Ê

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Ê, ê (e-circumflex) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, found in Afrikaans, Dutch, French, Friulian, Kurdish, Norwegian (Nynorsk), Portuguese, Vietnamese, and Welsh. It is used to transliterate Ukrainian and Chinese.

Afrikaans[edit]

Ê is considered not a separate letter in Afrikaans but a variation of "e". The circumflex forces the pronunciation of "e" to be Template:Idw/ɛ/, but "e", without the circumflex, is pronounced as /e/, /æ/ or /ɛ/, depending on its placement in the Aerd.

Chinese[edit]

In the Pinyin romanization of Standard Mandarin Chinese, ê represents /ɛ/. It corresponds to Zhuyin ㄝ. The circumflex occurs only if ê is the only letter in the syllable: /ɛ̂/ (; ; "eh!"). Without the circumflex, e as, the only letter in the syllable, represents /ɤ/: è /ɤ̂/ (饿; ; "hungry"). Elsewhere, /ɛ/ is written as a (before n) or e (at the end of a syllable), with the appropriate tone mark,: xiān /ɕi̯ɛ́n/ (; "first"), xuǎn /ɕy̯ɛ̀n/ (; ; "to choose"), xué /ɕy̯ɛ̌ ~ ɕy̯ě/ (; ; "to learn"), xièxie /ɕi̯ɛ̂.ɕi̯ɛ ~ ɕi̯ê.ɕi̯e/ (谢谢; 謝謝; "thanks").

In Pe̍h-ōe-jī, ê is the fifth tone of e: ê (; possessive, adjectival suffix).

Dutch[edit]

In Dutch, ê changes the pronunciation of e from /ə/ to /ɛ/ and appears only in words from French.

French[edit]

Diacritics are not considered to be distinct letters of the French alphabet. In French, ê changes the pronunciation of e from /ə/ to /ɛ/. It is used instead of "è" for words that used to be written "es".

Friulian[edit]

Ê represents /e/ and /ɛː/.

Italian[edit]

Ê occasionally used to represent // or /ɛː/ in words like fêro (they did).

Kurdish[edit]

Ê is the 7th letter of the Kurdish Kurmanji alphabet and represents /e/.

Portuguese[edit]

In Portuguese, ê marks a stressed /e/ only in words whose stressed syllable is in an unpredictable location in the word: "pêssego" (peach). The letter, pronounced /e/, can also contrast with é, pronounced /ɛ/, as in (foot).

Ukrainian[edit]

Ê is used in the ISO 9:1995 system of Ukrainian transliteration as the letter Є.

Vietnamese[edit]

Ê is the 9th letter of the Vietnamese alphabet and represents /e/. In Vietnamese phonology, diacritics can be added to form five forms to represent five tones of ê:

  • Ề ề
  • Ể ể
  • Ễ ễ
  • Ế ế
  • Ệ ệ

Welsh[edit]

In Welsh, ê represents long stressed e [eː] if the vowel would otherwise be pronounced as short [ɛ]: llên [ɬeːn] "literature", as opposed to llen [ɬɛn] "curtain", or gêm [ɡeːm] "game", as opposed to gem [ɡɛm] "gem, jewel". That is useful for borrowed words with a final stress like apêl [apˈeːl] "appeal".

Character mappings[edit]

Unicode encoded 5 pairs of precomposed characters (Ề / ề, Ể / ể, Ễ / ễ, Ế / ế, Ệ / ệ) for the five tones of ê in Vietnamese. Two pairs of the five (Ế / ế and Ề / ề) can also be used as the second and fourth tones of ê in Pinyin. The first and third tones of ê in Pinyin have to be represented by combining diacritical marks, like ê̄ (ê̄) and ê̌ (ê̌).

Character Ê ê
Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E WITH CIRCUMFLEX LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH CIRCUMFLEX
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 202 U+00CA 234 U+00EA
UTF-8 195 138 C3 8A 195 170 C3 AA
Numeric character reference Ê Ê ê ê
Named character reference Ê ê
EBCDIC family 114 72 82 52
ISO 8859-1/3/9/14/15/16 202 CA 234 EA

See also[edit]