2019 Algerian protests

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2019 Algerian protests
Manifestation contre le 5e mandat de Bouteflika (Batna).jpg
Protesters on 1 March 2019 in Batna
Date16 February 2019 (2019-02-16) – ongoing (30 days)
Location
Caused by
  • Opposition to President Bouteflika's 5th term, regime and corruption
Goals
Resulted in
  • Bouteflika drops bid for fifth term
  • Resignation of Prime Minister Ahmed Ouyahia
  • Presidential elections postponed indefinitely
  • Government of national unity formed to write new constitution
Parties to the civil conflict
Protesters
Lead figures
  • Unknown
Casualties
Death(s)1
Injuries183 (112 police officers)[1]
Arrested195[2][1]

The 2019 Algerian protests, also called the Smile Revolution,[3] began on 16 February 2019, ten days after Abdelaziz Bouteflika announced his candidacy for a fifth presidential term in a signed statement.

These protests, without precedent since the Algerian Civil War, have been peaceful.[4][5]

Background[edit]

Bouteflika in power since 1999[edit]

Abdelaziz Bouteflika, president of Algeria since 1999.

Abdelaziz Bouteflika has been president of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria since 1999. Two amnesties (via referendum) for former combatants in the Algerian Civil War had taken place during his presidency (1999 and 2005). This "dirty war" between Islamic guerrillas and the government had claimed up to 200,000 lives from 1991-2002. Nearly half of the Algerian population was born after the end of the conflict.[6]

Oil-rich during the Arab Spring, the government was able to quiet dissent during the 2010-2012 protests with increased spending.[7]

The constitutional revision of 2016 limited the number of presidential terms that could be served to two, but nevertheless allowed Bouteflika to seek a fifth term, because the law was not retroactive.[8]

Since 2005, and especially after his stroke in 2013, Bouteflika's ability to govern the country was called into question: rumors of his death were frequent as he was frequently hospitalized, no longer spoke and made very few written statements.[9] In this context, some Algerians considered his announced candidacy for the presidential election, originally scheduled for 18 April 2019, to be humiliating.[10]

Timeline[edit]

Early days[edit]

In December 2018, calls for demonstrations in the neighborhood of Bab El Oued against the fifth term went unheeded, except by the police, which mobilized a significant dissuasive force.[11][12]

The protest was at first limited geographically to northern Algeria.[13] The first major demonstration took place on 16 February 2019 in Kherrata, at the eastern end of the wilaya of Bejaia.[14] In Khenchela, on 19 February, a giant poster of the President of the Republic was torn down from city hall and trampled. Two days later, another suffered a similar fate in Annaba.[15] This form of protest was related to the recent practice of offering gifts to a framed portrait of Bouteflika in the latter's absence.[16][17][18]

22 February[edit]

Protests were organized via social media in major and mid-sized cities on 22 February. Those in Algiers—where street protests had been illegal since a demonstration on 14 June 2001, "when hundreds of thousands of demonstrators from Kabylie converged on the capital"[19]—were the biggest in nearly 18 years.[20][10] Smaller protests, with slogans like "There is no president, there's a poster," had been taking place in Algiers since 11 February.[21][22] On 22 February, the portrait of the President was torn down from the landmark central post office.[23] Human rights activists said that there were up to 800,000 demonstrators on 22 February 2019.[10][24]

Regularly hospitalized for "periodic medical examinations", Abdelaziz Bouteflika was admitted to the University Hospital of Geneva (Switzerland) on 24 February 2019.[25]

Another large-scale demonstration took place on 24 February at the call of the Mouwatana movement ("citizenship"),[26] and another on 1 March, following another anonymous call.[27]

1–3 March[edit]

During the 1 March demonstration, 183 people were injured and Hassan Benkhedda, son of former interim government president, Benyoucef Benkhedda, died of a heart attack.[28][29] Speaking as Interior Minister, Noureddine Bedoui [fr; ar] confirmed that it was related to police action against "thugs unrelated to the protestors."[30]

On 2 March 2019, Abdelaziz Bouteflika replaced his campaign director, the former prime minister Abdelmalek Sellal, who had actively campaigned for the President since 2004, by the virtually unknown Abdelghani Zaalane [fr; ar], a career provincial administrator. Considered to be a response to the ongoing protests,[31] this dismissal followed the disclosure of a recording between Sellal and Ali Haddad in which the former is heard making threats.[32] The deadline for submitting candidatures for the presidential election was 3 March 2019.[31] The idea of postponing the election was put forward.[33]. The private channel Dzaïr News reported that one million people demonstrated across Algeria on 1 March, which was also the first time state television broadcast images of the protests.[34] Unofficial estimations put the total number of protestors at 3 million for the second week.[35]

