Andes virus

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Andes virus
Virus classification
Group: Group V ((−)ssRNA)
Order: Bunyavirales
Family: Hantaviridae
Genus: Orthohantavirus
Species: Andes virus

Andes virus (ANDV) is a species of hantavirus which is a major causative agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS or HPS) in South America. It is named for the Andes mountains of Chile and Argentina, where it was first discovered.

Background[edit]

HCPS as a result of Andes virus infection has a case fatality rate of about 25–35% in Argentina[1] and 37% in Chile.[2] ANDV, lineage ANDV-Sout, is the only hantavirus for which person-to-person transmission has been described; all other human hantavirus infections are transmitted exclusively from animals to humans.[3][4][5] Several ANDV strains are co-circulating in Argentina (e.g. Bermejo, Lechiguanas, Maciel, Oran and Pergamino).[6] HCPS cases have also been reported in nearby Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, but only for Chile and Argentina can they be strictly associated with ANDV.

In Argentina and Chile, the long-tailed rice rat, Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, and other species of the genus Oligoryzomys, have been documented as the reservoir for ANDV.[7][8][9] Another unique characteristic of ANDV is the availability of an animal model. ANDV causes lethal disease in the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) that closely models the course of disease progression in humans, including a rapid progression from first symptoms to death, which is characterized by fluid in the pleural cavity and the histopathology of the lungs and spleen.[10] Lethality of ANDV in hamsters is not true of all viruses causing HCPS; hamsters infected with Sin Nombre virus, for example, show no symptoms of disease.[10] The availability of this model allows for the study of various drugs and other treatments that may affect the treatment of all HCPS-causing hantavirus infections.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Paula Padula. "Personal Communication". Buenos Aires. 
  2. ^ Government of Chile. "Ministry of Health, 2005". 
  3. ^ Padula; et al. "1998". 
    Martinez VP, Bellomo C, San Juan J, Pinna D, Forlenza R, Elder M, Padula PJ (December 2005). "Person-to-person transmission of Andes virus". Emerg Infect Dis. 11 (12): 1848–53. doi:10.3201/eid1112.050501. PMC 3367635Freely accessible. PMID 16485469. 
  4. ^ Toro J, Vega JD, Khan AS, Mills JN, Padula P, et al. (October–December 1998). "An outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Chile, 1997". Emerg Infect Dis. 4 (4): 687–94. doi:10.3201/eid0404.980425. PMC 2640255Freely accessible. PMID 9866751. 
  5. ^ Wells, Rachel M. (Oct 1998). "Seroprevalence of Antibodies to Hantavirus in Health Care Workers and Other Residents of Southern Argentina". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 27 (4): 895–896. doi:10.1086/517161. PMID 9798052. 
  6. ^ Padula; et al. "2000, 2002". 
  7. ^ Wells RM, Sosa Estani S, Yadon ZE, Enria D, Padula P, Pini N, Mills JN, Peters CJ, Segura EL (April–June 1997). "An unusual hantavirus outbreak in southern Argentina: person-to-person transmission? Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Study Group for Patagonia". Emerg Infect Dis. 3 (2): 171–4. doi:10.3201/eid0302.970210. PMC 2627608Freely accessible. PMID 9204298. 
  8. ^ Levis S, Morzunov SP, Rowe JE, Enria D, Pini N, Calderon G, Sabattini M, St Jeor SC (March 1998). "Genetic diversity and epidemiology of hantaviruses in Argentina". J Infect Dis. 177 (3): 529–38. doi:10.1086/514221. PMID 9498428. 
  9. ^ Cantoni G, Padula P, Calderón G, Mills J, Herrero E, Sandoval P, Martinez V, Pini N, Larrieu E (October 2001). "Seasonal variation in prevalence of antibody to hantaviruses in rodents from southern Argentina". Trop Med Int Health. 6 (10): 811–6. doi:10.1046/j.1365-3156.2001.00788.x. PMID 11679129. 
  10. ^ a b Hooper JW, Larsen T, Custer DM, Schmaljohn CS (October 2001). "A lethal disease model for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome". Virology. 289 (1): 6–14. doi:10.1006/viro.2001.1133. PMID 11601912. 

External links[edit]