Batman: Year One

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Batman: Year One
Trade paperback of Batman: Year One
published by Titan Books
Publication information
PublisherDC Comics
Publication dateFebruary – May 1987
Main character(s)Batman
James Gordon
Creative team
Written byFrank Miller
Artist(s)David Mazzucchelli
Letterer(s)Todd Klein
Colorist(s)Richmond Lewis
Editor(s)Dennis O'Neil
Collected editions
Trade Paperback (DC Comics)ISBN 0930289331
HardcoverISBN 0930289323
Trade Paperback (Warner Books)ISBN 0446389234
Trade Paperback (Titan Books)ISBN 1852860774
2005 Deluxe Edition (Hardcover)ISBN 1401206905
2005 Deluxe Edition (Trade Paperback)ISBN 1401207529
2012 Deluxe EditionISBN 1401233422
Book with Blu-ray & DVD setISBN 1401260047
Absolute EditionISBN 1401243797
2017 Deluxe EditionISBN 1401272940

Batman: Year One is an American comic book story arc written by Frank Miller and illustrated by David Mazzucchelli. Year One was originally published by DC Comics in Batman #404–407 in 1987. There have been several reprints of the story: a hardcover, multiple trade paperbacks, several deluxe editions in hardcover and paperback format, and an absolute edition. Year One was also adapted into an animated feature in 2011.

The story recounts Batman's first year as a crime-fighter as well as exploring the life of recently transferred Gotham police detective James Gordon – eventually building towards their first encounter and their eventual alliance against Gotham's criminal underworld.

Publication history[edit]

Development[edit]

Frank Miller, the author of Year One, at the Fan Expo 2016 in Toronto, Canada

In an effort to resolve continuity errors in the DC Universe, Marv Wolfman and George Pérez produced the 12-issue limited series Crisis on Infinite Earths.[1] Wolfman's plans for the DC Universe after Crisis on Infinite Earths included relaunching every DC comic with a new first issue.[2]

During the production of Crisis on Infinite Earths, Frank Miller was the writer of Marvel Comics' Daredevil. He collaborated with artist David Mazzucchelli to produce Daredevil: Born Again together which was critically acclaimed. Miller worked for DC and produced the influential four-issue limited series The Dark Knight Returns (1986). Editor Dennis O'Neil also moved to work for DC.

The contract Miller signed to produce The Dark Knight Returns also required him to write a revamped Batman origin story. Miller's past projects overwhelmed him since he had to handle both writing and illustration duties simultaneously. For Year One, he simply wrote the story and the script, with Mazzucchelli signed on to provide the artwork. Mazzucchelli's wife Richmond Lewis was responsible for coloring, Todd Klein was the story's letterer, and O'Neil edited the issues.[3] According to O'Neil, the contract Miller and Mazzucchelli signed to produce Year One in the ongoing Batman series guaranteed publication within 6 months.[4]

David Mazzucchelli autographing a copy of the 2005 trade paperback in 2012

Year One was originally conceived as a graphic novel. O'Neil, who had been asked to edit several issues of Batman, was friends with Miller and was able to learn of the story. Reflecting on poor sales of Batman, O'Neil caught Miller one day while on a walk in Los Angeles and convinced him and Mazzucchelli to serialize the story in the ongoing series.[4] Miller was initially reluctant; he felt this would be hard because he had to ensure the story stayed canonical to the DC Universe, something he did not have to worry about when writing The Dark Knight Returns. In addition, Miller's pacing would have to be altered because of ongoing series' relatively small page counts. O'Neil reasoned that Crisis on Infinite Earths had completely remade the DC Universe, so Miller would be able to have the same creative freedom that The Dark Knight Returns provided.[3] He also reassured Miller that he and Mazzucchelli "weren’t going to lose anything" by serializing it.[4]

