|The cotton rat, Sigmodon hispidus, is a hantavirus carrier that becomes a threat when it enters human habitation in rural and suburban areas.|
|Classification and external resources|
Orthohantaviruses (or hantaviruses) are single-stranded, enveloped, negative-sense RNA viruses in the Hantaviridae family of the order Bunyavirales, which normally infect rodents where they do not cause disease. Humans may become infected with hantaviruses through contact with rodent urine, saliva, or feces. Some strains cause potentially fatal diseases in humans, such as hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), also known as hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS), while others have not been associated with known human disease. HPS (HCPS) is a "rare respiratory illness associated with the inhalation of aerosolized rodent excreta (urine and feces) contaminated by hantavirus particles."
- 1 Signs and symptoms
- 2 Virology
- 3 Prevention
- 4 Treatment
- 5 Epidemiology
- 6 History
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Signs and symptoms
Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome
Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a group of clinically similar illnesses caused by species of hantaviruses from the family Bunyaviridae. It is also known as Korean hemorrhagic fever, epidemic hemorrhagic fever, and nephropathis epidemica. The species that cause HFRS include Hantaan River, Dobrava-Belgrade, Saaremaa, Seoul, and Puumala. It is found in Europe, Asia, and Africa.
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is found in North, Central and South America. It is an often fatal pulmonary disease. In the United States, the causative agent is the Sin Nombre virus carried by deer mice. Prodromal symptoms include flu-like symptoms such as fever, cough, muscle pain, headache, and lethargy. It is characterized by a sudden onset of shortness of breath with rapidly evolving pulmonary edema, which is often fatal despite mechanical ventilation and potent diuretics at a fatality rate of 36 percent.
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome was first recognized during the 1993 outbreak in the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States. It was identified by Dr. Bruce Tempest. It was originally called "Four Corners disease," but the name was changed to "Sin Nombre virus" after complaints by Native Americans that the name "Four Corners" stigmatized the region. It has since been identified throughout the United States. Rodent control in and around the home remains the primary prevention strategy.
Hantaviruses are Bunyaviruses. The Bunyaviridae family is divided into five genera: Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Phlebovirus, Tospovirus, and Hantavirus. Like all members of this family, hantaviruses have genomes comprising three negative-sense, single-stranded RNA segments, and so are classified as negative sense RNA viruses. Members of other Bunyaviridae family genera are generally arthropod-borne viruses, but hantaviruses are thought to be transmitted to humans mainly through inhalation of aerosolized rodent excreta or rodent bites.
Like other members of the bunyavirus family, hantaviruses are enveloped viruses with a genome that consists of three single-stranded, negative sense RNA segments designated S (small), M (medium), and L (large). The S RNA encodes the nucleocapsid (N) protein. The M RNA encodes a polyprotein that is cotranslationally cleaved to yield the envelope glycoproteins Gn (formerly G1) and Gc (formerly G2).
The L RNA encodes the L protein, which functions as the viral transcriptase/replicase. Within virions, the genomic RNAs of hantaviruses are thought to complex with the N protein to form helical nucleocapsids, the RNA component of which circularizes due to sequence complementarity between the 5' and 3' terminal sequences of genomic segments.
As with other Bunyaviridae, each of the three segments has a consensus 3'-terminal nucleotide sequence (AUCAUCAUC), which is complementary to the 5' terminal sequence and is distinct from those of the other four genera in the family. These sequences appear to form panhandle structures which seem likely to play a role in replication and encapsidation facilitated by binding with the viral nucleocapsid (N) protein. The large segment is 6530-6550 nucleotides (nt) in length, the medium is 3613-3707 nt in length and the small is 1696-2083 nt in length.
No nonstructural proteins are known, unlike the other genera in this family. At the 5' and 3' of each segment are short noncoding sequences: the noncoding segment in all sequences at the 5' end is 37-51 nt. The 3' noncoding regions differ: L segment 38-43 nt; M segment 168-229 nt; and S segment 370-730 nt. The 3' end of the S segment is conserved between the genera suggesting a functional role.
