Xcode

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Xcode
Xcode icon.png
Xcode version 5.0.2.png
Xcode 5.0.2 running on Mac OS X 10.9
Developer(s) Apple Inc.
Stable release 5.1.1 (5B1008) (April 10, 2014; 11 days ago (2014-04-10)) [±]
Preview release 5.1 beta 5 (5B103i) (February 4, 2014; 2 months ago (2014-02-04)) [±]
Operating system Mac OS X 10.3 (Version 1.x)
Mac OS X 10.4 (Version 2.x)
Mac OS X 10.5 (Versions 2.5, 3.0, 3.1)
Mac OS X 10.6 (Versions 3.2, 4.0, 4.1, 4.2)
Mac OS X 10.7 (Versions 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6)
OS X 10.8 (Version 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 5.x)
OS X 10.9 (Version 5.x)
Type Integrated Development Environment (IDE)
License Proprietary freeware with open source components
Website Apple – Xcode

Xcode is an integrated development environment (IDE) containing a suite of software development tools developed by Apple for developing software for OS X and iOS. First released in 2003, the latest stable release is version 5.1 and is available via the Mac App Store free of charge for Mac OS X Lion and OS X Mountain Lion users.[1] Registered developers can download preview releases and previous versions of the suite through the Apple Developer website.[2]

Major features[edit]

Previously Xcode supported distributing a product build process over multiple systems. One technology involved was called Shared Workgroup Build, which used the Bonjour protocol to automatically discover systems providing compiler services, and a modified version of the free software product distcc to facilitate the distribution of workloads. Earlier versions of Xcode provided a system called Dedicated Network Builds. These features are absent in the supported versions of Xcode.

Thanks to the Mach-O executable format, which allows for “fat binaries," containing code for multiple architectures, Xcode can build universal binaries, which allow software to run on both PowerPC and Intel-based (x86) platforms and that can include both 32-bit and 64-bit code for both architectures. Using the iOS SDK, Xcode can also be used to compile and debug applications for iOS that run on the ARM processor.

Xcode also includes Apple's WebObjects tools and frameworks for building Java web applications and web services (previously sold as a separate product). As of Xcode 3.0, Apple dropped[3] WebObjects development inside Xcode; WOLips[4] should be used instead. Xcode 3 still includes the WebObjects frameworks.

Xcode includes the GUI tool Instruments, which runs atop DTrace, a dynamic tracing framework created by Sun Microsystems and released as part of OpenSolaris.

Composition[edit]

The main application of the suite is the integrated development environment (IDE), also named Xcode. The Xcode suite also includes most of Apple's developer documentation, and built-in Interface Builder, an application used to construct graphical user interfaces.

Up to Xcode 4.1, the Xcode suite included a modified version of the GNU Compiler Collection. In Xcode 3.1 up to Xcode 4.6.3, it included the llvm-gcc compiler, with front ends from the GNU Compiler Collection and a code generator based on LLVM,[5] and, in Xcode 3.2 and later, it included Apple's LLVM Compiler, with the clang front end and a code generator based on LLVM, and the Clang Static Analyzer.[6] Starting with Xcode 4.2, the Apple LLVM Compiler became the default compiler,[7] and, starting with Xcode 5.0, it was the only compiler provided.

Up to Xcode 4.6.3, the Xcode suite used the GNU Debugger (GDB) as the back-end for the IDE's debugger. Starting with Xcode 4.3, the LLDB debugger was also provided and, starting with Xcode 4.5, replaced GDB as the default back-end for the IDE's debugger;[8] as of Xcode 5.0, GDB was no longer supplied.[9]

Xcode supports C, C++, Objective-C, Objective-C++, Java, AppleScript, Python, Ruby and Rez source code with a variety of programming models, including but not limited to Cocoa, Carbon, and Java. Third parties have added support for GNU Pascal,[10] Free Pascal,[11] Ada,[12] C#,[13] Perl,[14] and D.

