588 Achilles

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588 Achilles
Discovery [1]
Discovered by M. Wolf
Discovery site Heidelberg Obs.
Discovery date 22 February 1906
MPC designation (588) Achilles
Pronunciation əˈkɪliːz
Named after
Achilles (Greek mythology)[2]
1906 TG
Jupiter trojan[1][3]
(Greek camp)[4]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 31 July 2016 (JD 2457600.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 110.15 yr (40234 d)
Aphelion 5.9713 AU (893.29 Gm)
Perihelion 4.4432 AU (664.69 Gm)
5.2072 AU (778.99 Gm)
Eccentricity 0.14673
11.88 yr (4340.18 d)
0° 4m 58.606s / day
Inclination 10.316°
Earth MOID 3.46853 AU (518.885 Gm)
Jupiter MOID 0.568234 AU (85.0066 Gm)
Jupiter Tisserand parameter 2.946
Physical characteristics
Dimensions 135.47±4.1 km (IRAS:15)[5]
133.22±3.33 km[6]
130.10±0.55 km[7]
Mean radius
67.735±2.05 km
7.306±0.002 h[8][9]
12 h[10]
7.0 h[11]
7.312±0.003 h[12]
7.32±0.02 h[13]
7.306 h (0.3044 d)[1]
0.0328±0.002 (IRAS:15)[1][5]
B–V = 0.755
U–B = 0.216
Tholen = DU[1]
D (LCDB)[3]

588 Achilles (ə-kil'-eez), provisional designation 1906 TG, is a large and dark asteroid, classified as Jupiter trojan, the first and 6th-largest of its kind ever confirmed by astronomers[14] (A904 RD was discovered 2 years previously, but was not observed long enough to calculate an orbit). It was discovered on 22 February 1906, by the German astronomer Max Wolf at Heidelberg Observatory in southern Germany. It measures about 135 kilometers in diameter and was named after Achilles from Greek mythology.[15]

The D-type asteroid, classified as a DU-subtype in the Tholen taxonomic scheme, orbits the Sun at a distance of 4.4–6.0 AU in the L4 Lagrangian point of the SunJupiter System once every 11 years and 10 months (4,337 days). Its orbit shows an eccentricity of 0.15 and an inclination of 10 degrees from the plane of the ecliptic.[1] The asteroid is the first known example of the stable solution of the three-body problem worked out by French mathematician Joseph Lagrange in 1772, after whom the minor planet 1006 Lagrangea is named. After the discovery of other asteroids with similar orbital characteristics, which were also named after heroes from the Trojan War (see below), the term "Trojan asteroids" or "Jupiter trojans" became commonly used.[2] In addition, a rule was established that the L4 point was the "Greek camp", whereas the L5 point was the "Trojan camp", though not before each camp had acquired a "spy" (624 Hektor in the Greek camp and 617 Patroclus in the Trojan camp).

The largest Jupiter trojans
Trojan Diameter (km)
624 Hektor 225
911 Agamemnon 167
1437 Diomedes 164
1172 Äneas 143
617 Patroclus 141
588 Achilles 135
1173 Anchises 126
1143 Odysseus 126
Source: JPL Small-Body Database, IRAS data

Photometric observations of this asteroid during 1994 were used to build a light-curve showing a rotation period of 7.32±0.02 hours with a brightness variation of 0.31±0.01 magnitude.[13] This result is in good agreement with prior studies.[8][12] According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite, IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite, and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, the body's surface has a very low albedo in the range between 0.033 and 0.043, and a corresponding diameter of 130.1 to 135.4 kilometers.[5][6][7]

The minor planet's name was suggested by Austrian astronomer Johann Palisa. It was named after Achilles, the legendary hero from Greek mythology and central figure in Homer's Iliad which tells the accounts of the Trojan War (also see 5700 Homerus and 6604 Ilias). As an infant, Archilles was plunged in the River Styx by his mother Thetis (also see 17 Thetis), thus rendering his body invulnerable excepting the heel by which he was held. He slew Hector (see also 624 Hektor), the greatest Trojan warrior. He was eventually killed by an arrow in the heel by Paris (see 3317 Paris).[2]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 588 Achilles (1906 TG)" (2016-06-03 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 2 August 2016. 
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (588) Achilles. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 61. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 2 August 2016. 
  3. ^ a b "LCDB Data for (588) Achilles". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 2 August 2016. 
  4. ^ "List of Jupiter Trojans". Minor Planet Center. 20 June 2016. Retrieved 2 August 2016. 
  5. ^ a b c Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Retrieved 1 January 2016. 
  6. ^ a b c Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 1 January 2016. 
  7. ^ a b c Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. arXiv:1109.6407Freely accessible. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90. Retrieved 2 August 2016. 
  8. ^ a b Shevchenko, V. G.; Krugly, Yu. N.; Belskaya, I. N.; Chiorny, V. G.; Gaftonyuk, N. M.; Slyusarev, I. G.; et al. (March 2009). "Do Trojan Asteroids Have the Brightness Opposition Effect?". 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Bibcode:2009LPI....40.1391S. Retrieved 1 January 2016. 
  9. ^ Shevchenko, V. G.; Belskaya, I. N.; Slyusarev, I. G.; Krugly, Yu. N.; Chiorny, V. G.; Gaftonyuk, N. M.; et al. (January 2012). "Opposition effect of Trojan asteroids". Icarus. 217 (1): 202–208. Bibcode:2012Icar..217..202S. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2011.11.001. Retrieved 1 January 2016. 
  10. ^ Zappala, V.; di Martino, M.; Cellino, A.; de Sanctis, G.; Farinella, P. (December 1989). "Rotational properties of outer belt asteroids". Icarus: 354–368.ResearchsupportedbyCNRandMPI. Bibcode:1989Icar...82..354Z. ISSN 0019-1035. doi:10.1016/0019-1035(89)90043-2. Retrieved 1 January 2016. 
  11. ^ Angeli, C. A.; Lazzaro, D.; Florczak, M. A.; Betzler, A. S.; Carvano, J. M. (May 1999). "A contribution to the study of asteroids with longrotational period". Planetary and Space Science. 47 (5): 699–714. Bibcode:1999P&SS...47..699A. doi:10.1016/S0032-0633(98)00122-6. Retrieved 1 January 2016. 
  12. ^ a b Stephens, Robert D. (April 2010). "Trojan Asteroids Observed from GMARS and Santana Observatories: 2009 October - December". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 37 (2): 47–48. Bibcode:2010MPBu...37...47S. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 1 January 2016. 
  13. ^ a b Mottola, Stefano; Di Martino, Mario; Erikson, Anders; Gonano-Beurer, Maria; Carbognani, Albino; Carsenty, Uri; et al. (May 2011). "Rotational Properties of Jupiter Trojans. I. Light Curves of 80 Objects". The Astronomical Journal. 141 (5): 32. Bibcode:2011AJ....141..170M. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/141/5/170. Retrieved 2 August 2016. 
  14. ^ "JPL Small-Body Database Search Engine: orbital class (TJN) and diameter > 50 (km)". JPL's Solar System Dynamics Group. Retrieved 2012-03-28. 
  15. ^ "588 Achilles (1906 TG)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 2 August 2016. 

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