Hantavirus virions are about 120-160 nanometers (nm) in diameter. The lipid bilayer of the viral envelope is about five nm thick and is embedded with viral surface proteins to which sugar residues are attached. These glycoproteins, known as Gn and Gc, are encoded by the M segment of the viral genome. They tend to associate (heterodimerize) with each other and have both an interior tail and an exterior domain that extends to about six nm beyond the envelope surface.
Inside the envelope are the nucleocapsids. These are composed of many copies of the nucleocapsid protein N, which interact with the three segments of the viral genome to form helical structures. The virally encoded RNA polymerase is also found in the interior. By mass, the virion is greater than 50% protein, 20-30% lipid and 2-7% carbohydrate. The density of the virions is 1.18 gram per cubic centimeter. These features are common to all members of the Bunyaviridae.
Entry into host cells is thought to occur by attachment of virions to cellular receptors and subsequent endocytosis. Nucleocapsids are introduced into the cytoplasm by pH-dependent fusion of the virion with the endosomal membrane. Subsequent to release of the nucleocapsids into cytoplasm, the complexes are targeted to the ER-Golgi Intermediate compartments (ERGIC) through microtubular associated movement resulting in the formation of viral factories at ERGIC.
These factories then facilitate transcription and subsequent translation of the viral proteins. Transcription of viral genes must be initiated by association of the L protein with the three nucleocapsid species. In addition to transcriptase and replicase functions, the viral L protein is also thought to have an endonuclease activity that cleaves cellular messenger RNAs (mRNAs) for the production of capped primers used to initiate transcription of viral mRNAs. As a result of this cap snatching, the mRNAs of hantaviruses are capped and contain nontemplated 5' terminal extensions.
The G1 (aka Gn) and G2 (Gc) glycoproteins form hetero-oligomers and are then transported from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex, where glycosylation is completed. The L protein produces nascent genomes by replication via a positive-sense RNA intermediate. Hantavirus virions are believed to assemble by association of nucleocapsids with glycoproteins embedded in the membranes of the Golgi, followed by budding into the Golgi cisternae. Nascent virions are then transported in secretory vesicles to the plasma membrane and released by exocytosis.
The pathogenesis of hantavirus infections is unclear as there is a lack of animal models to describe it (rats and mice do not seem to acquire severe disease). While the primary site of viral replication in the body is not known, in HFRS the main effect is in the blood vessels while in HPS most symptoms are associated with the lungs. In HFRS, there are increased vascular permeability and decreased blood pressure due to endothelial dysfunction and the most dramatic damage is seen in the kidneys, whereas in HPS, the lungs, spleen, and gall bladder are most affected. Early symptoms of HPS tend to present similarly to the flu (muscle aches, fever and fatigue) and usually show up around 2 to 3 weeks after exposure. Later stages of the disease (about 4 to 10 days after symptoms start) include difficulty breathing, shortness of breath and coughing.
The species which cause hantavirus hemorrhagic fever have not been shown to transfer from person to person. Transmission by aerosolized rodent excreta is the only known way the virus is transmitted to humans. Similar negative-stranded RNA viruses, such as Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic fevers, can be transmitted by contact with infected blood and body fluids, and are known to spread to health-care workers in African hospitals though do not transfer readily in the modern hospital setting with universal precautions. Transmission through fomites has not been demonstrated in the hantaviruse disease in either the hemorrhagic or pulmonary forms.
Findings of significant congruence between phylogenies of hantaviruses and phylogenies of their rodent reservoirs have led to the theory that rodents, although infected by the virus are not harmed by it because of long-standing hantavirus-rodent host coevolution, though findings in 2008 led to new hypotheses regarding hantavirus evolution:
Various hantaviruses have been found to infect multiple rodent species, and cases of cross-species transmission (host switching) have been recorded. Additionally, rates of substitution based on nucleotide sequence data reveal that hantavirus clades and rodent subfamilies may not have diverged at the same time. Furthermore, as of 2007 hantaviruses have been found in multiple species of shrews and moles.
Taking into account the inconsistencies in the theory of coevolution, it has been proposed in 2009 that the patterns seen in hantaviruses in relation to their reservoirs could be attributed to preferential host switching directed by geographical proximity and adaptation to specific host types. Another proposal from 2010 is that geographical clustering of hantavirus sequences may have been caused by an isolation-by-distance mechanism. Upon comparison of the hantaviruses found in hosts of orders Rodentia and Soricomorpha, it has been proposed in 2011 that the hantavirus evolutionary history is a mix of both host switching and codivergence and that ancestral shrews or moles, rather than rodents, may have been the early original hosts of ancient hantaviruses.
