Adaptations of Les Misérables

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Classics Illustrated issue #9, March 1943

Victor Hugo's novel Les Misérables has been the subject of many adaptations in various media since its original publication in 1862.

Books (adaptations and sequels)[edit]

  • 1872, Gavroche: The Gamin of Paris, translated and adapted by M. C. Pyle.
  • 1922, The Story of "Les Misérables", adapted by Isabel C. Fortey.
  • 1935, Jean Val Jean, a condensed retelling by Solomon Cleaver.
  • 1946, Les Misérables, adapted by Mabel Dodge Holmes, edited by Grace A. Benscoter.
  • 1995, Cosette: The Sequel to Les Misérables by Laura Kalpakian, more a sequel to the musical than to Hugo's novel.[1]
  • 1995, Les Misérables, adapted by Monica Kulling for the Bullseye Step Into Classics series.
  • 2001, French author François Cérésa wrote two sequels, Cosette or the Time of Illusions and Marius or The Fugitive. Hugo's descendants, including his great-great-grandson Pierre Hugo, wanted the novels banned, claiming that they breached the moral rights of the author and betrayed the "respect of the integrity" and "spirit" of Hugo's original novel.[2][3][4][5]
  • 2013, Barricades: The Journey Of Javert, a novel by C.A. Shilton based on the early life of Javert.
  • 2014, A Little in Love by Susan Fletcher, a novel based on the early life of Éponine, published by Chicken House Ltd.[6]

Comics[edit]

Western comics[edit]

  • 1943: Classic Comics releases a comics adaptation with illustrations by Rolland H. Livingstone.[7]
  • 1961: Classic Comics releases a revision of the 1943 adaptation with illustrations by Norman Nodel.

Manga[edit]

  • 2013: Serial manga adaptation by Takahiro Arai in Japan's Monthly Shonen Sunday magazine.[8]
  • 2014: UDON Manga Classics manga adaptation. Art by SunNeko Lee and story adaptation by Crystal Silvermoon.[9]

Film[edit]