Version history[edit]

1.x series[edit]

Xcode 1.0 was released in fall 2003. Xcode 1.0 was based on Project Builder, but had an updated UI, ZeroLink, Fix & Continue, distributed build support, and Code Sense indexing.

The next significant release, Xcode 1.5, had better code completion and an improved debugger.

2.x series[edit]

Xcode 2.0 was released with Mac OS X v10.4 "Tiger". It included the Quartz Composer visual programming language, better Code Sense indexing for Java, and Ant support. It also included the Apple Reference Library tool, which lets you search and read online documentation from Apple’s website and local documentation installed on your machine.

Xcode 2.1 could create universal binaries. It supported Shared Precompiled Headers, unit testing targets, conditional breakpoints, and watchpoints. It also had better dependency analysis.

The final version of Xcode for Mac OS X v10.4 was 2.5.

3.x series[edit]

Xcode 3.0 was released with Mac OS X v10.5 "Leopard". Notable changes since 2.1 include[15] the DTrace debugging tool (now called Instruments), refactoring support, context-sensitive documentation, and Objective-C 2.0 with garbage collection. It also supports Project Snapshots, which provide a basic form of version control; Message Bubbles, which show build errors debug values alongside code; and building four-architecture fat binaries (32 and 64-bit Intel and PowerPC).

Xcode 3.1 was an update release of the developer tools for Mac OS X, and was the same version included with the iPhone SDK. It could target non-Mac OS X platforms, including iPhone OS 2.0. It included the GCC 4.2 and LLVM GCC 4.2 compilers. Another new feature since Xcode 3.0 is that Xcode's SCM support now supports Subversion 1.5.

Xcode 3.2 was released with Mac OS X v10.6 "Snow Leopard" and will not install on any earlier version of Mac OS X. It supports static program analysis, among other features. It also drops official support for targeting versions earlier than iPhone OS 3.0. But it is still possible to target older versions, and the simulator supports iPhone OS 2.0 through 3.1. Also, Java support is "exiled" in 3.2 to the organizer.[16]

Xcode 3.2.6 is the last version that can be downloaded for free for users of Mac OS X v10.6. Downloading it requires a free registration at Apple's developer site.

4.x series[edit]

In June 2010 at the World Wide Developers Conference, Apple announced version 4 of Xcode during the Developer Tools State of the Union address. Version 4 of the developer tools consolidates the Xcode editing tools and Interface Builder into a single application, among other enhancements.[17][18] Apple released the final code for Xcode 4.0 on March 9, 2011. The software was made available for free to all registered members of the $99 per year Mac Developer program and the $99 per year iOS Developer program. It was also sold for $4.99 to non-members on the Mac App Store (no longer available). Xcode 4.0 drops support for many older systems, including all PowerPC development as well as SDKs for Mac OS X 10.4 and 10.5, and all iOS SDKs older than 4.3. The deployment target can still be set to produce binaries for those older platforms, but for the Mac OS platforms one is then limited to creating x86 and x86_64 binaries. Later, Xcode was "Free" to the General Public. Before version 4.1, Xcode cost $4.99.[19]

Xcode 4.1 was made available for free on July 20, 2011 (the day of Mac OS X Lion's release) to all users of Mac OS X Lion on the Mac App Store. On August 29, 2011, Xcode 4.1 was made available for Mac OS X Snow Leopard for members of the paid Mac or iOS developer programs.[20] Xcode 4.1 was the last version to include GCC instead of only LLVM GCC.