As of 2014 a Bayesian analysis suggested a common origin for these viruses ~2000 years ago. The association with particular rodent families appears to have been more recent. The viruses carried by the Arvicolinae and Murinae subfamilies originated in Asia 500–700 years ago. These subsequently spread to Africa, Europe, North America and Siberia possibly carried by their hosts. The species infecting the Neotominae subfamily evolved 500–600 years ago in Central America and then spread toward North America. The species infecting Sigmodontinae evolved in Brazil 400 years ago. Their ancestors may have been a Neotominae associated virus from northern South America.
According to the CDC, the best prevention against contracting Hantavirus is to eliminate or minimize contact with rodents in the home, workplace, or campsite. As the virus can be transmitted by rodent saliva, excretions and bites, control of rats and mice in areas frequented by humans is key for disease prevention. General prevention can be accomplished by disposing of rodent nests, sealing any cracks and holes in homes where mice or rats could get in, setting up traps, or laying down poisons or using natural predators such as cats in the home.
The duration which hantaviruses remain infectious in the environment varies based on factors such as the rodent's diet, temperature, humidity, and whether indoors or outdoors. The viruses have been demonstrated to remain active for two to three days at normal room temperature, while ultraviolet rays in direct sunlight kills them within a few hours. However, rodent droppings or urine of indeterminate age should always be treated as infectious.
As of 2016 there is no FDA approved, commercially available vaccine against hantavirus. A vaccine known as Hantavax has been under study since 1990. As of 2016, the development was in clinical phase 3 trial stage. This inactivated vaccine is thought not to be effective against European hantaviruses like the Puumala (PUUV) virus. A killed-virus vaccine is not being pursued because of the dangers associated with mass production under high containment as well as the unresolved questions about the efficiency of the vaccine. A number of labs have been working towards a vaccine that would deliver viral antigens by either DNA vectors or as recombinant proteins. As of 2016 these recombinant vaccines will not be available in the near future.
No WHO-approved vaccine has gained widespread acceptance, but the Korean Army is one of the largest consumers of a hantavirus vaccine, second only to public health centers.
Ribavirin may be a drug for HPS and HFRS but its effectiveness remains unknown, still, spontaneous recovery is possible with supportive treatment. People with suspected hantavirus infection may be admitted to the hospital, given oxygen and mechanical ventilation support to help them breathe during the acute pulmonary stage with severe respiratory distress. Immunotherapy, administration of human neutralizing antibodies during acute phases of Hantavirus, has only been studied in mice, hamsters, and rats. There are no reports of controlled clinical trials.
Hantavirus infections have been reported from all continents but Australia. Regions especially affected by hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome include China, the Korean Peninsula, Russia (Hantaan, Puumala and Seoul viruses), and northern and western Europe (Puumala and Dobrava virus). Regions with the highest incidences of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome include Argentina, Chile, Brazil, the United States, Canada, and Panama.
As of 2005, there were no human infections reported in Australia, though rodents were found to carry antibodies.
In Europe three hantaviruses - Puumala, Dobrava and Saaremaa viruses - are known to cause haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Puumala usually causes a generally mild disease - nephropathia epidemica - which typically presents with fever, headache, gastrointestinal symptoms, impaired renal function and blurred vision. Dobrava infections while similar often also have haemorrhagic complications. There are few reports of confirmed Saaremaa infections but these appear to be similar to those caused by Puumala and less pathogenic than Dobrava.
Puumala virus is carried by its rodent host, the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) and is present through most of Europe except for the Mediterranean region. Dobrava and Saaremaa virus respectively is carried by the yellow necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis) and the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius), reported mainly in eastern and central Europe.
In 2017 alone, the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) in Germany received 1,713 notifications of hantavirus infections.
