter 15 °C. Average annual precipitation ranges from 870 millimetres (34 in) of rainfall equivalent in exposed southern areas down to around 300 millimetres (12 in) in Maku in the north,[23] of which a substantial proportion is snow.

Administrative divisions and People[edit]

West Azerbaijan counties

There are no official statistics or census figures on the ethnic makeup of Iran. The bulk of the population in West Azerbaijan Province are mainly Azeris[1][2] and Kurds.[5] There are three ethnic and religious groups who are native to the province but who have minority status: Assyrians, Armenians, and Jews. There are also immigrants from other parts of Iran in the major cities of the province.

According to certain sources most of West Azarbaijan is inhabited by Azeris[24] with 76.2 percent of the population[25] and Kurds with 21.7 percent.[25] Azeris are living mostly in Chaldoran, Maku, Khoy, Salmas, Urmia, Naghadeh, Miandoab, Shahindej and Takab counties and Kurds inhabit mostly Oshnaviyeh, Sardasht, Mahabad, Piranshahr and Bukan counties.[26][27][28][29][30]

Results of General Culture Council of Islamic Republic of Iran for West Azerbaijan province ethnic status:[25]

West Azerbaijan Ethnic Composition in 2012
ethnicity percent
Azerbaijani
  
76.2%
Kurd
  
21.7%
Persian
  
0.8%
other
  
1.1%
without answer
  
0.3%


The diversity of religions in the province has been a major factor throughout the history of the province. The religions in the province are Shia and Sunni Islam, Christianity, Judaism, and Yarasani. Both Azerbaijanis and Kurds follow Islam, the Azerbaijanis belonging mainly to Shias and the Kurds being the Sunni branch. There are also considerable Shia Kurds in the province. There is a very small minority who follow Yarasani (or Ahl-e Haqq, اهل حق). Christianity is the only religion of the Assyrians and Armenians. The Jews follow Judaism. There are also Bahais and Zoroastrians in the province.

Piranshahr, capital of Mukrian

Religion[edit]

Some Muslim researchers[31] have proclaimed that the birth of the prophet Zoroaster was in this area, in the vicinity of Lake Orumieh, Chichesht or Ganzak; recent scholarship, however, indicates that sites in Central Asia are more likely.[32]

In this province, Islam (Shiite and Sunni) is the majority religion. However, there is also a large Assyrians Christian minority, who have historically lived on the west shore of Lake Urmia, as well as Armenians who are scattered throughout the province. Notably, the city of Maku in northern West Azerbaijan was the only city in Iran (before World War II) where Christians comprised the majority.

St. Thaddeus Cathedral is located on the outskirts of Chaldoran, near the village of Qara-Kelissa. Besides being a religious site with a particular significance among Christians, particularly Armenians, this large church (monastery) is also a rare and valuable monument in architectural and artistic terms.

St. Thaddeus, also known as Jude Thaddeus or Jude Labbeus, was one of the apostles of Jesus Christ who traveled to Armenia, where he was later killed and upon whose grave the locals erected a small chapel in AD 301. The cathedral is known as Qara-kelissa ('Black church' in Turkish) to the locals, owing to the appearance of its western section. In 1329, the church was reconstructed in its present form after an earthquake destroyed the structure in 1319.

UNESCO World Heritage Site
The Armenian Monastic Ensembles in Iran
Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List
Qareh kelissa.jpg
Saint Thaddeus Monastery (Qara Kelissa), Chaldoran. Believed by some to have been first built in AD 66 by Saint Jude. Local Armenians believe that he and Simon were both buried here.
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, iii, vi
Reference 1262
UNESCO region Asia-Pacific
Inscription history
Inscription 2008 (32nd Session)

Churches in West Azerbaijan[edit]

Thirty-one churches are registered by the Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran in the province. Many of these are historical landmarks and unusually rich in heritage. Some of the more famous ones are listed as follows:[33]