On October 12, 2011, Xcode 4.2 was released concurrently with the release of iOS 5.0, and it included many more and improved features, such as storyboarding and automatic reference counting (ARC).[21] Xcode 4.2 is the last version to support Mac OS X 10.6 "Snow Leopard", but is only available to registered developers with paid accounts; without a paid account, 3.2.6 is the latest download that appears for Snow Leopard.[22]

Xcode 4.3, released on February 16, 2012, is distributed as a single application bundle, Xcode.app, installed from the Mac App Store. Xcode 4.3 reorganizes the Xcode menu to include development tools.[23] Xcode 4.3.1 was released on March 7, 2012 to add support for iOS 5.1.[24] Xcode 4.3.2 was released on March 22, 2012 with enhancements to the iOS Simulator and a suggested move to the LLDB debugger as opposed to the GDB debugger (which appear to be un-documented changes).[citation needed] Xcode 4.3.3, released in May 2012, featured an updated SDK for Mac OS X 10.7.4 "Lion" and a few bug fixes.[25]

Xcode 4.4 was released on July 25, 2012.[26] It runs on both Mac OS X Lion (10.7) and OS X Mountain Lion (10.8) and is the first version of Xcode to contain the OS X 10.8 "Mountain Lion" SDK. Xcode 4.4 includes support for automatic synthesizing of declared properties, new Objective-C features such as literal syntax and subscripting, improved localization, and more.[27] On August 7, 2012, Xcode 4.4.1 was released with a few bug fixes.

Xcode 4.5 was released on September 19, 2012, on the same day that iOS 6 was released. It added support for iOS 6 and the 4-inch Retina display found on iPhone 5 and iPod touch 5th generation. It also brought some new Objective-C features to iOS, simplified localization, and added auto-layout support for iOS.[8] On October 3, 2012, Xcode 4.5.1 was released with bug fixes and stability improvements.[1] Less than a month later, Xcode 4.5.2 was released, with support for iPad mini and iPad with Retina display, and bug fixes and stability improvements.

Xcode 4.6 was released on January 28, 2013, on the same day that iOS 6.1 was released.

5.x series[edit]

In June 2013 at the World Wide Developers Conference, Apple announced version 5 of Xcode.[28]

Versions compare table[edit]

Version history
Version Build Release date Runs on versions of OS X OS X SDK(s) iOS SDK(s) Min iOS Deployment Target iOS arm supported iOS Simulator available

1.0

September 28, 2003 OS X Panther (10.3.x) OS X Puma (10.1.x), OS X Jaguar (10.2.x), and OS X Panther (10.3.x)

1.1

December 19, 2003

1.2

April 22, 2004

1.5

August 4, 2004

2.0

OS X Tiger (10.4.x) OS X Jaguar (10.2.x), OS X Panther (10.3.x), and OS X Tiger (10.4.x)

2.1

June 6, 2005

2.2

November 10, 2005

2.2.1

January 13, 2006

2.3

May 23, 2006

2.4

August 17, 2006

2.4.1

October 31, 2006

2.5

October 30, 2007 OS X Tiger (10.4.x) and OS X Leopard (10.5.x)

3.0

October 26, 2007 OS X Leopard (10.5.x) OS X Panther (10.3.x), OS X Tiger (10.4.x), and OS X Leopard (10.5.x)

3.1

August 2, 2008

3.1.1

October 17, 2008

3.1.2

November 23, 2008

3.1.3

June 17, 2009

3.1.4

3.2

August 28, 2009 OS X Snow Leopard (10.6.x) OS X Tiger (10.4.x), OS X Leopard (10.5.x), and OS X Snow Leopard (10.6.x)

3.2.1

October 9, 2009 iOS 2.0 - iOS 3.1.3

3.2.2

1650 April 3, 2010 iOS 3.2 (7B367) + iOS 3.1.3 (7E18) + iOS 3.1.2 (7D11) + iOS 3.1 (7C144) + iOS 3.0 iOS 3.0 armv6 armv7 iOS 3.2 (7B367) + iOS 3.1.3 (7E18) + iOS 3.1.2 (7D11) + iOS 3.1 (7C144) + iOS 3.0 (7A341)

3.2.3

June 22, 2010 iOS 3.2 + iOS 4.0.1

3.2.3

iOS 3.2 + iOS 4.0.2 iOS 3.2 + iOS 4.0

3.2.4

iOS 3.2 + iOS 4.1 iOS 3.2 + iOS 4.0 + iOS 4.1

3.2.5

1760 October 14, 2010 iOS 4.2 iOS 4.2 (8C134) + iOS 4.1 (8B117) + iOS 4.0.2 (8A400) + iOS 3.2 (7W367a)

3.2.6

1761 iOS 4.3 (8F190) iOS 4.3 (8F190) + iOS 4.2 (8C134) + iOS 4.1 (8B117) + iOS 4.0.2 (8A400) + iOS 3.2 (7W367a)