On 3 March, the candidacy of Bouteflika was filed by his campaign director, though the law stipulates that the candidate must be physically present for this process.[36] Another signed message announced that if re-elected, a national conference would be convened to adopt reforms as well as a new Constitution - to be approved by referendum - and that he would not take part in the next presidential election which he promised would be held early.[37][38]

4–8 March[edit]

After the confirmation of Bouteflika's candidacy on 3 March, and the withdrawal of several opposition candidates, including Ali Benflis and Louisa Hanoune,[39] an anonymous call to strike was made the next day, as well as a call to protest on 8 March.[40] Even before the candidacy was formalized, tens of thousands of protesters were out on the streets.[41] On the night of 3–4 March, hundreds of protesters marched peacefully,[42] calling his candidacy a "provocation", an "insult" and a "masquerade".[43] The next day, many students boycotted their classes.[44]

Protesters in Blida

The opposition, meeting at the headquarters of the Justice and Development Front, called for candidates to withdraw from the election.[45] On the same day, following the example of the resignation the day before of Khaled Tazaghart, an elected representative (député) from the El Moustakbal party, & former minister Sid Ahmed Ferroukhi (FLN), resigned from the party.[46] Zahir Kherraz, FLN mayor of Oued Amizour, also said he did not support a fifth term.[47] Amar Benadouda (1931), doyen of the mayors of the country, resigned from the town hall of Guenzet.[48]

On 5 March, protests and student strikes continued, thousands were in the streets of Algiers,[49] Constantine,[50] Oran, Annaba, Bejaia, Tizi Ouzou, Bouira, Blida, Setif, or Tlemcen.[51]

On 7 March, a thousand lawyers demonstrated in Algiers.[52]

The "Pacifist and Civilized Walkers' 18 Commandments", written by Lazhari Labter [fr], were widely circulated on social media prior to the 8 March demonstration.[53][54]

9–16 March[edit]

On 9 March, the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research moved the spring university holidays forward to the next day (10 March) and extended them by two weeks in an effort to calm matters down.[55] On 10 March, the Army Chief of Staff Ahmed Gaid Salah, close to Bouteflika, gave a speech to officer cadets saying the "army and the people had a common vision of the future". This speech was front page news in El Khabar.[56] A 5-day general strike was begun the same day.[57]

On 11 March, it was announced that the President would not seek re-election; that Prime Minister Ahmed Ouyahia had resigned and been replaced by Interior Minister Noureddine Bedoui; and that the April 2019 presidential election was postponed indefinitely.[58] The day after the announcement, students protested for the third consecutive Tuesday across the country on 12 March, chanting "No Tricks, Bouteflika" in response to the postponement sine die of the Presidential elections.[59]

On 14 March, Djamila Bouhired encouraged the younger generation demonstrating, saying: "Your elders liberated Algeria from colonial domination, and you are giving back to Algerians their liberties and their pride despoiled since independence"[60]

The protests on 15 March were estimated to have been larger than those the previous Friday.[61] The Guardian reported that hundreds of thousands were in the streets,[62] La Croix put the number at over a million.[63] Protesters carried a banner criticizing France's comments that the cancellation of elections should lead to a "transition of reasonable length" saying, "It's the people who decide, not France!". Other signs included "Macron, deal with your yellow vests" and "Elysée, stop ! It's 2019, not 1830".[61]

17-24 March[edit]

On 17 March, the newly appointed Prime Minister announced the intention of forming a government of politically unaffiliated experts, which would "reflect the demographics of the Algerian society".[64]

Context[edit]

Protesters[edit]

Protesters on 1 March 2019 in Mohammadia.

These are the largest protests in Algeria since 2001. The demonstraters are primarily young people who did not experience the "Black Decade".[10] One observer lauded the millenials' reappropriation of corporate branding to their own uses, as well as their respect for their living space through peaceful demonstrations, saying:

Algerian millennials thrive on positive messages. They flooded the web with images of young demonstrators kissing, handing flowers to police officers and women on international women’s day, distributing water bottles, volunteering for first aid or encouraging people to clean the streets after the demonstrations.[65]

Women's active role in the protests was credited with minimizing violence,[66] and marked a sharp contrast with the 1988 protests predominantly led by salafists.[67]

Demonstrations also took place abroad, particularly in France,[68][69] where 10,000 demonstrated in Paris on 8 March.[53]

Goals[edit]

Most immediately, the protesters want Abdelaziz Bouteflika to withdraw his candidacy for a fifth term and want Prime Minister Ahmed Ouyahia to step down.