Armenian Churches

  • Monastery of St. Thaddeus (Surp Tade Vank) - Maku - Karakelisa - Early Christianity (Renovated in 1329 and 1820)
  • St. Sandukht (Surp Sandukht) Church - Maku - Karakelisa - 14th century
  • St. Vardan (Surp Vardan) Church - Maku - Shaveran - 18th century
  • Monastery of Holy Mary (Surp Asdvadzadzin Vank) - Maku - Baron (Dzor Dzor) - 1324
  • St. Sarkis (Surp Sarkis) Church - Khoy - 1120
  • Holy Cross of Christ (Surp Khatch Kristosi) Church - Khoy - Mahlazan - 1656
  • Holy Mary (Surp Asdvadzadzin) Church - Khoy - Ghris - 16th century
  • St. Sarkis (Surp Sarkis) Church - Khoy - Fanai - 16th century
  • Holy Mary (Surp Asdvadzadzin) Church - Khoy - Dizeh - 18th century
  • St. Sarkis the Commander (Surp Sarkis Zoravar) Church - Khoy - Var - 18th century
  • St. James (Surp Hakop) Church - Khoy - Saeedabad - 18th century
  • Holy Mary (Surp Asdvadzadzin) Church - Salmas - Akhtekhaneh - 18th century
  • St. James (Surp Hakop) Church - Salmas - Aslanik - 1886
  • St. George (Surp Gevorg) Church - Salmas - Charik - 1203
  • St. Sarkis the Commander (Surp Sarkis Zoravar) Church - Salmas - Drishk - 1400
  • St. Sarkis (Surp Sarkis) Church - Salmas - Qalasar - 1806
  • Sts. Paul-Peter (Surp Poghos-Petros) Church - Salmas - Qezeljeh
  • St. John (Surp Hovhannes) Church - Salmas - Qezeljeh - 1189
  • Holy Mary (Surp Asdvadzadzin) Church - Salmas - Haftvan - 18th century
  • St. George (Surp Gevorg) Church - Salmas - Haftvan - 1652
  • St. Thaddeus (Surp Tadevos) Church - Salmas - Haftvan - 13th century
  • Sts. Paul-Peter (Surp Poghos-Petros) Church - Salmas - Haftvan
  • St. Sarkis (Surp Sarkis) Church - Salmas - Khosrowabad - 1717
  • St. Sarkis (Surp Sarkis) Church - Salmas - Goluzan - 18th century
  • Holy Mary (Surp Asdvadzadzin) Church - Salmas - Sheitanabad - 1708
  • St. George (Surp Gevorg) Church - Salmas - Payajuk - 1751
  • St. George (Surp Gevorg) Church - Salmas - Karabulagh
  • St. George (Surp Gevorg) Church - Salmas - Hodar - 1813
  • St. James (Surp Hakop) Church - Salmas - Kohneshahr - 1671
  • St. Sarkis (Surp Sarkis) Church - Salmas - Kohneshahr - 1671
  • St. John (Surp Hovhannes) Church - Salmas - Kohneshahr - 1825
  • St. Sarkis the Commander (Surp Sarkis Zoravar) Church - Salmas - Malham - 1711
  • St. Vardan (Surp Vardan) Church - Salmas - Malham - 1724
  • Holy Monks (Surp Chknavorats) Church - Salmas - Malham - 1796
  • St. Sarkis (Surp Sarkis) Church - Salmas - Saramolk - 1758
  • Holy Mary (Surp Asdvadzadzin) Church - Salmas - Sarna - 1625
  • St. George (Surp Gevorg) Church - Salmas - Savera - 18th century
  • All Saviour (Surp Amenaprgitch) Church - Salmas - Zivajik - 1892
  • St. Sarkis (Surp Sarkis) Church - Salmas - Kojamish - 1348
  • St. Sarkis (Surp Sarkis) Church - Salmas - Ula
  • St. Stephen (Surp Stepanos) Church - Urmia - 18th century
  • St. John (Surp Hovhannes) Church - Urmia - Balanej - 17th century
  • St. John (Surp Hovhannes) Church - Urmia - Badelbo - 18th century
  • St. Sarkis (Surp Sarkis) Church - Urmia - Surmanabad - 18th century
  • Holy Sign (Surp Nshan) Church - Urmia - Jamalabad - 18th century
  • St. John (Surp Hovhannes) Church - Urmia - Jamalabad - 18th century
  • St. George (Surp Gevorg) Church - Urmia - Gardabad - 17th century
  • St. Sarkis (Surp Sarkis) Church - Urmia - Ikiaghaj - 17th century
  • Holy Mary (Surp Asdvadzadzin) Church - Urmia - Isalu - 17th century
  • Holy Mary (Surp Asdvadzadzin) Church - Urmia - Karaguz - 18th century
  • St. John (Surp Hovhannes) Church - Urmia - Karagiz - 18th century
  • Holy Mary (Surp Asdvadzadzin) Church - Urmia - Nakhichevan Tepe - 17th century
  • Holy Mary (Surp Asdvadzadzin) Church - Urmia - Reihanabad - 17th century
  • Holy Mary (Surp Asdvadzadzin) Church - Urmia - Sepurghan - 17th century
  • St. Sarkis (Surp Sarkis) Church - Urmia - Sepurghan - 17th century
  • St. Peter (Surp Petros) Church - Urmia - Karabagh - 1655
  • St. John (Surp Hovhannes) Church - Urmia - Adeh - 17th century
  • Holy Mary (Surp Asdvadzadzin) Church - Urmia - Dizej Ala - 1820
  • St. John (Surp Hovhannes) Church - Urmia - Khan Babakhan - 17th century
  • St. Sarkis (Surp Sarkis) Church - Urmia - Kachilan - 17th century
  • St. George (Surp Gevorg) Church - Urmia - Shirabad - 18th century
  • Holy Mary (Surp Asdvadzadzin) Church - Urmia - Charbakhsh - 1882
  • Sts. Paul-Peter (Surp Poghos-Petros) Church - Urmia - ChaharGushan - 18th century
  • Holy Mary (Surp Asdvadzadzin) Church - Urmia - Rahava - 17th century
  • Holy Mary (Surp Asdvadzadzin) Church - Urmia - Ballu - 17th century
  • St. Sarkis (Surp Sarkis) Church - Urmia - Darbarud - 18th century
  • St. Sarkis (Surp Sarkis) Church - Urmia - Kukia - 18th century
  • Holy Mary (Surp Asdvadzadzin) Church - Urmia - Babarud - 18th century
  • St. Sarkis (Surp Sarkis) Church - Miandoab - Taqiabad