As of January 2017, 728 cases of hantavirus had been reported in the U.S. cumulatively since 1995, across 36 states (not including cases with presumed exposure outside the U.S.). More than 96% of cases have occurred in states west of the Mississippi. The top 10 states by number of cases reported (which differs slightly from a count ordered by the state of original exposure) were New Mexico (109), Colorado (104), Arizona (78), California (61), Washington (50), Texas (45), Montana (43), Utah (38), Idaho (21), and Oregon (21). 36% of reported cases have resulted in death.
Although there are Sin Nombre virus-infected deer mice, the primary cause of the disease all across Canada, by June 2015, there had been only one documented case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in eastern Canada with most cases in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba in the west. There were a total of 109 confirmed cases; about thirty per cent of those infected died. In Canada "[a]ll cases occurred in rural settings and approximately 70% of the cases have been associated with domestic and farming activities."
The first confirmed death was in Northern British Columbia in January, 2013 and another in Kindersley, Saskatchewan, in June 2013.
Agents of HPS found in South America include the Andes virus (also called Oran, Castelo de Sonhos (Portuguese for "Castle of Dreams"), Lechiguanas, Juquitiba, Araraquara, and Bermejo virus, among many other synonyms), which is the only hantavirus that has shown an interpersonal form of transmission, and the Laguna Negra virus, an extremely close relative of the previously-known Rio Mamore virus.
The hantaviruses are a relatively newly discovered genus of viruses. An outbreak of Korean hemorrhagic fever among American and Korean soldiers during the Korean War (1950–1953) was caused by a hantavirus infection. More than 3000 troops became ill with symptoms that included renal failure, generalized hemorrhage, and shock. It had a 10 percent mortality rate. Hantavirus was named for the Hantan River area in South Korea. This outbreak sparked a 25-year search for the etiologic agent. Ho-Wang Lee, a South Korean virologist, Karl M. Johnson, an American tropical virologist, and colleagues isolated Hantaan virus in 1976 from the lungs of striped field mice.
In late medieval England a mysterious sweating sickness swept through the country in 1485 just before the Battle of Bosworth Field. Noting the similar symptoms which overlap with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (see below), several scientists have theorised that the virus may have been the cause of the disease. The hypothesis was criticised because sweating sickness was recorded as being transmitted from human to human, whereas hantaviruses were not known to spread in this way. Limited transmission via human-to-human contact has since been shown in Hantavirus outbreaks in Argentina.
In 1993, an outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome occurred in the Four Corners region in the southwestern United States. The viral cause of the disease was found only weeks later and was called the Sin Nombre virus (SNV), or in Spanish, "virus sin nombre", meaning "nameless virus". The host was first identified as the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) by Terry Yates, a professor at the University of New Mexico.
- 1993 Four Corners hantavirus outbreak
- Bat-borne virus
- Conjunctival suffusion
- List of cutaneous conditions
- "Rodent-borne diseases". European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Retrieved 2018-06-04.
- Drebot,, Jones S.; Grolla, A.; Safronetz, D.; Strong, J. E.; Kobinger, G.; Lindsay, R. L. (4 June 2015). Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Canada: An overview of clinical features, diagnostics, epidemiology and prevention. Canada Communicable Disease Report CCDR (Report). Vector-borne diseases in Canada. 41-06. Winnipeg, MB: National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada. p. 40. ISSN 1481-8531.
- Martinez VP, Bellomo C, San Juan J, Pinna D, Forlenza R, Elder M, Padula PJ (2005). "Person-to-person transmission of Andes virus". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 11 (12): 1848–1853. doi:10.3201/eid1112.050501. PMC 3367635. PMID 16485469.
- Yi J, Xu Z, Zhuang R, Wang J, Zhang Y, Ma Y, Liu B, Zhang Y, Zhang C, Yan G, Zhang F, Xu Z, Yang A, Jin B (2013). "Hantaan virus RNA load in patients having hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: correlation with disease severity". J. Infect. Dis. 207 (9): 1457–61. doi:10.1093/infdis/jis475. PMID 22869912.
- "CDC - Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) – Hantavirus". Cdc.gov. 2 June 2013. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
- "Reported Cases of HPS: HPS in the United States". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 21 April 2014. Retrieved 4 August 2014.
- "Death at the Corners". DiscoverMagazine.com. 1 December 1993. Retrieved 2013-03-25.
