Zamboanga (province)

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This article is about the former province. For current Zamboanga provinces, see Zamboanga (disambiguation).
Province of Zamboanga
Lalawigan ng Zamboanga
Former province of Philippines

1914–1952
 

Location of Zamboanga
Location of the historical Zamboanga province
Capital Zamboanga (1914-1942)
Dipolog (1942-1948)
Molave (1948-1952)
History
 -  Established July 23, 1914
 -  Splitting of Zamboanga June 6, 1952
Today part of Basilan, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga Sibugay and Zamboanga City

Zamboanga is a former province of the Philippines located in the western region of the southern island of Mindanao, Philippines.

History[edit]

Creation[edit]

During the time of the United States' purchase of the Philippines (1898), the Republic of Zamboanga had its own independence and jurisdiction on what is now Zamboanga City. After the dissolution of the republic, Zamboanga was eventually consolidated into one major administrative area by the American government of the Philippines, consisting of an enormous region that was the Mindanao island's western peninsula, Basilan Island, and the entire Sulu archipelago, with the ancient namesake town/fort of Zamboanga as the seat of its government, and was called the Moro Province of the Philippines.

The Moro Province, in 1914 was replaced by the Department of Mindanao and Sulu. It was divided into Zamboanga, Sulu, Cotabato, Davao, Agusan and Surigao. The town of Zamboanga as its capital. Luis Lim[1] was appointed as the first governor of Zamboanga.

In 1920, the Department of Mindanao and Sulu was officially dissolved and Zamboanga became an independent province and in 1922, elections were held for the first elected provincial officials of Zamboanga. Florentino Saguin was elected as first elected governor.

The province is composed of five (5) municipalities:

and is sub-divided into twelve (12) municipal districts:

World War II[edit]

When the Japanese invaded the Philippines (1942), Zamboanga acting Governor Felipe Azcuna moved the capital from Zamboanga City to Dipolog. After the defeat of the American-Filipino forces in Corregidor, most of the province went under Japanese control. The establishment of the general headquarters, garrisons and concentration camps of the Imperial Japanese Armed Forces was stationed in Zamboanga.

The founding of the local military establishment of the general headquarters of the Philippine Commonwealth Army was active on 1942 to 1946 and the 10th Infantry Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary was stationed in the province of Zamboanga.

The Zamboangueño Christian and Muslim resistance groups mounted guerrilla conflicts and insurgencies in the main province of Zamboanga on 1942 to 1944 during the Japanese Occupation and helped by local troops of the Philippine Commonwealth Army units against the Japanese. After the three-year main conflicts, when the Zamboangueño guerrillas were retreating against the Japanese in the main province. That was before the liberation of local Filipino troops of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and Philippine Constabulary units on 1944 and the American troops on the U.S. Armed Forces on 1945, well before the Battle of Zamboanga.

On March 1945, American forces seized an airfield in Dipolog giving an opportunity for the liberation of the whole province, before the American liberating troops was aided and helped by the local Philippine Commonwealth military forces and the Zamboangueño guerrilla resistance groups in Zamboanga province against the Japanese. By the end of the month, the province with Zamboanga City was officially liberated and the return of the provincial government from Dipolog to Zamboanga City.

After the war, on June 16, 1948, Molave was designated as Zamboanga's capital by the virtue of Republic Act No. 286[2] signed by President Elpidio Quirino.

Liberation and the Battle of Zamboanga[edit]

Battle of Zamboanga
Part of World War II
Date 1944 - 1945
Location Zamboanga
Result Allied Victory
Belligerents
 Philippine Commonwealth
 United States
 Empire of Japan
*War flag of the Imperial Japanese Army.svg Imperial Japanese Army
Strength
87,400 Filipino troops
16,600 Zamboangueño guerrillas
35,000 American troops
243,000 Japanese troops
Casualties and losses
48,700 Filipino troops killed and wounded in action
7,642 Zamboangueño resistance killed and wounded in action
14,000 American troops killed and wounded
233,000 Japanese troops killed, wounded and captured

During the Battle for the Liberation of Zamboanga on 1944 to 1945,the combined U.S. and Philippine Commonwealth military forces including the local Zamboangueño guerrilla resistance fought against the Imperial Japanese military forces in Zamboanga.

On January to December 1944, Some of the local Filipino ground troops under the Philippine Commonwealth Army 6th, 10th, 101st, 102nd and 105th Infantry Division and the Philippine Constabulary 10th Infantry Regiment began sending local combat military operations and they recaptured and liberated the province of Zamboanga and aided the Zamboangueño Christian and Muslim resistance groups attacked the Imperial Japanese military forces for fifteen months before the liberation. Before the U.S. liberation forces returned and came back they landed on the beaches of Leyte on October 1944 and Zamboanga on March 1945.