Assyrian Churches

  • Holy Mary (Mart Maryam) Church - Urmia - 1st century
  • St. Cyriacus (Mar Kuryakus) Church - Urmia - 18th century
  • Holy Mary (Mart Maryam) Church - Urmia - CharBakhsh - 5th century
  • Holy Gabriel (Mar Gabriel) Church - Urmia - Ordushahi - 19th century
  • St. Shalita (Mar Shalita) Church - Urmia - Shirabad - 19th century
  • St. Joseph (Mar Yozef) Church - Urmia - Shirabad - 1897
  • St. Sarkis (Mar Sargiz) Church - 5 km SW of Urmia - Seir - 5th century
  • Holy Zion (Mar Sehyon) Church - 8 km E of Urmia - Golpashan
  • St. George (Mar Gevargiz) Church - 8 km E of Urmia - Golpashan - 1905
  • Holy Mary (Mart Maryam) Church - 8 km E of Urmia - Golpashan
  • Sts. Peter-Paul (Mar Petros-Paulos) Church - 10 km E of Urmia - 8th century - believed to be built by Bukhtishu
  • Holy Mary (Mart Maryam) Church - 32 km E of Urmia - Mavana
  • St. Daniel (Mar Danial) Church - 25 km N of Urmia - Nazlu River - 5th century - destroyed in World War I, rebuilt
  • St. John (Mar Yokhnah) Church - 45 km N of Urmia - Jamalabad - 5th century
  • St. John (Mar Yokhnah) Church - 24 km N of Urmia - Adeh - 1901
  • St. Sabrisho (Mar Sabrisho) Church - 30 km N of Urmia - Mushiabad - 1880
  • St. George (Mar Gevargiz) Church - 35 km N of Urmia - Sepurghan - 1830
  • St. John (Mar Yokhnah) Church - 40 km N of Urmia - Gavilan - 5th century
  • St. John (Mar Yokhnah) Church - 40 km N of Urmia - Gavilan - 19th century
  • St. Thomas (Mar Toma) Church - 30 km W of Urmia - Balulan - 7th century
  • St. Cyriacus (Mar Kuryakus) Church - Salmas - Kohneshahr - 12th century
  • St. James (Mar Yakob) Church - Salmas - Kohneshahr - 19th century
  • St. Khinah (Mar Khinah) Church - Salmas - Sarna
  • Holy Mary (Mart Maryam) Church - Salmas - Savera
  • Vank - 2 km S of Salmas - Khosrowabad - 5th century - The Holy Cross of Jerusalem was kept here for a while.
  • St. Sarkis (Mar Sargiz) Church - 2 km S of Salmas - Khosrowabad - 1869
  • St. George (Mar Gevargiz) Church - 2 km S of Salmas - Khosrowabad - 1845
  • Church - 12 km SW of Salmas - Akhtekhaneh - 1890
  • St. Sarkis (Mar Sargiz) Church - 2 km S of Salmas - Khosrowabad - 1869