- Plyusnin A, Vapalahti O, Vaheri A (1996). "Hantaviruses: genome structure, expression and evolution". J. Gen. Virol. 77 (11): 2677–87. doi:10.1099/0022-1317-77-11-2677. PMID 8922460.
- Jonsson CB, Figueiredo LT, Vapalahti O (2010). "A Global Perspective on Hantavirus Ecology, Epidemiology, and Disease". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 23 (2): 412–441. doi:10.1128/CMR.00062-09. PMC 2863364. PMID 20375360.
- Elliott RM (1990). "Molecular biology of the Bunyaviridae". The Journal of General Virology. 71 (3): 501–522. doi:10.1099/0022-1317-71-3-501. PMID 2179464.
- Mir MA, Panganiban AT (2005). "The Hantavirus Nucleocapsid Protein Recognizes Specific Features of the Viral RNA Panhandle and is Altered in Conformation upon RNA Binding". Journal of Virology. 79 (3): 1824–1835. doi:10.1128/JVI.79.3.1824-1835.2005. PMC 544099. PMID 15650206.
- Garcin, D.; Lezzi, M.; Dobbs, M.; Elliott, R. M.; Schmaljohn, C.; Kang, C. Y.; Kolakofsky, D. (September 1995). "The 5' ends of Hantaan virus (Bunyaviridae) RNAs suggest a prime-and-realign mechanism for the initiation of RNA synthesis". Journal of Virology. 69 (9): 5754–5762. ISSN 0022-538X. PMC 189436. PMID 7637020.
- "Hantavirus: Canadian Lung Association". Canadian Lung Association. 26 November 2015. Archived from the original on 2 March 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
- Peters, C.J. (2006). "Emerging Infections: Lessons from the Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers". Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association. 117: 189–197. PMC 1500910. PMID 18528473.
- Crowley, J.; Crusberg, T. "Ebola and Marburg Virus Genomic Structure, Comparative and Molecular Biology". Dept. of Biology & Biotechnology, Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Archived from the original on 2013-10-15.
- Jackson AP, Charleston MA (2003). "A Cophylogenetic Perspective of RNA-Virus Evolution". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 21 (1): 45–57. doi:10.1093/molbev/msg232. PMID 12949128.
- Ramsden C, Holmes EC, Charleston MA (2008). "Hantavirus Evolution in Relation to Its Rodent and Insectivore Hosts: No Evidence for Codivergence". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 26 (1): 143–153. doi:10.1093/molbev/msn234. PMID 18922760.
- Delfraro A, Tomé L, D'Elía G, Clara M, Achával F, Russi JC, Arbiza Rodonz JR (2008). "Juquitiba-like Hantavirus from 2 Nonrelated Rodent Species, Uruguay". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 14 (9): 1447–1451. doi:10.3201/eid1409.080455. PMC 2603116. PMID 18760017.
- Plyusnina A, Ibrahim IN, Plyusnin A (2009). "A newly recognized hantavirus in the Asian house rat (Rattus tanezumi) in Indonesia". Journal of General Virology. 90 (Pt 1): 205–209. doi:10.1099/Vir.0.006155-0. PMID 19088290.
- Schmidt-Chanasit J, Essbauer S, Petraityte R, Yoshimatsu K, Tackmann K, Conraths FJ, Sasnauskas K, Arikawa J, Thomas A, Pfeffer M, Scharninghausen JJ, Splettstoesser W, Wenk M, Heckel G, Ulrich RG (2009). "Extensive Host Sharing of Central European Tula Virus". Journal of Virology. 84 (1): 459–474. doi:10.1128/Jvi.01226-09. PMC 2798396. PMID 19889769.
- Ramsden C, Melo FL, Figueiredo LM, Holmes EC, Zanotto PM (2008). "High Rates of Molecular Evolution in Hantaviruses". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 25 (7): 1488–1492. doi:10.1093/molbev/msn093. PMID 18417484.
- Kang HJ, Bennett SN, Hope AG, Cook JA, Yanagihara R (2011). "Shared Ancestry between a Newfound Mole-Borne Hantavirus and Hantaviruses Harbored by Cricetid Rodents". Journal of Virology. 85 (15): 7496–7503. doi:10.1128/JVI.02450-10. PMC 3147906. PMID 21632770.