  • 1897, Victor Hugo et les principaux personnages des misérables, a short film by the Lumière brothers. The film is extant.
  • 1905, Le Chemineau (The Vagabond), a 5-minute short directed by Albert Capellani. The film is extant and available on several DVD releases.
  • 1909, in three parts entitled The Price Of A Soul, The Ordeal and A New Life. The film was directed by Edwin S. Porter and produced by the Edison Manufacturing Company. Although faithful to the novel, it is not a complete adaptation as the final part ends with Valjean entering the convent. The film is believed to be lost. The first installment was sometimes billed as The Bishop's Candlesticks.[10]
  • 1909, in four parts entitled [Jean Valjean], [The Galley Slave], [Fantine; or, A Mother’s Love] and [Cosette], directed by J. Stuart Blackton and produced by The Vitagraph Company of America. This film, believed to be lost, is the first motion picture adaptation of the complete novel.[11][12]
  • 1910, Aa Mujou, Japanese adaptation, director unknown
  • 1911, directed by Albert Capellani. Probably the same as the next entry.
  • 1913, again directed by Albert Capellani with Henry Krauss as Valjean.[13] Publicity at the time described the movie as "the greatest motion picture ever made" and a $100 000 production.[14]
  • 1913, The Bishop's Candlesticks, directed Herbert Brenon, adaptation of a popular one-act play by Norman McKinnel based on the first volume of the novel
  • 1917, directed by Frank Lloyd, produced by William Fox and starring William Farnum as Jean Valjean
  • 1922, Tense Moments with Great Authors, a British production featuring scenes from the novel and starring Lyn Harding as Valjean.[15]
  • 1923, Aa Mujou, a Japanese adaptation directed by Kiyohiko Ushihara and Yoshinobu Ikeda; production cancelled after two of four parts
  • 1925, directed by Henri Fescourt, starring Gabriel Gabrio, Jean Toulout, Sandra Milowanoff, and François Rozet
  • 1929, The Bishop's Candlesticks, directed by George Abbott, adaptation of a popular one-act play by Norman McKinnel of the first volume of the novel, the first sound film adaptation, with Walter Huston as Jean Valjean
  • 1929, Aa Mujo, a Japanese adaptation directed by Seika Shiba
  • 1931, Jean Valjean, directed by Tomu Uchida
  • 1934, four-and-a-half-hour French version directed by Raymond Bernard and starring Harry Baur, Charles Vanel, Florelle, Josseline Gaël, and Jean Servais
  • 1935, directed by Richard Boleslawski and starring Fredric March, Charles Laughton, Sir Cedric Hardwicke, Florence Eldridge, Rochelle Hudson, and John Beal; the first adaptation nominated for Academy Award for Best Picture
  • 1937, Gavrosh, a Soviet adaptation directed by Tatyana Lukashevich
  • 1938, Kyojinden, a Japanese adaptation directed by Mansaku Itami
  • 1943, Los Miserables, a Mexican adaptation directed by Renando A. Rovero
  • 1944, El Boassa, an Egyptian adaptation directed by Kamal Selim
  • 1948 (I Miserabili), directed by Riccardo Freda and starring Gino Cervi, Giovanni Hinrich, Valentina Cortese, Duccia Giraldi, and Aldo Nicodemi
  • 1949, Les Nouveaux Misérables, directed by Henri Verneuil