In 2008, UNESCO selected a group of these religious structures as part of the Armenian Monastic Ensembles in Iran World Heritage Site.[34]

West Azerbaijan today[edit]

Kakh Muzeh Maku, near Maku, built by one of the commanders of Mozzafar-al-Din Shah, is a popular attraction.

The city of Urmia has a higher standard of living in comparison with the other cities of the province. There are plenty of parks, coffee shops, cinemas, and internet cafes throughout. There are hundreds of small villages in the province, most of which have running water and electricity as well as television, satellite, and telephone lines. Southern cities which economically are considered poor areas have always been the venue of Kurdish demonstrators against the Islamic regime.[2]

West Azerbaijan Province is one of the most important provinces for Iran's agriculture.

Iran's Minister of Energy, Parviz Fattah, is from Urmia.

Culture[edit]

West Azerbaijan possesses a rich culture, stemming from Azeri and Kurdish traditions. Many local traditions, such as music and dance, continue to survive among the peoples of the province. As a longstanding province of Persia, West Azerbaijan is mentioned favorably on many occasions in Persian literature by Iran's greatest authors and poets:

گزیده هر چه در ایران بزرگان
زآذربایگان و ری و گرگان

All the nobles and greats of Iran,
Choose from Azerbaijan, Ray, and Gorgan.
Vis o Ramin

از آنجا بتدبیر آزادگان
بیامد سوی آذرآبادگان

From there the wise and the free,
set off to Azerbaijan
Nizami

بیک ماه در آذرآبادگان
ببودند شاهان و آزادگان

For a month's time, The Kings and The Free,
Would choose in Azerbaijan to be
Firdowsi

Colleges and universities[edit]

Urmia University was first built by an American Presbyterian missionary in 1878. A medical faculty was also established there headed by Joseph Cochran and a team of American medical associates. Cochran and his colleagues were buried in an old cemetery in the vicinity of Urmia. Urmia University website says this about them:

"There they lie in peace away from their homeland, and the testimonial epitaphs on their tombs signify their endeavor and devotion to humanity."

The province today has the following major institutes of higher education:

  1. Urmia University [3]
  2. Urmia University of Medical Sciences
  3. Urmia University of Technology
  4. Islamic Azad University of Urmia
  5. Islamic Azad University of Salmas
  6. Islamic Azad University of Khoi
  7. Islamic Azad University of Piranshahr
  8. Payame Noor University of Piranshahr
  9. Islamic Azad University of Mahabad