In the Eastern Zamboanga they entered and sent military combat operations mostly local Filipino troops, military officers and tank commanders under the 6th, 10th, 101st, 102nd and 105th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and 10th Infantry Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary on January to March 1945 and aided the local Zamboangueño Christian and Muslim guerrilla resistance in attacking and defeating Japanese Imperial ground forces for three months and one year before the arrival of American liberation military forces under by Major General Jens A. Doe of the U.S. Army’s 41st Infantry Division on March 1945 in Zamboanga City.

On March 1945, American liberation forces of the U.S. Army’s 41st Infantry Division landed on the beaches of Zamboanga City and Western Zamboanga province and started the clearing operations and aided by the local Filipino Christian and Islamic troops and military officers of the Philippine Commonwealth Army 6th, 10th, 101st, 102nd and 105th Infantry Division and the Philippine Constabulary 10th Infantry Regiment, attacked Imperial Japanese armed force and the main battle commenced. The establishment of the general headquarters of the United States Armed Forces was stationed on Zamboanga on March 1945 to July 1946.

The main invasion and battle that ensued was done by joint American and Philippine Commonwealth troops including the Zamboangueño guerrilla groups at the military general headquarters, garrisons and concentration camps of the Imperial Japanese Armed Forces in Zamboanga. The joint American and Philippine Commonwealth troops including Zamboangueño guerrillas were victorious. The Japanese in the GHQ camps were defeated and surrendered to officially to Allied forces. Meanwhile,in the captured Japanese Imperial military general headquarters in Zamboanga, the Japanese flag for the Imperial Japanese military was lowered abnd the flags of the United States and Philippines were raised.

On August 15, 1945, the Imperial Japanese military forces was efeated and surrendered by the joint American and Filipino ground forces including the Zamboangueño resistance after the main battles. During the Battle of Zamboanga, over 48,700 Filipino troops and officers of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and Philippine Constabulary was found killed and wounded in action, the Zamboangueño resistance over 7,642 killed and wounded in action, the American troops and officers of the United States Armed Forces units over 14,000 killed and wounded in action and the Japanese soldiers and officers of the Imperial Japanese Armed Forces units was 233,000 killed, wounded and captured in action by the surprise attack by the Allies.

Division[edit]

On June 6, 1952, the Republic Act 711,[3] authored by Zamboanga Congressman Roseller Lim was passed by the Philippine House of Representatives to divide the province of Zamboanga to Zamboanga del Norte and Zamboanga del Sur, while the chartered City of Zamboanga was relegated its own independent area of city governance. The bill was signed by President Elpidio Quirino in a ceremony held at the Malacañan Palace.

The towns of Dapitan, Dipolog, Rizal, New Piñan, Polanco, Katipunan, Manukan, Sindangan, Liloy, Labason and Siocon are composed of the province of Zamboanga del Norte. The towns of Molave, Pagadian, Labangan, Margosatubig, Dimataling, Dinas, Ipil, Buug, Malangas, Kabasalan and Aurora are under Zamboanga del Sur.

The town of Dipolog was designated capital of Zamboanga del Norte and the municipality of Pagadian as Zamboanga del Sur's capital.

In 2001, a brand new Zamboanga province, Zamboanga Sibugay, was created from the province of Zamboanga del Sur with Ipil as its provincial capital.

Governors[edit]

Governor Term Notes
DISTRICT OF ZAMBOANGA
Luis Lim July 23, 1914–1917 Lim was the first appointed civil governor of the province.
Agustin Alvarez 1917–1920 Alvarez succeeded Lim in 1917 as governor and reelected in 1928.
In 1940, he was elected Zamboanga City Mayor.
PROVINCE OF ZAMBOANGA
Agustin Alvarez 1920–1922
Florentino Adasa Saguin 1922–1925 Saguin was the first elected governor of the province.
He later represented Zamboanga in the 1934 Constitutional Convention.
Jose Dalman Aseniero 1925–1928 Aseniero formerly served as Municipal President of Dipolog before elected Governor.
Agustin Alvarez 1928–1931
Carlos Hernandez Camins 1931–1934
Felipe Ramos 1934–1937 Ramos previously served as Municipal President of Zamboanga City from 1925 to 1934 before being elected Governor.
Matias Castillon Ranillo 1937–1940 Ranillo was later elected representative of Zamboanga's Lone District in 1941.
When war broke out, he was appointed as the province's military governor.
Felipe Azcuna 1940–1941 Azcuna was a member of the Provincial Board before elected as governor. He was reelected governor in 1948.
WORLD WAR II
Lazaro Alfabeto 1945–1946 Alfabeto was appointed governor after Zamboanga was liberated. Start the Battle of Zamboanga on 1945 between the Japanese and the Combined U.S. and Philippine Commonwealth troops in Zamboanga.
Leoncio Hamoy 1946–1948 Hamoy was appointed Provincial Fiscal before becoming governor.
Felipe Azcuna 1948–December 30, 1949
Serapio Datoc December 30, 1949–June 6, 1952 Datoc served as Zamboanga's last governor
When the province was divided, Datoc became Zamboanga del Sur's first governor.