More generally, they called for more democracy, a less corrupt society and for the current governing system to change radically.

Slogans, songs and symbols[edit]

Some slogans referred to the incumbent president as "the Moroccan" because of his birthplace[20] and his reputed membership in a shadowy second Oudja Clan.[70] Others, such as "bring back the commandos of the army and the BIS, there will be no fifth term" alluded to the baltaguias.[71]

The song, "Libérer l'Algérie", written by artists supporting the movement, became a hit with the protesters upon its release on 1 March.[72]

Cachir, an emblematic Algerian sausage, was brandished and tossed around during demonstrations as a reminder of the 2014 elections when the press reported that Bouteflika's re-election committee was increasing attendance at their meetings by handing out free sandwiches filled with the sausage. In the protestor's eyes, cachir had become a "symbol of corruption and of the 'buying of votes and souls.'"[73]

Rioting[edit]

Although the rallies were generally peaceful, some vehicles were burned and shops were vandalized in the evening of demonstrations.[22][74] On 1 March, clashes took place between the police and groups of young people throwing stones at them.[22]

41 arrests were recorded on 23 February[75] and 45 on 1 March.[76]

Media coverage[edit]

Until 1 March 2019, public television and radio totally ignored the demonstrations, while private channels linked to power dealt with them in a limited way.[77] A boycott campaign was launched against the media.[78] The editor-in-chief of Algiers Channel 3 [ar; fr] resigned on 23 February as a protest against the treatment of the movement on the government-run radio station. Several journalists were arrested.[77] A hundred journalists and the NGO Reporters Without Borders publicly denounced the censorship practiced by the Algerian executive.[79] When state TV channels did begin mentioning the protests, they were critical of the protesters and did not refer to their motives.[22][79] In contrast, the private print media and news sites reported widely on events from the beginning.[77]

Despite the opening of the audiovisual media to competition in 2011, off-shore channels can be shut down at any time because of their precarious legal status.[80] One foreign media outlet, Al Jazeera, has been banned from Algeria since 2004.[81]

On 4 March, Nadia Madassi, Canal Algérie's nightly news anchor for the past 15 years, resigned because she had been required to read a letter attributed to the president on the air.[82]

On 5 March, Echorouk and El Bilad were sanctioned by the Ministries of Communication for having covered the demonstrations, and were cut off from advertising by the ANEP (national publishing and advertising agency).[83]

Analyses[edit]

Demonstrator wrapped in the Algerian flag.

On 28 February 2019, the economist Omar Benderra asserted that a deep separation exists between civil society and the Algerian government, which outlawed street protests twenty years ago, and which he wrote is controlled by "warlords". Public opinion, Benderra continues, is suspicious of official government communication and has also begun to show signs of frustration with spiritual leaders urging the people to stay off the streets.[84]

In Le Figaro on 1 March 2019, the Algerian writer Boualem Sansal said: "Such demonstrations in all the cities of the country and even in the capital, not far from El Mouradia (the district of the presidential palace), the Tagarins (the district of the Ministry of Defense), of Alger Centre (the district of the palace of the government), is an unbearable humiliation for the president, his brothers, his army, his police, his deputies, his senators, his oligarchs, his officials, his extra militias, in short, the "revolutionary family" (that's the name they give themselves), whom no one has ever disrespected without paying for it with his life. Their silence has an air of preparing for battle that does not bode well".[25][85]

Reactions[edit]

On 5 March, the National Organization of Mujahideen [ar; fr] (the powerful organization of veterans of the Algerian War of Independence) announced by press release that they supported the demonstrations, lamenting "the collusion between both influential parties in the seat of power and unscrupulous businessmen who have profited illicitly from public money".[86]

International reactions were cautious: most countries and international organizations remained silent until 5 March. The European Commission called for respect for the rule of law, including freedom of expression and assembly.[87][88] The US State Department issued a statement saying that the country "supports the Algerian people and their right to demonstrate peacefully".[87][89]