  • 1950, Re Mizeraburu: Kami To Akuma (English title: Les Miserables: Gods and Demons) and Re Mizeraburu: Kami To Jiyu No Hata. Directed by Daisuke Itô and Masahiro Makino respectively, and released on 3 and 14 November respectively.
  • 1950, Ezhai Padum Padu and Beedala Patlu, directed by K. Ramnoth in Tamil and Telugu
  • 1952, directed by Lewis Milestone, with Michael Rennie, Robert Newton, Sylvia Sidney, Debra Paget, and Cameron Mitchell
  • 1955, Kundan, an Indian Hindi film directed by Sohrab Modi
  • 1955, Aa mujo, a Japanese adaptation, director unknown. According to the Japanese Wikipedia, this film is extant.
  • 1956, Duppathage Duka, Sri Lankan Sinhala film
  • 1957, Sirakaruwa, a Sri Lankan Sinhala adaptation directed by Sirisena Wimalaweera
  • 1958, directed by Jean-Paul Le Chanois, starring Jean Gabin
  • 1958, Os Miseráveis, a Brazilian adaptation directed by Dionísio Azevedo
  • 1961, Jean Valjean, Korean film by Seung-ha Jo
  • 1961, Cosette, directed by Alain Boudet on Claude Santelli's program Le Théâtre de la jeunesse
  • 1962, Gavroche, directed by Boudet on Le Théâtre de la jeunesse
  • 1963, Jean Valjean, directed by Boudet on Le Théâtre de la jeunesse
  • 1964, Aa mujo, Japanese film, director unknown
  • 1967, Os Miseráveis, Brazilian film. Does this exist or is it just the 1967 Brazil television adaptation?
  • 1967, Sefiller, Turkish film
  • 1972, Beedala Patlu, Indian Telugu film directed by B. Vittalacharya
  • 1972, Gnana Oli ("The light of wisdom"), Indian Tamil loose adaptation, directed by P. Madhavan
  • 1977, Neethipeedam, in Indian Malayalam, based on Les Misérables and Alfred Hitchcock's The Wrong Man
  • 1978, a British telefilm directed by Glenn Jordan and starring Richard Jordan, Anthony Perkins, Angela Pleasence, Caroline Langrishe, and Christopher Guard. Original version is 4–5 hours long.
  • 1978, Al Boasa, Egyptian adaptation
  • 1982, directed by Robert Hossein and starring Lino Ventura, Michel Bouquet, Évelyne Bouix, Christiane Jean, and Frank David
  • 1989, Ngọn Cỏ Gió Đùa, Vietnamese film directed by Hgô Ngoc Xun with a script by Việt Linh and released by Saigon Video. Based on Ngọn cỏ gió đùa, Hồ Biểu Chánh's book adaptation of Les Misérables.
  • 1993, The Fugitive, directed by Andrew Davis, an adaptation of the TV series of the same name.
  • 1995, directed by Claude Lelouch; a loose, multi-layered adaptation set in the 20th century starring Jean-Paul Belmondo
  • 1998, directed by Bille August and starring Liam Neeson, Geoffrey Rush, Uma Thurman, Claire Danes, and Hans Matheson
  • 1998 මනුතාපය Sinhala Translation (Manutaapaya) by ඊරියගොල්ල සූරීන් (Mr. Iiriyagolla)
  • 2007, Sudanese 2005 or 2006 or 2007 film directed by Gadalla Gubara and starring Gamal Hassan as Jean Valjean
  • 2010, Ngọn Cỏ Gió Đùa, Vietnamese Cải lương musical film directed by Pham Van Dai and broadcast on HTV9 channel. Based on Ngọn cỏ gió đùa, Hồ Biểu Chánh's book adaptation of Les Misérables.
  • 2011, Les misérables: Tempête sous un crâne, filmed stage play by Jean Bellorini and Camille de la Guillonnière
  • 2012, adaptation of the stage musical, directed by Tom Hooper and starring Hugh Jackman, Russell Crowe, Anne Hathaway, Samantha Barks, Amanda Seyfried, and Eddie Redmayne

