Maria Ludovika of Austria-Este
|Maria Ludovika of Austria-Este|
|Empress consort of Austria
Queen consort of Hungary and Bohemia
|Tenure||6 January 1808 – 7 April 1816|
|Queen consort of Lombardy–Venetia|
|Tenure||9 June 1815 – 7 April 1816|
14 December 1787|
Monza, Duchy of Milan
|Died||7 April 1816
|Spouse||Francis I of Austria|
|Father||Ferdinand I, Archduke of Austria-Este|
|Mother||Maria Beatrice Ricciarda d'Este|
Maria Ludovika of Austria-Este, also known as Maria Ludovika of Modena, (German: Maria Ludovika Beatrix von Modena; 14 December 1787 – 7 April 1816) was the daughter of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este (1754–1806) and his wife, Maria Beatrice Ricciarda d'Este (1750–1829). She was a member of the House of Austria-Este, a branch of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine.
Maria Ludovika was born in Monza, but her family fled from Italy to Austria when Northern Italy was conquered by Napoleon in 1796. This caused her a hostility for Napoleon. In Austria, the Emperor fell in love with her during his visits to her mother.
She, as leader of the war party in Austria, was a great enemy of the French Emperor Napoleon I of France and therefore also in opposition to the Austrian foreign minister Prince Klemens Wenzel von Metternich. The French had protested against the marriage because of her political views. She had considerable influence on her husband, and her talent at ruling marvelled many officials, including the Prussian minister who considered her the ruling genius at court. Maria Ludovika was also immensely popular with her subjects who hailed her a second Maria Theresa. Together with her brother-in-law Archduke Johann, she made the war effort popular. During her coronation in Pressburg, she impressed the Hungarians so much that they declared large financial and military support for the monarchy if needed. But the Emperor hesitated and Archduke Karl who had extensive control over military matters advised caution. Only the effects of the Spanish revolt in 1808 allowed the war party to prevail.
Metternich showed her private correspondence with her relatives to her husband, the Emperor Francis I, in the hope that it would miscredit her. She was conservative in her views, suspicious of peasant revolts, but also patriotic towards her adopted land, and genuinely disturbed by atrocities that Napoleon's armies created in Spain. She supported the war against Napoleonic France in 1808. From this year, her health deteriorated. She was opposed to the marriage between Napoleon and her step-daughter Marie Louise in 1809. In 1812, she was a reluctant guest to the assembly of German monarchs gathered by Napoleon to celebrate his war against Russia.
She was the hostess of the Vienna congress in 1815. When Napoleon was finally defeated she traveled at the end of the year 1815 to her home country, North Italy, but died of tuberculosis in Verona. She was only 28 years old. She is buried in the Imperial Crypt in Vienna.
The Ludovica Military Academy in Budapest established in 1808 was named after Maria Ludovika who contributed 50,000 Forint for its upkeep from the funds of the Honours list proclaimed at the Coronation in St. Martin's Cathedral, in Pressburg.
Goethe admired Maria Ludovika greatly, and was tortured because he promised never to pay a public tribute to her nor mention her name in public.
Titles and styles
- 14 December 1787 - 11 August 1804: Her Royal Highness Archduchess Maria Ludovika of Austria-Este, Princess of Modena
- 11 August 1804 - 6 January 1808: Her Imperial and Royal Highness Archduchess Maria Ludovika of Austria-Este, Imperial Princess of Austria, Royal Princess of Hungary and Bohemia, Princess of Modena
- 6 January 1808 - 7 April 1816: Her Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty The Empress of Austria, Queen of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia
- Musulin, Stella (1975). Vienna in the Age of Metternich: From Napoleon to Revolution, 1805-1848. Westview Press. p. 56. ISBN 9780891585015.
- Langsam, Walter Consuelo (1930). The Napoleonic Wars and German Nationalism in Austria, Issue 324. Columbia University Press. p. 34.
- Herold, J. Christopher (2016). Napoleon. New Word City. ISBN 9781612308623.
- Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Historische Kommission (1990). Neue deutsche Biographie: Maly-Melanchthon. Duncker & Humblot. p. 192. ISBN 9783428001811.
- Esdaile, Charles J. (2014). Wars of Napoleon,The. Routledge. p. 30. ISBN 9781317899181.
- Englund, Steven (May 11, 2010). Napoleon: A Political Life. Simon and Schuster,. ISBN 9781439131077.
- Dwyer, Philip (2013). Citizen Emperor: Napoleon in Power 1799-1815. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9781408837818.
- Brigitte Hamann: Die Habsburger. 1988, p. 333f.
- Mommsen, Katharina (2014). Goethe and the Poets of Arabia. Boydell & Brewer. p. 262. ISBN 9781571139085.
Maria Ludovika of Austria-Este
Cadet branch of the House of Habsburg-LorraineBorn: 14 December 1787 Died: 7 April 1816
Maria Teresa of the Two Sicilies
|Empress of Austria
Caroline Augusta of Bavaria
|Queen consort of Hungary and Bohemia1
|Notes and references|