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|994 by topic|
|Ab urbe condita||1747|
|Balinese saka calendar||915–916|
|Chinese calendar||癸巳年 (Water Snake)|
3690 or 3630
— to —
甲午年 (Wood Horse)
3691 or 3631
|- Vikram Samvat||1050–1051|
|- Shaka Samvat||915–916|
|- Kali Yuga||4094–4095|
|Japanese calendar||Shōryaku 5|
|Minguo calendar||918 before ROC|
|Seleucid era||1305/1306 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||1536–1537|
1120 or 739 or −33
— to —
1121 or 740 or −32
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 994.|
- September 15 – Battle of the Orontes: Fatimid forces under the Turkish general Manjutakin (also the governor of Damascus) besiege Apamea (modern Syria). Emperor Basil II sends an Byzantine expeditionary army led by Dux Michael Bourtzes to relieve the city in alliance with the Hamdanid Dynasty. In September the two armies meet on the Orontes River, Manjutakin defeats with his forces the Hamdanids and attacks the Byzantine force in the rear. The Byzantine army panicks and flees, losing some 5,000 men in the process.
- June 23 – Viking Age: Danish Viking raiders under (probably) King Sweyn Forkbeard plunder the city of Stade (Lower Saxony). Count Lothair Udo I is captured and killed during the battle with the pirates.
- September – King Otto III, now 14-year-old, receives at an assembly of the Imperial Diet in Solingen the regalia to rule the Kingdom of Germany. Otto appoints Heribert of Cologne as chancellor of Italy.
- A Danish Viking fleet under Olaf Tryggvason sails up the Thames Estuary and besiege London. King Æthelred II (the Unready) pays Olaf 16,000 lbs of silver (Danegeld).
- Olaf Tryggvason already a baptised Christian, is confirmed as Christian in a ceremony at Andover. After receiving gifts from Æthelred II, Olaf leaves for Norway.
- An increase in carbon-14 concentration, recorded in tree rings, suggests that a strong solar storm may have hit the Earth in either 993 or 994.
- November 7 – Ibn Hazm, Andalusian historian and poet (d. 1064)
- Ahmad al-Bayhaqi, Persian Sunni hadith scholar (d. 1066)
- Alfonso V (the Noble), king of León (Spain) (d. 1028)
- Simeon, Norman abbot of Ely Abbey (approximate date)
- Wallada bint al-Mustakfi, Andalusian female poet (d. 1091)
- February 3 – William IV, duke of Aquitaine (b. 937)
- April 4 – Egbert (the One-Eyed), German nobleman
- April 23 – Gerard of Toul, German priest and bishop
- May 11 – Majolus of Cluny, Frankish priest and abbot
- June 23 – Lothair Udo I, German nobleman (b. 950)
- June 24 – Abu Isa al-Warraq, Arab scholar (b. 889)
- July 8 – Richardis, margravine consort of Austria
- July 10 – Leopold I, margrave of Austria (b. 940)
- October 28 – Sigeric, archbishop of Canterbury
- October 31 – Wolfgang, bishop of Regensburg
- Bagrat II, king of Iberia-Kartli (Georgia) (b. 937)
- Fujiwara no Takamitsu, Japanese waka poet
- Ibn Juljul, Andalusian physician (approximate date)
- Sancho Garcés II, king of Navarre (Spain)
- Reuter, Timothy (1992). Germany in the Early Middle Ages, 800-1036, London and New York.
- Reuter, Timothy (1999). The New Cambridge Medieval History, Volume III, p. 257. ISBN 978-0-521-36447-8.
- John Haywood (1995). The Historical Atlas of the Vikings: Raids on Æthelred's Kingdom, p. 119. ISBN 978-0-140-51328-8.