Miller has said he kept Bob Kane and Bill Finger's basic story for Year One but expanded it.[5] In writing the story, Miller looked for parts of Batman's origin that were never explored. He left the core elements, such as the murder of Bruce's parents, intact, but reduced them to brief flashbacks. Bruce's globe-trotting adventures were removed, as Miller found them uninteresting. Rather than portraying Batman as a larger-than-life icon as he had in The Dark Knight Returns, Miller chose to characterize Batman in Year One as an average, inexperienced man trying to make a change in society because Miller believed a superhero is least interesting when most effective. Examples of this include Batman underestimating his opponents, getting shot by police, and his costume being too big. The story's violence was kept street-level and gritty, emphasizing noir and realism.[3]

In illustrating, Mazzucchelli sought to make Year One look grimy, dark, and muted. His interpretation of Gotham City was designed to symbolize corruption, featuring muddy colors that gave the impression of the city being dirty and needing a hero. The newsprint paper used in Batman was unable to reproduce the bright coloring and visual effects of The Dark Knight Returns, so Mazzucchelli took on Year One with a more grounded and darker approach.[6]

Publication[edit]

In accordance with Wolfman's plans,[2] O'Neil initially saw "Year One" as the start of the second volume of Batman and expected the first part to be its first issue. However, Miller rejected this idea. He explained: "I don't need to slash through continuity with as sharp a blade as I thought. Doing the Dark Knight has shown me there's been enough good material ... I didn't feel that fleshing out an unknown part of Batman's history justified wiping out 50 years of [adventures]."[6] Thus, the four "Year One" issues bear no continuity to past issues of Batman.[6]

Title Issue Cover date
"Chapter One: Who I Am – How I Come to Be" Batman #404 February 1987
"Chapter Two: War Is Declared" Batman #405 March 1987
"Chapter Three: Black Dawn" Batman #406 April 1987
"Chapter Four: Friend in Need" Batman #407 May 1987

Collected editions[edit]

Several years ago, DC asked me if I'd help put together a deluxe edition of Batman: Year One, and Dale Crain and I worked for months to try to make a definitive version. Now whoever's in charge has thrown all that work in the garbage. First, they redesigned the cover, and recolored my artwork — probably to look more like their little DVD that came out last year; second, they printed the book on shiny paper, which was never a part of the original design, all the way back to the first hardcover in 1988; third — and worst — they printed the color from corrupted, out-of-focus digital files, completely obscuring all of Richmond's hand-painted work. Anybody who's already paid for this should send it back to DC and demand a refund.

—Mazzucchelli criticizing the 2012 Deluxe Edition[7]

According to Mazzucchelli, Year One was designed to be a graphic novel without advertisement pages. In 1988, DC finally published a trade paperback (ISBN 0930289331) and a hardcover (ISBN 0930289323), containing 96 pages long. In her coloring for the graphic novel, Lewis had to utilize a different color palette in order to match the visual quality printed on the paper since the four-issue comic books were originally printed on newsprint paper. One version of trade paperback was published by Warner Books (ISBN 0446389234) and another was published by Titan Books (ISBN 1852860774). In 1989, Longmeadow Press published The Complete Frank Miller Batman with Year One, Wanted: Santa Claus - Dead or Alive! and The Dark Knight Returns as contents of the book.

DC released a hardcover (ISBN 1401206905) and a trade paperback (ISBN 1401207529) "deluxe edition" of Year One to coincide with the release of Batman Begins in April 2005. This release includes introductions by Miller and Mazzucchelli, the original penciled artwork, promotional and unseen Batman art, Lewis's color samples, some pages of the original script, and a new introduction by O'Neil at the back dust jacket cover for a total of 144 pages. Mazzucchelli and Chip Kidd collaborated to design the cover of the book. New versions of this edition were released in 2012 (ISBN 1401233422)[7] and 2017 (ISBN 1401272940). Mazzucchelli expressed his dissatisfaction with DC releasing the 2012 deluxe edition without his acknowledgement and involvement. He received a copy of the book from DC and personally inspected it which he cited there were a few things that did not follow his expectations in the design of a new format: artworks were recolored through digital software, pages were printed on different paper material, and a different artwork was used as the front dust jacket cover. Mazzucchelli described the 2012 deluxe edition basically ruined all his efforts of making the 2005 deluxe edition. The 2017 deluxe edition was released with the same paper quality and coloring as the Absolute Edition Book One.