Television[edit]

  • 1949, The Bishop's Candlesticks, based on the play by Norman McKinnel. Broadcast on BBC Television. David Phethean played the role of the convict Jean Valjean.
  • 1949, The Bishop's Experiment, an episode of the American anthology drama series Your Show Time. Based on an incident from the novel with Leif Erickson as Jean Valjean.
  • 1952, The Bishop's Treasure, a play by Wilfred Harvey adapted from the story in Les Misérables by Victor Hugo. Broadcast on BBC Television. Patrick Crean played the role of the convict Jean Valjean.
  • 1953, The Bishop's Candlesticks, an episode of the 30 minute American anthology drama series Medallion Theatre with Victor Jory in the role of Jean Valjean.
  • 1953, Jean Valjean, an episode of the American anthology drama series Monodrama Theater
  • 1963, The Fugitive, an American television series, was, according to series creator Roy Huggins, loosely based on Les Misérables, with Richard Kimble modeled on Jean Valjean. The writers named Kimble's pursuer Gerard because it sounded similar to Javert.[citation needed]
  • 1964, I miserabili, Italian TV-miniseries directed by Sandro Bolchi, starring: Gastone Moschin (Jean Valjean), Tino Carraro (Javert), Giulia Lazzarini (Fantine/adult Cosette), Loretta Goggi (young Cosette), Antonio Battistella (Thénardier), Cesarina Gheraldi (Mme. Thénardier), Angela Cardile (Éponine), Roberto Bisacco (Marius), Claudio Sora (Enjolras), Aldo Silvani (Monseigneur Bienvenu) and Edoardo Nevola (Gavroche), nearly ten hours long
  • 1967, BBC miniseries, directed by Alan Bridges, starring: Frank Finlay, Anthony Bate, Alan Rowe, Judy Parfitt, Michele Dotrice, Lesley Roach, Elizabeth Counsell, Vivian Mackerall, Derek Lamden, Cavan Kendall, and Finlay Currie.
  • 1967, Miseráveis Os, Brazilian soap opera starring Leonardo Vilar as Jean Valjean
  • 1970, Los Miserables, Episode of the Argentina television series Alta Comedia, directed by Martín Clutet and broadcast on 13 June 1970.
  • 1971, Los Miserables, Spanish production by TVE as part of the Novela TV series, directed by José Antonio Páramo and starring José Calvo as Jean Valjean
  • 1972, French TV miniseries directed by Marcel Bluwal, starring: Georges Géret (Jean Valjean), Bernard Fresson (Javert), Nicole Jamet (Cosette), François Marthouret (Marius), Alain Mottet (Thénardier), Micha Bayard (Mme. Thénardier), Hermine Karagheuz (Éponine), Anne-Marie Coffinet (Fantine), Jean-Luc Boutté (Enjolras), Gilles Maidon (Gavroche), François Vibert (Monseigneur Myriel)
  • 1974, Los Miserables, Mexican TV adaptation directed by Antulio Jiménez Pons and starring Sergio Bustamante, Antonio Passy, Carlos Ancira, Magda Guzmán, Blanca Sánchez, Diana Bracho, and Luis Torner. Some episodes exist, others might be lost. Came out in 1973 ?
  • 1978 British telefilm, U.S. debut on CBS December 27.
  • 1980/81, Inochimoyu, Japanese TV series for NHK with 23 episodes
  • 1985, TV version of the 1982 film, which is 30 minutes longer and divided into four parts
  • 1987, Gavroche, East German TV movie based on the 1967 play by Peter Ensikat, directed by Dieter Bellmann.
  • 1988, Nihon Jean Valjean monogatari: Ai mujo ("Japanese Jean Valjean's story"), Japanese TV series
  • 2000, 6-hour French TV miniseries starring: Gérard Depardieu (Jean Valjean), John Malkovich (Javert), Virginie Ledoyen (Cosette), Enrico Lo Verso (Marius Pontmercy), Charlotte Gainsbourg (Fantine), Asia Argento (Éponine), Christian Clavier and Veronica Ferres (the Thénardiers), Steffen Wink (Enjolras) and Jérôme Hardelay (Gavroche).
  • 2000, 3-hour English TV movie version of the 2000 French miniseries.
  • 2013, Ngọn Cỏ Gió Đùa, 45-episode 30-hour-long Vietnamese adaptation. Directed by Hồ Ngọc Xum and broadcast on HTV9 channel. Based on Ngọn cỏ gió đùa, Hồ Biểu Chánh's book adaptation of Les Misérables.
  • 2014-2015, Los Miserables, a Spanish language telenovela broadcast on Telemundo channel. It is a modern-day semi-adaptation.
  • 2018, a six-part event series from BBC Studios, which at one time was being co-produced by The Weinstein Co until the revelations of the Weinstein sex abuse scandal.[16]

Animation[edit]

  • 1966, Gavrosh, Soviet animation short
  • 1977, Cosette, Soviet claymation short
  • 1977, Shōjo Cosette, broadcast on the Japanese television program Manga Sekai Mukashi Banashi, 1 episode, Japanese animation
  • 1978, Aa Mujō, cover the first two volumes of the novel, broadcast on Manga Sekai Mukashi Banashi, 13 episodes, Japanese animation
  • 1979, Jean Valjean Monogatari, directed by Takashi Kuoka for Toei Animation and written by Masaki Tsuji, Japanese animation
  • 1987, two-minute short by Mara Mattuschka
  • 1988, by Emerald City Productions
  • 1992, a 26-episode French animated TV series by Studios Animage, AB Productions, Pixibox and Studio SEK
  • 1993, 90-minute movie version of the 1992 series
  • 2007, Les Misérables: Shōjo Cosette, a 52-episode Japanese animated TV series by Nippon Animation. This is the longest adaptation at over twenty two and a half hours.