- Song JW, Baek LJ, Schmaljohn CS, Yanagihara R (2007). "Thottapalayam Virus, a Prototype Shrewborne Hantavirus". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 13 (7): 980–985. doi:10.3201/eid1307.070031. PMC 2254531. PMID 18214168.
- Song JW, Kang HJ, Song KJ, Truong TT, Bennett SN, Arai S, Truong NU, Yanagihara R (2007). "Newfound Hantavirus in Chinese Mole Shrew, Vietnam". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 13 (11): 1784–1787. doi:10.3201/eid1311.070492. PMC 2262106. PMID 18217572.
- Souza WM, Bello G, Amarilla AA, Alfonso HL, Aquino VH, Figueiredo LT (2014). "Phylogeography and evolutionary history of rodent-borne hantaviruses". Infect. Genet. Evol. 21: 198–204. doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2013.11.015. PMID 24287104.
- "Hantavirus Prevention". CDC. USA.gov.
- Washington State Department of Labor & Industries (April 2010). "Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) and the workplace". wisha-training.lni.wa.gov. Retrieved 2017-08-25.
- Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (2016-01-08). "Hantavirus : OSH Answers". www.ccohs.ca. Retrieved 2017-08-25.
- Washington State Department of Health (2017). "Hantavirus :: Washington State Department of Health". www.doh.wa.gov. Retrieved 2017-08-25.
- Manigold, T; Vial, P (20 March 2014). "Human hantavirus infections: epidemiology, clinical features, pathogenesis and immunology". Swiss Medical Weekly. 144: w13937. doi:10.4414/smw.2014.13937. PMID 24652684.
- "Study to Evaluate the Immunogenicity and Safety of Hantavax in Healthy Adult". ClinicalTrials.gov. 2015-09-13. Retrieved 2016-01-24.
- Oh, MD; Lee, JK (July 2012). "Milestones in history of adult vaccination in Korea". Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research. 1 (1): 9–17. doi:10.7774/cevr.2012.1.1.9. PMC 3623517. PMID 23596574.
- Jonsson, Colleen B.; Hooper, Jay; Mertz, Gregory (2008-04-01). "Treatment of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome". Antiviral Research. Special Issue: Treatment of highly pathogenic RNA viral infections. 78 (1): 162–169. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2007.10.012. PMC 2810485. PMID 18093668.
- Vapalahti O, Mustonen J, Lundkvist A, Henttonen H, Plyusnin A, Vaheri A (October 2003). "Hantavirus infections in Europe". Lancet Infect Dis. 3 (10): 653–61. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(03)00774-6. PMID 14522264.
- Park K, Kim CS, Moon KT (2004). "Protective Effectiveness of Hantavirus Vaccine". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 10 (12): 2218–2220. doi:10.3201/eid1012.040684. PMC 3323375. PMID 15663866.
- "CDC - Diagnosing and Treating Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) - Hantavirus". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2016-11-09.
- Klempa B, Witkowski PT, Popugaeva E, Auste B, Koivogui L, Fichet-Calvet E, Strecker T, Ter Meulen J, Krüger DH (2012). "Sangassou Virus, the First Hantavirus Isolate from Africa, Displays Genetic and Functional Properties Distinct from Those of Other Murinae-Associated Hantaviruses". Journal of Virology. 86 (7): 3819–3827. doi:10.1128/JVI.05879-11. PMC 3302504. PMID 22278233.
- "男生患漢坦食署Hea補鑊 住處附近僅派傳單".
- P. Bi, S. Cameron, G. Higgins, C. Burrell. Are humans infected by Hantaviruses in Australia? Internal Medicine Journal, 21 October 2005
- Vapalahti O, Mustonen J, Lundkvist A, Henttonen H, Plyusnin A, Vaheri A (2003). "Hantavirus infections in Europe". The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 3 (10): 653–661. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(03)00774-6. PMID 14522264.
- Hofmann J, Krüger DH, Loyen M: "Hantavirus-Infektionen in Deutschland – ein Rückblick auf das Ausbruchsjahr 2017". Epid Bull 2018;15:143–146. doi:10.17886/EpiBull-2018-01.