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Geography: Turkic-speaking Groups" Iran: A Country Study, Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, (2008)
  2. ^ a b Minahan, James (2002) Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: S-Z (Volume 4 of Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: Ethnic and National Groups Around the World) Greenwood Publishing Group, Westport, Connecticut, page 1765, ISBN 978-0-313-32384-3
  3. ^ Price, Glanville (editor) (2000) Encyclopedia of the languages of Europe Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, England, page 21, ISBN 978-0-631-22039-8
  4. ^ Shaffer, Brenda (2002) Borders and brethren: Iran and the challenge of Azarbaijani identity, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, page 1, ISBN 978-0-262-69277-9
  5. ^ a b McLachlan, Keith Stanley (1994) The Boundaries of Modern Iran UCL Press, London, page 55, ISBN 978-1-85728-125-5
  6. ^ Anderson, Bridget et al. (1997) World Directory of Minorities (2nd edition) Minority Rights Group International, London, page 338, ISBN 978-1-873194-36-2
  7. ^ Locally, "West Azerbaijan Province" is written: Persian: استان آذربایجان غربی‎, Ostān-e Āzarbāijān-e Gharbī; :Azerbaijani: غربی آذربایجان اوستانی, "Qərbi Azərbaycan Ostanı"; Kurdish: پارێزگای ئازەربایجانی ڕۆژاوا
  8. ^ "همشهری آنلاین-استان‌های کشور به ۵ منطقه تقسیم شدند (Provinces were divided into 5 regions)". Hamshahri Online (in Persian (Farsi)). 22 June 2014 (1 Tir 1393, Jalaali). Archived from the original on 23 June 2014. 
  9. ^ "Azarbayejān-e Gharbi". World Gazetteer. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. 
  10. ^ "World's Oldest Known Wine Jar" University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology
  11. ^ Voigt, Mary M. and Meadow, Richard H. (1983) Hajji Firuz Tepe, Iran: the neolithic settlement University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ISBN 0-934718-49-0
  12. ^ Bert G. Fragner, ‘Soviet Nationalism’: An Ideological Legacy to the Independent Republics of Central Asia ’ in” in Van Schendel, Willem(Editor) . Identity Politics in Central Asia and the Muslim World: Nationalism, Ethnicity and Labour in the Twentieth Century. London , GBR: I. B. Tauris & Company, Limited, 2001. Excerpt from pg 24: "Under Soviet auspices and in accordance with Soviet nationalism, historical Azerbaijan proper was reinterpreted as 'Southern Azerbaijan', with demands for liberation and, eventually, for 're'-unification with Northern (Soviet) Azerbaijan a breathtaking manipulation. No need to point to concrete Soviet political activities in this direction, as in 1945–46 etc. The really interesting point is that in the independent former Soviet republics this typically Soviet ideological pattern has long outlasted the Soviet Union."
  13. ^ Richard G. Hovannisian, 2004, The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century, Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 1-4039-6421-1, ISBN 978-1-4039-6421-2, p. 92
  14. ^ Minorsky, V.; Minorsky, V. Ādharbaydjān (Azerbāydjān). Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by P.Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2007. Brill Online. [1]
  15. ^ Encyclopædia Iranica, "Azerbaijan: Pre-Islamic History", K. Shippmann