Radio[edit]

  • 1925, radio play of The Bishop's Candlesticks broadcast on BBC 6BM Bournemouth. Also broadcast on 2EH Edinburgh in 1926, 5WA Cardiff in 1927 and 5PA Plymouth in 1928.[17]
  • 1937, Les Misérables, a seven-part series written, produced, directed by and starring Orson Welles for The Mercury Theatre on the Air.[18]
  • 1939, 12 episodes broadcast on the BBC National Programme, directed by Patrick Riddell, produced by John Cheatle, starring Henry Ainley as Jean Valean, Baliol Holloway as Javert, Margaretta Scott as Cosette and Patrick Waddington as Marius. Featuring music specially composed by Robert Chignell.[19]
  • 1944, adapted by Rhoda Power for the For Schools program on the BBC Home Service. This adaptation was repeated throughout the 40s and 50s.[17]
  • 1952, an adaptation of the 1952 movie with Debra Paget and Robert Newton reprising their film roles, directed by Earl Ebi for Lux Radio Theater.
  • 1976, adapted for radio in 16 parts by Barry Campbell, Constance Cox and Val Gielgud. Starring Robert Hardy as Victor Hugo and Trevor Martin as Jean Valjean.[20] The series aired on BBC Radio 4 between 2 May and 15 August 1976.[21]
  • 1982, directed by Hyman Brown for CBS Radio.
  • 2001, dramatised in 25 episodes by Sebastian Baczkiewicz and Lin Coghlan, directed by Sally Avens and Jeremy Mortimer for BBC Radio 4.[22]
  • 2002, directed by Philip Glassborow and produced by Paul McCusker for Focus on the Family Radio Theatre.[23]
  • 2012, 14 episodes, directed by François Christophe for France Culture Radio.[24]

Musical[edit]

In 1980, a musical of the same name opened in Paris at the Palais des Sports. It has gone on to become one of the most successful musicals in history. It was directed by Robert Hossein, the music was composed by Claude-Michel Schönberg, and the libretto was written by Alain Boublil. An English-language version of Schönberg's work opened in London at the Barbican Arts Centre in 1985. It was produced by Cameron Mackintosh and adapted and directed by Trevor Nunn and John Caird. The lyrics were written by Herbert Kretzmer and additional material by James Fenton.

Concerts[edit]

Plays[edit]