To celebrate Batman's 75th anniversary in November 2014, DC released a sample of Year One as a part of its DC Comics Essentials line of promotional comics.[8] In 2015, a special package was released that contained the story and its film adaptation (ISBN 1401260047).

In November 2016, DC released a 288-page Absolute Edition (ISBN 1401243797) of Year One. This edition comes in a slipcase with two hardcover books. Book One features a whole new scanning from the original sketches by Mazzucchelli and remastered coloring by Lewis while Book Two features scans using pages from the original Year One comic books that were released back in 1987. Both books contain over 60 pages of bonus materials, including Miller's complete scripts specifically found in Book Two.[9]

Plot summary[edit]

Billionaire Bruce Wayne returns home to Gotham City after 12 years abroad, training for his eventual one-man war on crime. James Gordon moves to Gotham City with his wife, Barbara Gordon, after a transfer from Chicago. Both are swiftly acquainted with the corruption and violent atmosphere of the city. Gordon is assigned to be the partner of Det. Arnold John Flass. He witnesses his partner's cruel methods in stopping a crime and assaulting a teen for fun. Gordon tries to focus on purging corruption from the Gotham City Police Department, but several officers led by Flass beat him on the orders from his corrupt superior, Commissioner Gillian Loeb, with Flass personally threatens Gordon's pregnant wife. In revenge, the recovering Gordon tracks Flass down, beats him, and leaves him naked and handcuffed in the snow.

Bruce believes he is still unprepared to fight against crime despite having the skills he learnt from abroad. He goes in disguise on a surveillance mission in Gotham's red-light district, but he refuses a proposition from teenage prostitute Holly Robinson. He is reluctantly drawn into a brawl with her pimp and several prostitutes, including dominatrix Selina Kyle. Two police officers shoot him on sight and take him away in their squad car. Bruce breaks free and flees from the scene as soon as possible. He reaches Wayne Manor barely alive and sits before his father's bust, requesting guidance in his war against crime. A bat suddenly crashes through a window and settles on the bust, giving him the inspiration to become the Batman. Bruce quickly rings up his butler Alfred Pennyworth to patch up his injuries and proposes the idea of saving Gotham as Batman.

Gordon becomes a minor celebrity for a brave act of saving a group of orphans from a man who has a record of insanity. Bruce strikes as Batman for the first time; crime and corruption significantly decline after a few months of efforts. He even goes after Flass, who is in the middle of accepting a bribe from Jefferson Skeevers, a drug dealer of Carmine Falcone. Batman interrupts a dinner party held at the mansion of Gotham's mayor and he announces that every attendees shall be brought to justice for their crimes someday. Loeb is infuriated by Batman's threatening message, ordering Gordon to arrest him by any means necessary. While Gordon tries in vain to catch Batman, assistant District Attorney Harvey Dent immediately becomes Batman's first ally and Dent conceals this secret from Gordon. GCPD Sergeant Sarah Essen suggests to Gordon that Bruce Wayne could be a Batman suspect. The pair come across a runaway truck that nearly hits an old lady with Batman managing to save the lady while Gordon is momentarily dazed after stopping the truck. Essen holds Batman at gunpoint, but Batman disarms her and flees to an abandoned building.

Loeb orders a bomb dropped on the building. Batman is caught in the explosion and survives by hiding himself in the fortified basement, but is forced to abandon his utility belt as it catches fire. A SWAT team led by a trigger-happy commander, Branden, is sent in with the order to kill any survivors left in the building. Being cornered into a disadvantaged situation with a few gadgets left at his disposal, Batman uses a signal device to attract bats from the Batcave to create his only route for escaping. The swarm of bats cause chaos in the crowd of witnesses, Batman beats the SWAT team into submission and then escapes. After witnessing Batman in action, Selina is inspired to begin a life of crime by donning a costume of her own.