- "Hantavirus Cases, by State of Reporting | Hantavirus | DHCPP | CDC". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2017-07-19. Retrieved 2017-08-25.
- Kariwa H, Yoshida H, Sánchez-Hernández C, Romero-Almaraz Mde L, Almazán-Catalán JA, Ramos C, Miyashita D, Seto T, Takano A, Totani M, Murata R, Saasa N, Ishizuka M, Sanada T, Yoshii K, Yoshimatsu K, Arikawa J, Takashima I (2012). "Genetic diversity of hantaviruses in Mexico: Identification of three novel hantaviruses from Neotominae rodents". Virus Research. 163 (2): 486–494. doi:10.1016/j.virusres.2011.11.013. PMID 22138671.
- "Death caused by Hantavirus in west central Saskatchewan". CKOM News. 26 June 2013. Archived from the original on 15 December 2014. Retrieved 4 August 2014.
- Medina RA, Torres-Perez F, Galeno H, Navarrete M, Vial PA, Palma RE, Ferres M, Cook JA, Hjelle B (2008). "Ecology, Genetic Diversity, and Phylogeographic Structure of Andes Virus in Humans and Rodents in Chile". Journal of Virology. 83 (6): 2446–2459. doi:10.1128/JVI.01057-08. PMC 2648280. PMID 19116256.
- Johnson KM (2001). Hantaviruses: history and overview. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 256. pp. 1–14. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-56753-7_1. ISBN 978-3-642-62491-9. PMID 11217399.
- Schmaljohn C, Hjelle B (1997). "Hantaviruses: a global disease problem". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 3 (2): 95–104. doi:10.3201/eid0302.970202. PMC 2627612. PMID 9204290.
- Lee HW (1989). "Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Korea". Reviews of Infectious Diseases. 11 (Suppl 4): S864–76. PMID 2568676.
- Lee HW, Lee PW, Johnson KM (1978). "Isolation of the etiologic agent of Korean Hemorrhagic fever". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 137 (3): 298–308. doi:10.1093/infdis/137.3.298. PMID 24670.
- Bugert, Joachim J.; Welzel, Tania Mara; Zeier, Martin; Darai, Gholamreza (2013-04-04). "Hantavirus infection—haemorrhagic fever in the Balkans—potential nephrological hazards in the Kosovo war". Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. 14 (8): 1843–1844. doi:10.1093/ndt/14.8.1843. Retrieved 2013-04-13.
- Lee HW, Baek LJ, Johnson KM (1982). "Isolation of Hantaan virus, the etiologic agent of Korean hemorrhagic fever, from wild urban rats". J. Infect. Dis. 146 (5): 638–44. doi:10.1093/infdis/146.5.638. PMID 6127366.
- Thwaites G, Taviner M, Gant V (1997). "The English Sweating Sickness, 1485 to 1551". New England Journal of Medicine. 336 (8): 580–582. doi:10.1056/NEJM199702203360812. PMID 9023099.
- Taviner M, Thwaites G, Gant V (1998). "The English sweating sickness, 1485-1551: a viral pulmonary disease?". Medical History. 42 (1): 96–98. doi:10.1017/S0025727300063365. PMC 1043971. PMID 9536626.
- Bridson, Eric (2001). "English 'sweate' (Sudor Anglicus) and Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, The". British Journal of Biomedical Science. Archived from the original on 2006-03-24.
- Padula PJ, Edelstein A, Miguel SD, López NM, Rossi CM, Rabinovich RD (February 15, 1998). "Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome outbreak in Argentina: molecular evidence for person-to-person transmission of Andes virus". Virology. 241 (2): 323–330. doi:10.1006/viro.1997.8976. PMID 9499807.
- Schudel, Matt (2007-12-24). "Terry Yates, 57; biologist found source of hantavirus". The Boston Globe. The Washington Post. Retrieved 2007-01-04.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hantaviridae.|
- "Hantaviruses, with emphasis on Four Corners Hantavirus" by Brian Hjelle, M.D., Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of New Mexico
- CDC's Hantavirus Fact Sheet (PDF)
- CDC's Hantavirus Technical Information Index page
- Viralzone: Hantavirus
- Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource (ViPR): Bunyaviridae
- Occurrences and deaths in North and South America