  • 1862, Charity, a two-act drama by C. H. Hazlewood founded on Victor Hugo's story of Les Misérables. The action of the drama depicts the conversion of Jean Valjean (Mr Forrester) by the bishop Myriel (Mr James Johnstone) and the results as developed at Marseilles including an incident with the Savoyard Jarvais (Miss Catherine Lucette). The drama was first performed Sadler's Wells Theatre, London on 7 November. In this version Fantine is revealed to be Valjean's sister, a change to the plot of the novel that would later be used in Henry Neville's adaptation The Yellow Passport.[25]
  • 1863, Charles Hugo, the author's son,[26] adapted the novel into a two-act play for the stage in Brussels (the French government had refused to allow the drama to be performed in Paris). The play was subsequently performed in Bordeaux in 1870 and partially at the Théâtre de la Porte Saint-Martin in 1878 (the play ended with Valjean and Cosette finding refuge in the Petit-Picpus convent). The 1899 revival in Paris saw the full play performed with scenes removed, added or modified by Paul Meurice, who was now listed as the co author. This version starred Benoît-Constant Coquelin as Valjean and featured music by André Wormser.[27]
  • 1863, Fantine or The Fate of a Grisette in three parts by Albert Cassedy dramatised from the original French edition by Victor Hugo. Music performed by the great composer and director C Koppitz. Performed for three nights only at the Washington Theatre in January.[28]
  • 1863, Jean Valjean by Harry Seymour, with George Boniface Sr as Jean Valjean, performed at The Bowery Theatre[29]
  • 1867, Out of Evil Cometh Good, a drama in a prologue and four acts, by Clarance Holt; first performed at The Prince of Wales Theatre, Birmingham in October with the author as Valjean, Miss May Holt as Fantine (and Cosette), and Miss Johnstone as Eponine.[30] In late 1869, the play was renamed The Barricade (although initially the original title was kept as a subtitle). The updated cast featured the author as Valjean, Mrs. Digby Willoughby as Fantine (and Cosette), and Miss May Holt as Eponine. The Barricade was first performed at Croydon in October 1867 and made its debut in London on 7 September 1878, at the Duke's Theatre. The play was a critical and commercial success and was performed as late as 1887.
  • 1868, The Yellow Passport, a melodrama in prologue and four acts by Henry Neville. The original title of the play, as licensed by The Lord Chamberlain, was The Convict Jean Valjean 9430 and the drama was performed under this title in August at the Amphitheatre, Liverpool. The Yellow Passport made its debut at the Olympic Theatre on 7 November with Neville as Valjean and, despite mixed reviews, enjoyed a respectable run lasting until April 1869. The play enjoyed several revivals, the last of which was at the Britannia in November 1889 with Algernon Syms in the role of Valjean.[31]
  • 1868, Alfred Dampier, under the pseudonym of Pierre Adam, wrote an adaptation that was produced in Guernsey and which resulted in a complimentary letter from Victor Hugo. Dampier relocated to Australia in 1873 and performed the play at the Theatre Royal Sydney in June 1874 under the title of The Yellow Passport or Branded For Life. The play was rewritten and re-titled Valjean, Saint or Sinner, for its production at Sydney's Victoria Theatre on 24 February 1877. The play was again rewritten, and re-titled Saint or Sinner for its performance in England at the Surrey Theatre on 26 March 1881. The play was rewritten and retitled A Convict Martyr in 1893 for another performance at the Theatre Royal Sydney. In 1895, the play was performed in various theatres in California in under the title of Les Miserables. The drama bears some plot similarities with William Muskerry's adaptation Atonement or Branded for Life, particularly the conclusion in which Valjean is killed by Thenardier just as he is given a pardon by Javert.
  • 1869, The Man of Two Lives, an adaptation of the novel by William Bayle Bernard, first performed at Drury Lane on 29 March with Charles Dillon as Valjean. Dillon had previously performed the role of Valjean two years prior in an adaptation entitled Valjean written by Sheffield playwright Joseph Fox but it was only played in the provinces and was unlicensed. Bernard made some radical changes to the story such as Jean Valjean being sent to the galleys for trying to flee from conscription to military service and not for stealing a loaf of bread. The play was rarely performed after its initial run at Drury Lane.[32]
  • 1870, Fantine, written by Bronson Howard and performed in Detroit.[33]
  • 1872, Atonement, a romantic drama in a prologue and four acts, founded on Victor Hugo's 'Les Misérables' by William Muskerry, first performed at the Victoria Theatre, London, on 31 August ; revived at Sadler's Wells on 14 September; played at Manchester in 1877 in ten tableaux.[25]
  • 1875, an adaptation entitled Cosette, with Louis James as Jean Valjean. Performed at the Boston Theatre.[34]
  • 1878, Valjean by Algernon Willoughby (founded on Victor Hugo's work, Les Miserables ), in which Mr. John Coleman assumed four characters : Jean Valjean, M. Madeline, The Fugitive, and Urban Le Blanc. First performed at The Prince of Wales Theatre, Glasgow, in August. The play was last performed in 1883.[35]
  • 1884, Les Miserables, a drama adapted by Wilson E. McDermut and Bertrand H. Atwood, registered for copyright 27 June 1884, under entry no. 12924, by and in the names of the authors.[36]
  • 1886, Jean Valjean, Or, The Shadow of the Law, in Five Acts by Harry Clifford Fulton.[37]
  • 1892, After Ten Years, by Percy H. Vernon, a one-act play based on the first part of the novel featuring Valjean and the Bishop, first performed at Metropole, Birkenhead on 21 October.[38]
  • 1901,The Bishop's Candlesticks, a one-act play by Norman McKinnel based on volume one of the novel.
  • 1906, Jean Valjean a play in 4 acts, by Charles Lawson, registered for copyright 18 July 1906, under entry no. D 8342.[36]
  • 1906, Jean Valjean, registered for copyright 20 November 1905, under entry no. 5 7643, by and in the name of Gabriel L. Pollock.[36]
  • 1906, Broadway actor Wilton Lackaye wrote an adaptation in five acts, The Law and the Man, so he could play Valjean.[39]
  • 1914, Jean Valjean, dramatised by Augusta Stevenson.[40]
  • 1929, The Silver Candlesticks: a one-act play by Gilbert Hudson, adapted from an episode in Victor Hugo's Les Miserables.
  • 1938, Jean Valjean and The Christmas Doll, by Agnes Irene. Smith, Dramatic Publishing. A Christmas play in which Jean Valjean finds little Cosette on Christmas Eve.[41]
  • 1955, God's Ambassador. A play in three acts by Harold Homes Stuart Jackson. Published by Epworth plays. Freely adapted from an incident recorded in Les Misérables.
  • 1987, a stage adaptation by Tim Kelly.[42]
  • 1997, a stage adaptation by Jonathan Holloway.[43]
  • 2011, A stage adaptation by Spiritual Twist Productions, Les Miserables: A Story of Grace,[44] highlighting the religious aspect of the novel.
  • 2013, Les Misérables: The Memoirs of Jean Valjean - A limited run play performed by the South Devon Players during Sept-Nov. Based mainly on the book, with some scenes included that weren't well known.[45]
  • A stage adaptation is performed outdoors every summer at the Citadelle in Montreuil-sur-Mer, the setting of the first part of the novel.[46]