Gordon and Essen resume their investigation into Batman. Essen's intuition leads her to believe that Bruce is indeed Batman. They both have a brief affair together; after two months of dating Essen learns Gordon is going to be a father of Barbara's unborn child. She chooses to leave Gotham to avoid damaging the relationship. Gordon is left alone to investigate Bruce's connection to Batman; he travels to Wayne Manor with Barbara to interrogate Bruce. Bruce uses his playboy charms as alibi to dismiss Gordon's questioning. While leaving the manor, Barbara criticizes Bruce's embarrassing manners which prompts Gordon to confess his affair with Essen to her. Skeevers initially gets bailed from Gordon with a hired lawyer, he is attacked by Batman for information and he agrees to testify against Flass. Upset with Gordon's exploits, Loeb blackmails Gordon into dropping the case against Flass by threatening to give his wife proof of his affair. Skeevers is then hospitalized when his interrogation meal is drugged with rat poison, so that he remains silent about the ties between Loeb and Falcone. Batman sneaks into Falcone's manor and overhears him and his nephew, Johnny Viti, discussing a plan to deal with Gordon. Selina suddenly attacks Falcone and his bodyguards in her cat costume in order to steal his valuables.

Bruce plays the audio device he used to record Falcone's conversation and confirms Falcone wants to target Gordon's family. In his mission to help Gordon, Bruce disguises himself as a motorcyclist. While leaving home on Loeb's orders, Gordon spots Bruce entering his home garage at high speed. Suspicious, he turns back only to discover Viti and his men already holding his family hostage. Viti flees the scene with Gordon's infant son. Gordon shoots Bruce and takes his motorcycle to chase after Viti, Bruce quickly gets back on his feet and chases after them. The car chase ends up on a bridge when Gordon blows out Viti's car tire. Both men struggle until Gordon's baby eventually falls, Gordon jumps off the bridge with Viti together as he attempts to save his own son. Bruce catches up on time and leaps over the bridge's railing to save the baby. Realizing that he's looking at an unmasked Batman, Gordon implicitly tells Bruce that he'll keep his secret and thanks him for saving his infant son's life, letting him go.

Flass turns on Loeb by supplying Dent with the evidence and testimony needed to implicate him, and Loeb resigns in disgrace. Gordon is promoted to captain; he stands on the rooftop waiting to meet Batman to investigate the threat of poisoning Gotham's reservoir, a potential plot orchestrated by a criminal calling himself the Joker.

Reception[edit]

Popularity[edit]

DC's post-Crisis on Infinite Earths revamp was a major success, raising sales 22% in the first year, and DC beat Marvel in direct market sales for the first time in August and September 1987.[10] The four "Year One" issues were no exception to this. Two years before the relaunch, Batman had all-time low sales of 75,000 copies per month; "Year One" sold an average of 193,000 copies an issue, numbers not seen since the early 1970s. Despite this, it did not outsell other books like Uncanny X-Men, and the collected edition sold well but never matched the sales of The Dark Knight Returns.[3] The story, with the noir-inspired narrative and ultra-violent tone, quickly caught the attention of readers.[11] The Los Angeles Times wrote that "Year One" offered an interesting and entertaining update to the origin of Batman.[12]

Critical response[edit]

Year One's characterization of Batman and Gordon, has been praised. Hilary Goldstein (IGN) compared their journey to friendship to the plot of the film Serpico; they found that the two characters' respective story arcs—with Gordon's "illustrat[ing] the corruption in Gotham" and Batman's detailing "the transformation from man to myth"—offered an exploration of Batman's world like no other.[13] Glenn Matchett (ComicsVerse) wrote that, unlike The Dark Knight Returns, Batman in Year One is more vulnerable and inexperienced, which made the story more memorable.[11] Nick Roberts (Geek Syndicate) thought the characters seemed believable,[14] and comics historian Matthew K. Manning called the characterization realistic and grounded.[6]