Timeline[edit]

Philippine Revolution and Philippine-American War[edit]

American Colonial Period and the Philippine Commonwealth era[edit]

  • July 26, 1941 - The 101st Infantry Division, Philippine Commonwealth Army, USAFFE was established on 1941 to 1946 at the general headquarters in Zamboanga.

World War II under the Japanese Occupation[edit]

  • December 1941 - Begins in World War II, The Japanese bomber and fighter pilots air raided the province of Zamboanga during the Japanese Invasion.
  • January 1942 - The Japanese Imperial forces occupied the province of Zamboanga. The military built general headquarters and garrisons for the Imperial Japanese Armed Forces in Zamboanga.
  • 1942 - Christian and Muslim soldiers of the 101st Infantry Division, Philippine Commonwealth Army, USAFFE sieged Zamboanga for the couple of months. After the Fall of Zamboanga, Christian and Muslim troops of the USAFFE 101st Infantry Division surrender to the Imperial Japanese Army forces.
  • 1942 – The military establishment of the 6th, 10th and 102nd Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army was active from 1942 to 1946 at the general headquarters and camp bases in the province of Zamboanga.
  • 1942 – The military establishment of the 105th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army was active on 1942 to 1946 at the general headquarters and camp bases in Dipolog, Zamboanga.
  • 1942-1944 – local Zamboangueno guerrilla groups and swordsmen began sieges and insurgencies around the province of Zamboanga. The local Filipino troops and officers under the Philippine Commonwealth Army and Philippine Constabulary units entered in Eastern Zamboanga in 1944 and the American troops and officers under the U.S. Armed Forces units entered Zamboanga City, Western Zamboanga province and Sulu and helped the Christian and Islamic resistance against the Japanese.
  • 1943 - The establishment of the Second Republic of the Philippines under the Empire of Japan.
  • 1944 – The military establishment of the 10th Infantry Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary was active on 1944 to 1946 at the general headquarters and camp bases in the province of Zamboanga.
  • 1944-1945 – Filipino soldiers and officers under the Philippine Commonwealth Army and Philippine Constabulary units sent military combat operations in Eastern Zamboanga province and aided the local Zamboangueno resistance. The American forces of the U.S. Army units liberated Zamboanga on March 1945.
  • 1944-1945 – Filipino troops of the Philippine Commonwealth Army 6th, 10th, 101st, 102nd and 105th Infantry Division and Philippine Constabulary 10th Infantry Regiment clearing launched combat operations in and around the cities and municipalities of Zamboanga including Dipolog, Pagadian, etc.
  • March 1945 – American troops of the U.S. Army 41st Infantry Division led by Major General Jens A. Doe arrived in Zamboanga City and recaptured and liberated with the aid of the local Filipino troops of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and Philippine Constabulary units and the local Zamboangueno resistance Eastern Zamboanga.
  • March 1945 – American troops of the U.S. Army 41st Infantry Division invaded and captured the Dipolog Airfield in attacked the Japanese. Meanwhile, all Filipino troops of the Philippine Commonwealth Army 6th, 10th, 101st, 102nd and 105th Infantry Division and the Philippine Constabulary 10th Infantry Regiment entered in the town of Dipolog aided by the local Zamboangueno guerrillas.
  • March to August 1945 – After the beach landings of the American troops of the United States Army 41st Infantry Division in Zamboanga City and Western Zamboanga province on March 1945, combined U.S. and Philippine Commonwealth troops including Zamboangueno guerrilla groups fought side by side till the fall of Zamboanga City and Zamboanga province for the six months and one year before the Japanese surrendered to the Filipino and American troops on August 1945 after liberation.
  • August 15, 1945 – The Japanese Imperial forces was defeated and surrendered to the combined United States and Philippine Commonwealth military force signalling the end of the Second World War.

Post-War Period[edit]

  • July 4, 1946 - The Second Declaration of the Independence of the Philippine Republic from the United States of America after the Second World War.
  • 1970 - Local Government troops invaded Zamboanga and cleared the fields against the Islamic rebels of the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) that began the Islamic Insurgencies.
  • February 22–25, 1986 - EDSA People Power Revolution. Corazon A. Aquino was the first woman president and 11th President of the Philippines when she was declared as the winner of the 1986 presidential election after the EDSA People Power Revolution.
  • January 5, 1989 - Camp Cawa-Cawa in Zamboanga City fell to the government armed forces led by Gen. Eduardo Batallia and Col. Romeo Abendan of the Philippine Constabulary against the Muslim rebels led by Rizal Alih and others.

See also[edit]

References[edit]