Games[edit]

  • An adventure game has been released by Chris Tolworthy, intended as a direct adaptation of the book.[47][48]
  • There is a free downloadable amateur 2D fighting game based on the musical. The game is called ArmJoe, which is created by Takase.[49][50][51] The name is a pun on the novel's Japanese title Aa Mujō (ああ無情).[50][51] The game incorporates the major characters as they appear in the musical, namely Jean Valjean, Enjolras, Marius, Cosette, Éponine, Thénardier, and Javert – as well as a policeman, a robotic clone of Valjean called RoboJean, an embodiment of Judgement, and a rabbit named Ponpon.[51]
  • In 2013, Anuman Interactive launched Les Miserables: Cosette's Fate, a hidden object game based on the novel. Players embody Cosette and try to escape from the innkeepers.[52]
  • Les Miserables: Jean Valjean, a hidden object game based on the novel.
  • Les Misérables: Eve of Rebellion, a card game based on the novel.
  • The character Nina (Éponine in the original Japanese version) from Fire Emblem Fates was based on the character Éponine and the two share some similarities this includes her pre-localised name, finding it difficult to talk to men (in reference to Éponine being unable to speak to Marius Pontmercy), mentioning enjoying plays and reading, and being a thief.
  • Elizabeth in the 2013 video game BioShock Infinite is a fan of the novel and brings it up a few times during the game. In the downloadable content BioShock Infinite: Burial at Sea, Elizabeth meets an imaginary version of Cosette while in a dream version of the city of Paris.

Web Shows[edit]