The story's depiction of Gotham and darker, realistic, mature and more grittier tone and direction, compared to other contemporary Batman comics at the time, has also been acclaimed. Journalist James Lovegrove described "Year One" as a "noir-inflected pulp tale of vigilantism and integrity, focused on a good man doing the right thing in a dirty world" and noted the brutality of the fight sequences.[15] Jason Serafino (Complex) wrote that by ignoring many of Batman's trademark gadgets and villains and focusing in the core essentials of the titular character, Miller managed to present Batman in a relatable and thrilling way, which felt both fresh, unique and reinvigorating, while still being faithful to the spirit of the character.[16] Goldstein found every moment memorable, writing "Miller does not waste a single panel" in presenting a gritty and dark story.[13] Matchett agreed; he offered particular praise for the scenes depicting Batman clashing with the police, calling them the moment Batman began to become a legend.[11]

Mazzucchelli's art was noted as a standout by many, praising the minimalistic, noir-influenced and realistic art-work.[13][11]

Continuity[edit]

Before the New 52 in 2011, Batman: Year One existed in the mainstream DC continuity, and in the same continuity as the other storylines in Miller's "Dark Knight Universe", consisting of The Dark Knight Returns, its sequel The Dark Knight Strikes Again, The Dark Knight III: The Master Race, The Dark Knight Returns: The Last Crusade, Spawn/Batman, and All Star Batman and Robin the Boy Wonder.[17] Following the New 52 reboot, Batman: Zero Year replaced Year One as the official origin for Batman and Year One was relegated to the continuity of the other Frank Miller storylines.[18]

After Crisis on Infinite Earths, DC rebooted many of its titles. Year One was followed by Batman: Year Two, but the 1994 Zero Hour: Crisis in Time crossover erased Year Two from continuity. In another continuity re-arrangement, Catwoman: Year One (Catwoman Annual #2, 1995) posited that Selina Kyle had not actually been a prostitute, but, rather, a thief posing as one in order to commit crimes.

Launched in 1989, following the success of the film Batman, the title Batman: Legends of the Dark Knight examines crime-fighting exploits primarily, not exclusively, from the first four to five years of Batman's career. This title rotated in creative teams and time placement, but several stories directly relate to the events of Year One, especially the first arc "Batman: Shaman". In 1996 and 1999, Jeph Loeb and Tim Sale created Batman: The Long Halloween and Batman: Dark Victory, two 13-issue maxiseries that recount Batman's early years as a crime-fighter following the events of Miller's original story and retold the origins of Two-Face and Dick Grayson. The Year One story was continued in the 2005 graphic novel Batman: The Man Who Laughs, following up on Gordon informing Batman about the Joker, and thus recounting their first official encounter. Two other stories, Batman and the Monster Men and Batman and the Mad Monk tie into the same time period of Batman's career, filling in the gap between Year One and the Man Who Laughs. The comics Robin: Year One and Batgirl: Year One describe his sidekicks' origin stories.

Sequels[edit]

Two sequels, titled Batman: Year Two and Batman: Year Three, were released in 1987 and 1989.

Adaptations[edit]

Joel Schumacher's Batman Forever, although set during another timespan, adopts some elements directly from the graphic novel. Schumacher claims he originally had in mind an adaptation of Frank Miller's Batman: Year One. The studio rejected the idea as they wanted a sequel, not a prequel, though Schumacher was able to include very brief events in Batman's past.[19][20]

The DC Animated Universe film, Batman: Mask of the Phantasm, adopted elements of the storyline, depicting flashbacks of how Bruce Wayne became Batman.