Speaking in Djibouti on 12 March, French President Emmanuel Macron welcomed Bouteflika's decision not to seek reelection and applauded the Algerian government's plan for a constitutional conference validated by a popular referendum after a "transition of reasonable length".[90]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Größte Proteste gegen Bouteflika: 200 Verletzte und 200 Festnahmen in Algerien" [Biggest protests against Bouteflika: 200 injured and 200 arrests in Algeria]. ZDF (in German). 9 March 2019. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  2. ^ "Proteste weiten sich aus: Hunderte Festnahmen in Algerien" [Protests are spreading: hundreds of arrests in Algeria]. n-tv (in German). 8 March 2019. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  3. ^ Adlène Meddi (15 March 2019). "Algérie, les 4 pièges à éviter pour la "révolution du sourire"" [Algeria, the 4 traps to avoid for the "smile revolution"]. Le Point (in French). Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  4. ^ Ahmed Rouaba (1 March 2019). "Algeria protests: The beginning of the end?". BBC News. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  5. ^ "Algeria: Thousands protest against fifth term for president". DW News. 1 March 2019. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  6. ^ Pascal Jalabert. "Bouteflika écoute le peuple et renonce". Le Progrès (in French). pp. 2–3. Sa première prioité, rétablir la paix, alors que l'Algérie est plongée dans la guerre civile depuis 1992 contre le guérilla islamiste (quelque 200 000 morts en dix ans).
  7. ^ Youcef Bouandel (6 March 2019). "Algerians have learned the lessons of the Arab Spring". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  8. ^ "L'Algérie réforme sa Constitution et limite à deux le nombre de mandats présidentiels" [Algeria reforms its constitution and limits to two the number of presidential terms]. France 24 (in French). 7 February 2016. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  9. ^ Yassin Ciyow (27 February 2019). "Abdelaziz Bouteflika, l'absent omniprésent en Algérie" [Abdelaziz Bouteflika, the omnipresent absentee in Algeria]. Le Monde (in French). Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  10. ^ a b c d Adlène Meddi (24 February 2019). "Manifestations du 22 février: pourquoi les Algériens sont en colère" [22 February protests: why Algerians are angry]. Le Point Afrique (in French). Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  11. ^ Yazid Alilat. "A la suite d'un appel anonyme à une marche: Alger bouclée par la police" [Following an anonymous call to a march: Algiers cordoned off by the police]. www.lequotidien-oran.com (in French). Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  12. ^ "Mystérieux appels à manifester à Alger: une journée ordinaire sous haute surveillance policière" [Mysterious calls to demonstrate in Algiers: an ordinary day under heavy police surveillance]. TSA (in French). 1 December 2018. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  13. ^ "Algérie: manifestations à Béjaïa contre la candidature de Bouteflika pour un cinquième mandat (vidéo)" [Algeria: protests in Béjaïa against Bouteflika's candidacy for a fifth term (video)]. France Maghreb (in French). 21 February 2019. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  14. ^ "Imposante manifestation contre le cinquième mandat à Kherrata" [Imposing demonstration against the fifth term in Kherrata]. Algérie Patriotique (in French). Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  15. ^ "Algérie: retour sur une journée de mobilisation inédite contre la candidature de Bouteflika" [Algeria: return on a day of unprecedented mobilization against the candidacy of Bouteflika]. Le Point Afrique (in French). Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  16. ^ "Algérie: la rue ne peut plus "encadrer" la candidature de Bouteflika à un 5e mandat" [Algeria: the street can no longer "frame" the candidacy of Bouteflika for a 5th term]. Franceinfo (in French). Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  17. ^ "Un cheval offert au portrait de Bouteflika: naissance d'un culte rituel?" [A horse offered to the portrait of Bouteflika: birth of a ritual worship?]. Al HuffPost Maghreb (in French). 26 April 2018. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  18. ^ "Le FLN offre un cadre ... au cadre du président Bouteflika (Vidéo)" [FLN offers a framework ... to President Bouteflika's framework (Video)]. Al HuffPost Maghreb (in French). Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  19. ^ Jérôme Duval; Jenny Bright (trans.) (8 March 2019). "The "Hirak" Movement in Algeria Against Bouteflika's "Mandate of Shame"". Counterpunch. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  20. ^ a b Amir Akef; Charlotte Bozonnet; Madjid Zerrouky (23 February 2019). "Algérie:révolte inédite contre le pouvoir". Le Monde (in French). Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  21. ^ "Une vague anti-5e mandat prend forme: Toute l'actualité sur" [An anti-5th term wave takes shape: All the news on]. liberte-algerie.com (in French). Retrieved 9 March 2018.
