In ancient times, they inhabited Ma'rib, the capital city of the Sabaean kingdom in modern-day Yemen. Their lands were irrigated by the Ma'rib Dam, which is thought by some to have been one of the engineering wonders of the ancient world because of its size. When the dam collapsed for the third time in the 1st century CE, a large number of the Azd tribe left Yemen and migrated in many directions.
In the 3rd century CE the Azd branched into four sub-branches, each led by one of the sons of Amr bin Muzaiqiya.
Imran Bin Amr
Imran bin Amr and the bulk of the tribe went to Oman, where they established the Azdi presence in Eastern Arabia. Later they invaded Karman and Shiraz in Southern Persia, and these came to be known as "Azd Daba". Another branch headed west back to Yemen, and a group went further west all the way to Tihama on the Red Sea. This group was to become known as "Azd Uman" after Islam.
Jafna bin Amr
Jafna bin Amr and his family headed for Syria, where he settled and initiated the kingdom of the Ghassanids. They were so named after a spring of water where they stopped on their way to Syria. This branch was to produce:
- The Ghassanid dynasty in Syria
- A Roman Emperor (Philip the Arab, a Ghassanid Arab from Syria, who ruled 244–249 CE)
- A Byzantine dynasty (the Byzantine Emperor Leo III the Isaurian, also known as the Syrian, ruled 717-741 CE)
Thalabah bin Amr
Thalabah bin Amr left his tribe Al-Azd for the Hijaz and dwelt between Thalabiyah and Dhi Qar. When he gained strength, he headed for Yathrib, where he stayed. Of his seed are the great Aws and Khazraj, sons of Haritha bin Thalabah. These were to be the Muslim Ansar and were to produce the last Arab dynasty in Spain (the Nasrids).
Haritha bin Amr
Haritha bin Amr led a branch of the Azd Qahtani tribes. He wandered with his tribe in the Hijaz until they came to Tihama. He had three sons Adi, Afsa and Lahi. Adiy was the father of Bariq, Lahi the father of Khuza'a and Afsa, the father of Aslam.
Azd | .--------------+------------. | | Mazin Shahnvah | | .----------+----------. .--------+-----------. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Samala (Banu) Daws Haddan Thalabah Haritha Jafna | | (Ghassanids/The Ghassinids) .--+----. | | | |_________________ (Banu) Aws (Banu) Khuza'a/Khazraj | | .-----+---+----------. | | | Adi Afsa Lohay | | | Bariq Aslam (Banu) Khuza'a | | Salaman Mustalik
The Zahran tribe is a pre-Islamic offshoot of the Azd tribe originating from the Kingdom of Saba (Sheba) in Yemen. The shortage of water prompted them to relocate to Al Baha in Arabia. Today members of the Zahran tribe can be found all over the Middle East and beyond. According to Arab scholars, the dialect used by the Hejaz tribes, the Zahran and the Ghamid, is the closest to classical Arabic.
The Azd 'Uman were the dominant Arab tribe in the eastern realms of the Caliphate and were the driving force in the conquest of Fars, Makran and Sindh. They were the chief merchant group of Oman and Al-Ubulla, who organized a trading diaspora with settlements of Persianized Arabs on the coasts of Kirman and Makran, extending into Sindh since the days of Ardashir. They were strongly involved in the western trade with India and with the expansion of the Muslim conquests they began to consolidate their commercial and political authority on the eastern frontier. During the early years of the Muslim conquests the Azdi ports of Bahrain and Oman were staging grounds for Muslim naval fleets headed to Fars and Hind. From 637 CE the conquests of Fars and Makran were dominated by the Azdi and allied tribes from Oman. Between 665 CE and 683 CE the Azdi 'Uman became especially prominent due in Basra on account of favors from Ziyad bin Abihi, the Governor of Muawiya I, and his son Ubaidullah. When a member of their tribe Abu Said Al- Muhallab ibn Abi Suffrah became governor their influence and wealth increased as he extended Muslim conquests to Makran and Sindh, where so many other Azdi were settled. After his death in 702, though, they lost their grip on power with the rise of Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf as governor of Iraq. Al-Hajjaj pursued a systematic policy of breaking Umayyad power, as a result of which the Azdi also suffered. With the death of Hajjaj and under Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik as Caliph, their fortunes reversed once again, with the appointment of Yazid ibn al-Muhallab.
Influential people or branches of Azd
- The Ghassanids
- The Banu Tanukh
- Banu Ma'an (part of the Tanukhi tribal Confederation)
- The Nasrid dynasty of Al-Andalus
- The Al Said dynasty of Oman
- The Al Nahyan dynasty of the United Arab Emirates and Abu Dhabi
- The Al Maktoum dynasty of Dubai
- Ibn Duraid
- Kuthayyir, Arab poet
- Jābir_ibn_Zayd, the co-founder of the Ibadi sect of Islam
- Tribe of Balgarn (Al Garni) or ( Al-Qarni)
- Bani Shehr
- Zahran tribe
- Tribe of Bariq
- Jābir ibn Hayyān
- Hudhayfah al-Bariqi
- Khalil ibn Ahmad
- Urwah al-Bariqi
- Arfaja al-Bariqi
- Abu Dawood Collector of Hadith
- Humaydah al-Bariqi
- Ibn Al-Thahabi
- Ibn al-Banna
- Jamilah bint Adwan
- Asma bint Adiy al-Bariqiyyah
- Al Muhallab ibn Abi Suffrah
- Fatimah bint Sa'd
- Suraqah al-Bariqi
- Ibn Al-Thahabi
- Banu Khazraj
- Billasmar (AL-Asmari)
- Jamilah bint Adwan
- Balahmer (Al-Ahmari)
- Bani Amr (Al-Amri)
- Amr ibn Khalid
- Umm al-Khair
- Dawasir (Al Dawasir)
- Bani Malik
- Azd, G. Strenziok, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. I, ed. H. A. R. Gibb, J. H. Kramers, E. Levi-Provençal, J. Schacht, (Brill, 1986), 811.
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- Constructing Al-Azd: Tribal Identity and Society in the Early Islamic Centuries. Books.google.com.sa. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
- The Role of the Arab Tribes in the East During the Period of the Umayyads (40/660-132/749) P35, 34. Books.google.com.sa. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
- Muhammad Suwaed (2015). Historical Dictionary of the Bedouins. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 261.
- Cuddihy, Kathy (2001). An A to Z of Places and Things Saudi. London: Stacey International. p. 6. ISBN 9781900988407.
- Wink pg 51-52;"It is not accident that, among the Arabs, the Tribe of the Azd 'Uman were instrumental in the conquest of Fars, Makran and Sind, and that for some time they became the dominant Arab tribe in the eastern caliphate."
- Ibn Khallikan wafayat alayan p. 524. alwarraq edition.
- G. Strenziok (1960). Azd, Encyclopedia of Islam, Volume 1. pp. 811–813.
- Wink, Andre (1 August 2002). "Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World". Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 0-391-04173-8.
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