  • In 2015, a group known as the "StreamVaudevillians" began production of a web series known as "The Friends of the ABC" following a political activist group made up of college and high school students, determined to make the world they lived in a better place. Headed by a charismatic and hotheaded teenager, the ABC met online once a week, recording their meetings for their own personal records.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Haven, Tom De (28 July 1995). "Cosette, Book Review, Entertainment Weekly". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 15 October 2009. 
  2. ^ Willsher, Kim (31 January 2007). "Heir of Victor Hugo fails to stop Les Mis II". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 15 October 2009. 
  3. ^ "French Court decides on the sequel of Les Miserables". EDRI. Retrieved 15 October 2009. 
  4. ^ "French court allows Les Miserables sequel". Reuters. 19 December 2008. Retrieved 15 October 2009. 
  5. ^ Riding, Alan (29 May 2001). "Sequel to 'Les Misérables' Causes Legal Turmoil". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 October 2009. 
  6. ^ "A Little in Love". Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  7. ^ Jones, Jr., William B. (2011). Classics Illustrated: A Cultural History. Jefferson, North Carolina: MacFarland & Company. pp. 33, 39–40. 
  8. ^ "Cirque du Freak's Arai Launches Manga of Les Misérables Novel". Anime News Network. 13 July 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013. 
  9. ^ "Manga Classics Previews Now Available! Pride & Prejudice and Les Miserables!". 3 July 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2015. 
  10. ^ "BFI Film & TV Database: Credits for Edwin S. Porter". Retrieved 14 October 2013. 
  11. ^ Behr, Edward (1989). The Complete Book of Les Miserables. NY: Arcade. p. 151. 
  12. ^ The Galley-Slave on IMDb
  13. ^ Les Misérables, Part 2: Fantine on IMDb
  14. ^ "Les Miserables" (PDF). Retrieved 14 October 2013. 
  15. ^ Tense Moments with Great Authors on IMDb
  16. ^ Tartaglione, Nancy. "'Les Misérables': The Weinstein Co Out Of BBC Event Miniseries". Deadline. Retrieved 27 October 2017. 
  17. ^ a b "BBC Genone Project". Retrieved 25 October 2014. 
  18. ^ "The Mercury Theatre on the Air". Mercurytheatre.info. Retrieved 15 October 2009. 
  19. ^ "Broadcasting". The Times (London, England). 7 January 1939. 
  20. ^ "Saturday Night Theatre Forum". Retrieved 2 June 2014. 
  21. ^ "Broadcasting". The Times (London, England). 1 May 1976. 
  22. ^ "The Official Roger Allam Fan Site". Rogerallam.co.uk. 5 April 2004. Archived from the original on 10 June 2009. Retrieved 15 October 2009. 
  23. ^ Les Miserables (Radio Theatre): Victor Hugo, Focus on the Family: Books. Amazon.com. ISBN 9781589973947. Retrieved 26 December 2012. 
  24. ^ "Les Misérables de Victor Hugo, Feuilleton en 14 épisodes". Retrieved 14 January 2016. 
  25. ^ a b "A dictionary of the drama; a guide to the plays, play-wrights, players, and playhouses of the United Kingdom and America, from the earliest times to the present". Retrieved 21 July 2013. 
  26. ^ MacCabe, Colin; et al. (2011). True to the Spirit: Film Adaptation and the Question of Fidelity. NY: Oxford University Press. p. 28. 
  27. ^ "Les Miserables". The Era (London, England). 30 December 1899. 
  28. ^ "This Monday Evening". National Republican (Washington, District of Columbia). 19 January 1863. Retrieved 14 October 2013. 
  29. ^ "History Of The New York Stage". Retrieved 14 October 2013. 
  30. ^ "The Stage History of Les Miserables". Aris's Birmingham Gazette. 26 October 1867. Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  31. ^ "The Yellow Passport". Retrieved 21 July 2013. 
  32. ^ "The Man of Two Lives! - Victorian Plays Project" (PDF). Retrieved 5 March 2014. 
  33. ^ "The Stage History of Les Miserables". The New York Times. 30 December 1906. Retrieved 14 October 2013. 
  34. ^ "The Stage History of Les Miserables". The New York Times. 30 December 1906. Retrieved 14 October 2013. 
  35. ^ "Annals of the Theatre royal, Dublin, from its opening in 1821 to its destruction by fire, February, 1880; with occasional notes and observations". Retrieved 21 July 2013. 
  36. ^ a b c "Fax correspondence from Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation regarding the copyright status of the title Jean Valjean, Jan 1955". Retrieved 14 October 2013. 
  37. ^ "Jean Valjean". Retrieved 22 July 2013. 
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