4.0

4A304a March 14, 2011 OS X 10.6

4.0.1

4A1006 March 25, 2011 iOS 4.3 (8F192) + iOS 4.2 (8C134) + iOS 4.1 (8B117) + iOS 4.0.2 (8A400) + iOS 3.2 (7W367a)

4.0.2

4A2002a April 14, 2011 iOS 4.3.2 (8H7) iOS 4.3.2 (8H7) + iOS 4.2 (8C134) + iOS 4.1 (8B117) + iOS 4.0.2 (8A400) + iOS 3.2 (7W367a)

4.1

4B110 (10.7) 4B110f (10.6) July 20, 2011 OS X Snow Leopard (10.6.x) and OS X Lion (10.7.x) OS X Snow Leopard (10.6.x) and OS X Lion (10.7.x) iOS 4.3.2 (8H7)

4.1.1

August 4, 2011[citation needed]

4.2

4D199 (10.7) 4C199 (10.6) October 12, 2011 iOS 5.0

4.2.1

4D502 November 18, 2011 OS X Lion (10.7.x)[29] iOS 5.0 + downloadable:[30] iOS 4.3

4.3

4E109 February 16, 2012

4.3.1

4E1019 March 7, 2012 iOS 5.1 (9B176)

4.3.2

4E2002 March 22, 2012

4.3.3

4E3002 May 2012 OS X Lion (10.7.4)

4.4

July 25, 2012 OS X Lion (10.7.4 and 10.7.5) and OS X Mountain Lion (10.8.x) OS X Lion (10.7.x) and OS X Mountain Lion (10.8.x)

4.4.1

4F1003 August 7, 2012 iOS 5.1 + downloadable: iOS 5.0 + only for OSX 10.7:[31] iOS 4.3

4.5

September 19, 2012 iOS 6.0 (10A403) iOS 4.3 armv7 armv7s

4.5.1

October 3, 2012

4.5.2

4G2008 November 1, 2012

4.6

4H127 Feb 20, 2013 iOS 6.1 (10B141)

4.6.1

4H512 March 14, 2013

4.6.2

4H1003 April 15, 2013

4.6.3

4H1503 June 14, 2013 iOS 6.1 + downloadable: iOS 6.0, 5.1, 5.0 + only for OSX 10.7: iOS 4.3

5.0

5A1413 September 18, 2013 OS X Mountain Lion (10.8.4 and 10.8.5) and OS X Mavericks (10.9) OS X Mountain Lion (10.8.x) iOS 7.0 (11A465) iOS 4.3 or iOS 6.0 (for arch with arm64)[32] armv7 armv7s arm64 iOS 7.0 + downloadable: iOS 6.1, iOS 6.0 + only for OS X 10.8:[33] iOS 5.1, iOS 5.0

5.0.1

5A2053 October 22, 2013 OS X Mountain Lion (10.8.x) and OS X Mavericks (10.9) iOS 7.0.3 (11B508) iOS 4.3 or iOS 5.1.1 (for arch with arm64)[34]

5.0.2

5A3005 November 12, 2013

5.1

5B130a March 10, 2014 iOS 7.1 (11D167) iOS 7.1 + downloadable: iOS 7.0, iOS 6.1 + ?