  16. ^ Historical Dictionary of Azerbaijan by Tadeusz Swietochowski and Brian C. Collins. The Scarecrow Press, Inc., Lanham, Maryland (1999), ISBN 0-8108-3550-9 (retrieved 7 June 2006)
  17. ^ Al-Moqaddasi, Shams ad-Din Abu Abdallah Muhammad ibn Ahmad, Ahsan al-Taqasi fi Ma’rifa al-Aqalim, translated by Ali Naqi Vaziri, volume one, first edition, Mu’alifan and Mutarjiman Publishers, Iran, 1981, pg 377
  18. ^ Ehsan Yar-Shater, 1982, Encyclopaedia iranica: publisher: Routledge & Kegan Paul, University of California, Volume 2, Issues 5-8, p. 476
  19. ^ The Kurdish Question, by W. G. Elphinston, Journal of International Affairs, Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1946, p.94
  20. ^ The Kurdish Question, by W. G. Elphinston, Journal of International Affairs, Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1946, p.97
  21. ^ http://countrystudies.us/iran/40.htm
  22. ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/46770/Azerbaijan
  23. ^ See Iranian Meteorological Agency
  24. ^ Federal Research Division, 2004, Iran A Country Study, Kessinger Publishing, ISBN 1-4191-2670-9, ISBN 978-1-4191-2670-3, p. 121, "The Azeri area of Iran includes most of West Azarbaijan"
  25. ^ a b c فهرست نویسی پیش از انتشار کتابخانه ملی جمهوری اسلامی ایران * شماره کتابشناسه ملّی:۲۸۹۰۶۹۰ *عنوان و نام پدیدآورنده:طرح بررسی و سنجش شاخص های فرهنگ عمومی کشور(شاخص های غیرثبتی){گزارش}:گزارش های پیشرفت طرح ها وکلان شهرها/به سفارش شورای فرهنگ عمومی کشور؛مدیر طرح و مسئول سیاست گذاری:منصور واعظی؛اجرا:شرکت پژوهشگران خبره پارس *بهاء:۱۰۰۰۰۰ ریال-شابک:۷-۶۸-۶۶۲۷-۶۰۰-۹۷۸ *وضعیت نشر:تهران-موسسه انتشارات کتاب نشر ۱۳۹۱ *وضعیت ظاهری:۲۹۵ ص:جدول(بخش رنگی)،نمودار(بخش رنگی)*یادداشت:عنوان دیگر:طرح و بررسی و سنجش شاخص های فرهنگ عمومی کشور(شاخص های غیرثبتی) سال ۱۳۸۹ *توصیفگر:شاخص های غیرثبتی+شاخص های فرهنگی+گزارش های پیشرفت طرح ها و کلان شهرها *توصیفگر:ایران ۳۸۶۲۸۹ *تهران۱۹۹۰۶۶ /مشهد۲۹۲۳۴۱ /اصفهان ۱۷۰۰۱۷/تبریز۱۸۴۸۱/کرج ۲۷۸۲۵۲/شیراز۲۵۱۷۰۳/اهواز۱۷۶۴۰۳/قم۲۷۰۸۷۷ *شناسنامه افزوده:واعظی،منصور،۱۳۳۳-۷۳۵۰۶۸ *شناسنامه افزوده:شرکت پژوهشگران خبره پارس /شورای فرهنگ عمومی *مرکز پخش:خیابان ولیعصر،زرتشت غربی،خیابان کامبیز،بخش طباطبایی رفیعی،پلاک۱۸،تلفن:۷-۸۸۹۷۸۴۱۵ *لیتوگرافی،چاپ وصحافی:سازمان چاپ و انتشارات اوقاف , (German)Titel: Der Plan um Untersuchungen und Auswertungen der Indikatoren der generellen Kultur des Landes, ISBN 978-600-6627-68-7, Jahr der Veröffentlichung: 2012, Verlag: Ketabe Nashr |language=Persian
  26. ^ گنجینه ای بنام آذربایجانغربی - سازمان تعزیرات حکومتی (The government suspended) Farsi
  27. ^ معرفی آذربایجان غربی - پورتال جامع آذربایجان غربی (Farsi & English)
  28. ^ آذربایجان غربی ؛ رنگین کمان اقوام و اقلیت ها در مسیر توسعه - مهر نیوز Mehr News (Farsi)
  29. ^ گردشگری استان - سازمان نظام کاردانی ساختمان استان آذربایجان غربی (Farsi)
  30. ^ استان آذربایجان غربی - سايت جامع گردشگري ايران (Farsi)
  31. ^ Balādâorī and Ebn Kordādâbeh
  32. ^ "As a matter of fact, only untrustworthy and late traditions place Zoroaster's birthplace at Urmia." Tarbiyat, Muḥammad Ali (1935) Dānishmandān-i Āzarbayjān Tehran, p. 162, reissued in 1999, ISBN 964-422-138-9
  33. ^ Azarbaijan Gharbi, Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran publications, ISBN 964-7483-80-5
  34. ^ Armenian monasteries in Iran added to UNESCO’s World Heritage List (July 6, 2008)

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