  22. ^ a b c d "Manifestations massive en Algérie contre un cinquième mandat de Bouteflika" [Manifestations massive en Algérie contre un cinquième mandat de Bouteflika]. La Tribune (in French). 2 March 2019. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  23. ^ "Algérie: manifestations émaillées de heurts contre un 5e mandat de Bouteflika" [Algeria: Enamelled demonstrations of clashes against a 5th term of Bouteflika]. FranceSoir (in French). Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  24. ^ "Algérie: "un million de personnes dans la rue et aucune image à la télévision"" [Algeria: "a million people on the street and no picture on television"]. Franceinfo (in French). Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  25. ^ a b Olivier Bot (1 March 2019). "Les médias du monde parlent de Bouteflika et de Genève" [World media speak of Bouteflika and Geneva]. 24 heures (in French). Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  26. ^ "Algérie: une nouvelle manifestation contre un 5e mandat du président Bouteflika, plusieurs arrestations" [Algeria: a new demonstration against a 5th term of President Bouteflika, several arrests]. BFMTV (in French). Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  27. ^ "Vidéo. Algérie: la contestation anti-Bouteflika s'amplifie" [Video. Algeria: anti-Bouteflika protest amplifies]. Le Monde.fr (in French). Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  28. ^ "Le défunt Hassan Benkhedda inhumé au cimetière de Sidi Yahia à Alger" [The late Hassan Benkhedda buried at the cemetery of Sidi Yahia in Algiers] (in French). Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  29. ^ "Hassan Benkhedda est mort lors de la marche de la dignité : la famille de l'ancien président du GPRA confirme" (in French). 2 March 2019. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  30. ^ Shehab Kahn (3 March 2019). "Algeria protests: Son of former prime minister dies in anti-government demonstration". The Independent. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  31. ^ a b "Algérie: Bouteflika limoge son directeur de campagne" [Algeria: Bouteflika sacks his campaign director]. Le Figaro (in French). 2 March 2019. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  32. ^ ""Le verdict a été donné par le peuple!"" ["The verdict was given by the people!"]. El Watan (in French). Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  33. ^ "Algérie: l'option d'un report de la présidentielle a bien été évoquée - RFI" [Algeria: the option of a postponement of the presidential election has been raised - RFI]. RFI Afrique (in French). Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  34. ^ "Algérie. La télévision d'Etat diffuse des images des manifestations contre un 5e mandat" [Algeria. State television broadcasts footage of protests against a fifth term]. Ouest-France (in French). 2 March 2019. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  35. ^ Hacen Ouali. "Algérie: et le camp "Boutef" flippa" [Algeria: and camp "Boutef" flippa]. Libération (in French). Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  36. ^ "Bouteflika formellement candidat à la présidentielle du 18 avril" [Bouteflika formally presidential candidate of 18 April]. L'Orient-Le Jour (in French). Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  37. ^ "Algérie: Abdelaziz Bouteflika dit comprendre "l'inquiétude" mais maintient sa candidature" [Algeria: Abdelaziz Bouteflika says he understands "worry" but maintains his candidacy]. Le Monde.fr (in French). Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  38. ^ Adam Nossiter (3 March 2019). "Algeria Protests: President's Offer Fails to Temper Outrage". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  39. ^ "Présidentielle en Algérie: Benflis, principal adversaire de Bouteflika, renonce" [Presidential election in Algeria: Benflis, Bouteflika's main opponent, gives up]. L'Obs (in French). Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  40. ^ "Bouteflika s'engage à céder le pouvoir s'il est élu président en avril" [Bouteflika commits to hand over power if elected president in April]. Le Figaro (in French). Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  41. ^ "Algérie: Bouteflika brigue un cinquième mandat" [Algeria: Bouteflika seeks fifth term]. La Tribune (in French). Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  42. ^ "Manifestations nocturnes en Algérie contre la candidature de Bouteflika" [Nocturnal demonstrations in Algeria against Bouteflika's candidacy]. Europe 1 (in French). Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  43. ^ "A Alger, la colère de la jeunesse répond à la candidature de Bouteflika" [In Algiers, the anger of youth responds to Bouteflika's candidacy]. Le Monde.fr (in French). Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  44. ^ "Algérie: les étudiants boycottent les cours pour dénoncer la candidature de Bouteflika" [Algeria: Students boycott courses to denounce Bouteflika's candidacy]. Le Figaro (in French). Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  45. ^ Fayçal Métaoui (4 March 2019). "Les mobilisations anti-Bouteflika s'intensifient en Algérie" [Anti-Bouteflika mobilizations intensify in Algeria]. www.leparisien.fr (in French). Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  46. ^ Amayas Zmirli (4 March 2019). "Annonces de Bouteflika: les Algériens plus que sceptiques" [Bouteflika's announcements: Algerians more than skeptical]. Le Point Afrique (in French). Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  47. ^ "Béjaïa: Le maire FLN de Oued Amizour s'oppose à un 5e mandat de Bouteflika" [Bejaia: Mayor FLN of Oued Amizour opposes a 5th term of Bouteflika]. Al HuffPost Maghreb (in French). Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  48. ^ "Le doyen des maires algériens dit "non au 5e mandat" et démissionne" [Algerian mayor says "no to 5th term" and resigns]. Al HuffPost Maghreb (in French). Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  49. ^ "Algérie: plusieurs milliers d'étudiants manifestent à Alger contre la candidature à un 5e mandat de Bouteflika" [Algeria: Several thousand students protest in Algiers against Bouteflika's fifth term]. LCI (in French). Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  50. ^ "Contestation en Algérie: les étudiants maintiennent la pression" [Challenging Algeria: Students keep up the pressure]. Le Point Afrique (in French). Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  51. ^ Le Point, magazine. "Algérie: nouvelles manifestations et mise en garde de l'armée" [Algeria: new demonstrations and warnings of the army]. Le Point (in French). Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  52. ^ "Algérie: un millier d'avocats contre Bouteflika" [Algeria: a thousand lawyers against Bouteflika]. Le Figaro (in French). Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  53. ^ a b Yves Bourdillon (11 March 2019). "Algérie: Bouteflika rentre dans une capitale en pleine ébullition". Les Échos. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  54. ^ "Les "18 commandements" du manifestant en Algérie". Nouvel Obs (in French). 8 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  55. ^ "Les vacances universitaires avancées pour tenter d'affaiblir la contestation" [Advanced university holidays to try to weaken the challenge]. tsa-algerie.com (in French). 9 March 2019. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  56. ^ "Algérie: l'armée déclare partager la même vision que le peuple" [Algeria: the army declares to share the same vision as the people]. RFI (in French). 11 March 2019. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  57. ^ Ruth Michaelson (11 March 2019). "Algerian president says he will not run again after weeks of protests". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  58. ^ "Algerian president Adelaziz Bouteflika drops bid for fifth term". BBC. 11 March 2019. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  59. ^ "Algérie: les étudiants mobilisés dans la rue contre la "ruse" de Bouteflika". La Croix (in French). 12 January 2019. Retrieved 13 March 2019 – via AFP. le véritable révélateur sera vendredi, premier jour de week-end et traditionnelle journée de manifestation depuis bientôt trois semaines.
  60. ^ "Algerians keep up pressure on Bouteflika with more mass protests". France 24. 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  61. ^ a b "Marée humaine en Algérie pour le quatrième vendredi de manifestation contre le pouvoir". Le Monde (in French). 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019 – via AFP.
  62. ^ Jason Burke; Ruth Michaelson (15 March 2019). "Algeria protests grow as elite distances itself from ailing president". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  63. ^ Amine Kadi (15 March 2019). "Algérie, la transition dirigée par Bouteflika cale d'entrée" [Algeria, the transition directed by Bouteflika stalls before it starts]. La Croix (in French). Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  64. ^ News Agencies (17 March 2019). "Algerian PM has started talks to form new government". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  65. ^ Nacima Ourahmoune (13 March 2019). "Algeria: how millennials used humour and creativity to force Abdelalziz Bouteflika to stand aside". Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  66. ^ Aili Mari Tripp (8 March 2019). "Women are deeply involved in the Algerian protests — on International Women's Day, and all the time". Washington Post. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  67. ^ Amine Kadi (7 March 2019). "Les Algériennes descendent en masse manifester". La Croix (in French). Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  68. ^ "Lyon: une manifestation contre un 5e mandat de Bouteflika en Algérie" [Lyon: a protest against a 5th term of Bouteflika in Algeria]. Le Parisien (in French). 2 March 2019. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  69. ^ "Plusieurs rassemblements auront lieu à partir de vendredi: La diaspora algérienne s'organise contre le 5e mandat" [Several rallies will be held from Friday: The Algerian diaspora is organizing against the 5th term]. El Watan (in French). 20 February 2019. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  70. ^ Kimberly White (17 December 2013). "Le Mystère des origines de Bouteflika". Slate Afrique (in French). Retrieved 11 March 2018 – via Reuters.
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