5.1.1

5B1008 April 10, 2014
Version Build Release date Runs on versions of OS X OS X SDK(s) iOS SDK(s) Min iOS Deployment Target iOS arm supported iOS Simulator available

Toolchain Versions[edit]

Xcode cctools ld64 GCC 4.0 GCC 4.2 LLVM-GCC 4.2 LLVM Apple LLVM/ Apple Clang Comment
2.5 622.9 62.1 5370 - - - -
3.1.4 698.1 85.2.1 5493 5577 5555 2064.3 -
3.2 750 95.2.12 5493 5646 5646 2118 -
3.2.1 750 95.2.12 5493 5646 5646 2206 -
3.2.2 773 97.2 5493 5659 5646 2207.5 1.0.2
3.2.3 782 97.14 5494 5664 5658 2326.10 1.5 (60)
3.2.4 782 97.14 5494 5664 5658 2326.10 1.5 (60)
3.2.5 782 97.17 5494 5664 5658 2333.4 1.6 (70)
3.2.6 795 97.17 5494 5666 5658 2335.6 1.7 (77) (based on LLVM 2.9svn)
4.0 800 123.2 5494 5666 5658 2335.9 2.0 (137) (based on LLVM 2.9svn)
4.0.2  ?  ? 5494 5666 5658 2335.9 2.0 (137) (based on LLVM 2.9svn)
4.1 806 123.2.1 - 5666 5658 2335.15.00 2.1 (163.7.1) (based on LLVM 3.0svn) Last version installed to /Developer
4.2 809 127.2 - - 5658 2336.1.00 3.0 (211.10.1) (based on LLVM 3.0svn)
4.3 822 112 - - 5658 2336.9.00 3.1 (tags/Apple/clang-318.0.45) (based on LLVM 3.1svn)
4.3.1  ?  ? - - 5658 2336.9.00 3.1 (tags/Apple/clang-318.0.54) (based on LLVM 3.1svn)
4.3.2  ?  ? - - 5658 2336.9.00 3.1 (tags/Apple/clang-318.0.58) (based on LLVM 3.1svn)[35]
4.3.3  ?  ? - - 5658 2336.9.00 3.1 (tags/Apple/clang-318.0.61) (based on LLVM 3.1svn)[35]
4.4 829 133.3 - - 5658 2336.11.00 4.0 (tags/Apple/clang-421.0.57) (based on LLVM 3.1svn)[35]
4.4.1  ?  ? - - 5658 2336.11.00 4.0 (tags/Apple/clang-421.0.60) (based on LLVM 3.1svn)[35]
4.5 836 134.9 - - 5658 2336.11.00 4.1 (tags/Apple/clang-421.11.65) (based on LLVM 3.1svn)[35]
4.5.1  ?  ? - - 5658 2336.11.00 4.1 (tags/Apple/clang-421.11.66) (based on LLVM 3.1svn)[35]
4.5.2  ?  ? - - 5658 2336.11.00 4.1 (tags/Apple/clang-421.11.66) (based on LLVM 3.1svn)[35]
4.6 839 136 - - 5658 2336.11.00 4.2 (clang-425.0.24) (based on LLVM 3.2svn)[35]
4.6.1  ?  ? - - 5658 2336.11.00 4.2 (clang-425.0.27) (based on LLVM 3.2svn)[35]
4.6.2  ?  ? - - 5658 2336.11.00 4.2 (clang-425.0.28) (based on LLVM 3.2svn)[35]
4.6.3  ?  ? - - 5658 2336.11.00 4.2 (clang-425.0.28) (based on LLVM 3.2svn)[35]
5.0.0 846.2.1 224.1 - - - - 5.0 (clang-500.2.75) (based on LLVM 3.3svn)[35]
5.0.1 846.2.4 224.1 - - - - 5.0 (clang-500.2.79) (based on LLVM 3.3svn)[35]
5.0.2 846.2.4 224.1 - - - - 5.0 (clang-500.2.79) (based on LLVM 3.3svn)[35]
5.1 855 236.3 - - - - 5.1 (clang-503.0.38) (based on LLVM 3.4svn)[35]
5.1.1 855 236.4 - - - - 5.1 (clang-503.0.40) (based on LLVM 3.4svn)[35]
Xcode cctools ld64 GCC 4.0 GCC 4.2 LLVM-GCC 4.2 LLVM Clang Comment

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Xcode on the Mac App Store". Apple Inc. Retrieved October 3, 2012. 
  2. ^ "Mac Dev Center". Apple Developer. Retrieved July 31, 2011. 
  3. ^ David Holt says: (May 15, 2010). "Facts about WebObjects (WebObjects Community)". Wocommunity.org. Retrieved June 21, 2010. 
  4. ^ "WOLips". Wiki.objectstyle.org. February 27, 2010. Retrieved June 21, 2010. 
  5. ^ Prince McLean (June 20, 2008). "Apple's other open secret: the LLVM Compiler". Retrieved April 3, 2012. 
  6. ^ "XCode 3.2: teh awesome edition". August 30, 2009. Retrieved April 3, 2012. 
  7. ^ "What's New In Xcode: New Features in Xcode 4.2". Apple. Retrieved March 28, 2012. 
  8. ^ a b "What's New in Xcode 4.5". Apple Inc. Retrieved September 20, 2012. 
  9. ^ https://developer.apple.com/library/ios/documentation/DeveloperTools/Conceptual/WhatsNewXcode/Articles/xcode_5_0.html
  10. ^ Adriaan van Os. "GNU Pascal and Xcode". Microbizz.nl. Retrieved June 21, 2010. 
  11. ^ "Using Free Pascal with Xcode". Pascal-central.com. Retrieved June 21, 2010. 
  12. ^ "Tools". macada.org. Retrieved February 8, 2011. 
  13. ^ "CSharpPlugin - cocoa-sharp-dev - Google Code". Code.google.com. Retrieved June 21, 2010. 
  14. ^ "CamelBones, an Objective-C/Perl bridge for Mac OS X & GNUStep - Home". Camelbones.sourceforge.net. December 1, 2004. Retrieved June 21, 2010. 
  15. ^ Apple - Mac OS X Leopard - Features - 300+ New Features[dead link]
  16. ^ "Apple Developer Tools for Java". Apple. Retrieved February 8, 2011. 
  17. ^ "WWDC Software Notes: Safari 5, Xcode 4, iTunes 9.2". Mac Rumors. June 8, 2010. Retrieved June 21, 2010. 
  18. ^ "Developer Tools - What's New in Xcode 4". Apple Developer. Retrieved February 8, 2011. 
  19. ^ "Apple makes Xcode free to all with release of 4.1 on Mac App Store". AppleInsider. July 20, 2011. Retrieved July 3, 2013. 
  20. ^ "What's New in Xcode 4.1". Apple Inc. Retrieved October 3, 2012. 
  21. ^ "What's New in Xcode 4.2". Apple Inc. Retrieved October 3, 2012. 
  22. ^ Apple support communities discussion thread on the availability of Xcode 4.2
  23. ^ "What's New in Xcode 4.3". Apple Inc. Retrieved October 3, 2012. 
  24. ^ "What's New in Xcode 4.3.1". Apple Inc. Retrieved October 3, 2012. 
  25. ^ "What's New in Xcode 4.3.3". Apple Inc. Retrieved October 3, 2012. 
  26. ^ "Xcode 4.4 rolls out to OS X, iOS developers via the Mac App Store". 9to5Mac. July 25, 2012. Retrieved August 2, 2012. 
  27. ^ "What's New in Xcode 4.4". Apple Inc. Retrieved October 3, 2012. 
  28. ^ "Apple seeds first iOS 7 and OS X Mavericks betas to developers". AppleInsider. June 10, 2013. Retrieved June 11, 2013. 
  29. ^ Xcode 4.2.1 for Snow Leopard
  30. ^ How to Install Older iOS Simulators in XCode 4.2.1
  31. ^ Install Simulator SDK 4.3 to Xcode 4.4 on Mountain Lion
  32. ^ "Xcode 5 and iOS 7: Architecture and Valid architectures". 
  33. ^ How to use 5.x simulator while Xcode 5
  34. ^ "About 64-Bit Cocoa Touch Apps". 
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Xcode clang version record gist". Retrieved May 29, 2013. 

External links[edit]