After the critical failure of Batman & Robin, several attempts were made to reboot the Batman film franchise with an adaptation of "Year One". Joss Whedon and Joel Schumacher both pitched their own takes.[3] In 2000, Warner Bros. hired Darren Aronofsky to write and direct Batman: Year One. The film was to be written by Miller, who finished an early draft of the script.[21][22] The script, however, was a loose adaptation, as it kept most of the themes and elements from the graphic novel but shunned other conventions that were otherwise integral to the character.[23] It was shelved by the studio in 2001,[24] after an individual who claimed to have read Miller's script published a negative review on Ain't It Cool News.[3] In 2016, Miller explained that the film was canceled because of creative differences between him, Aronofsky, and Warner Bros:[25]

It was the first time I worked on a Batman project with somebody whose vision of Batman was darker than mine. My Batman was too nice for him. We would argue about it, and I'd say, "Batman wouldn't do that, he wouldn't torture anybody" and so on. We hashed out a screenplay, and we were wonderfully compensated, but then Warner Bros. read it and said, "We don't want to make this movie." The executive wanted to do a Batman he could take his kids to.

In 2005, Christopher Nolan began his series with the reboot film Batman Begins, which draws inspiration from "Year One" and other stories.[3] Batman Begins and its sequel The Dark Knight are set during the same timespan and adopt several elements directly from the graphic novel. Major characters like Commissioner Loeb, Detective Flass and Carmine 'The Roman' Falcone are featured prominently in Batman Begins. Film critic Michael Dodd argued that with each major motion picture focused on the Dark Knight's origins, the odes and references to the Year One comic increased. Comparing Mask of the Phantasm with Batman Begins he noted that "...Phantasm was a Batman story with Year One elements, while Batman Begins was a Year One story with added features".[26] The film's end scene, with Gordon revealing the Joker's arrival in Gotham, mirrors the end of Year One.

In 2011, an animated adaptation was released as a DC Universe Animated Original Movie. It was produced by Bruce Timm, co-directed by Lauren Montgomery and Sam Liu.[27] It features the voices of Benjamin McKenzie as Bruce Wayne/Batman, Bryan Cranston as James Gordon, Eliza Dushku as Selina Kyle/Catwoman, Katee Sackhoff as Sarah Essen, Grey DeLisle as Barbara Gordon, Jon Polito as Commissioner Loeb, Alex Rocco as Carmine 'The Roman' Falcone, and Jeff Bennett as Alfred Pennyworth.[28] The movie premiered at Comic-Con, with a Catwoman short shown in October.[29]

The second half of the fourth season of the Batman-based television series Gotham is inspired by Batman: Year One.[30]

Director Matt Reeves also cited Batman: Year One as a source of inspiration for the upcoming film, The Batman, with Robert Pattinson portraying a younger Bruce Wayne who is in his second year as a crime-fighter and is yet to become the symbol of hope for Gotham City that he eventually will.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Greeberger, Robert (August 2015). "Crisis at 30: A Look Back at the Most Influential Crossover in Comics History". Back Issue! (82).
  2. ^ a b Tucker, Reed (October 2017). Slugfest. New York City: Da Capo Press. p. 152. ISBN 978-0306825477.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Weldon, Glen (2016). The Caped Crusade: Batman and the Rise of Nerd Culture. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4767-5669-1.
  4. ^ a b c Greenfield, Dan (September 22, 2014). "The DENNY O'NEIL INTERVIEWS — Batman: Year One". 13th Dimension. Retrieved May 20, 2018.
  5. ^ "'Batman' Author Frank Miller". NPR. June 15, 2005. Retrieved May 22, 2018.
  6. ^ a b c d Manning, Matthew K.; Dolan, Hannah, ed. (2010). "1980s". DC Comics Year By Year A Visual Chronicle. Dorling Kindersley. p. 227. ISBN 978-0-7566-6742-9. Melding Miller's noir sensibilities, realistic characterization, and gritty action with Mazzucchelli's brilliant iconic imagery, "Year One" thrilled readers and critics alike ... as well as being one of the influences for the 2005 film Batman Begins.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  7. ^ a b Schedeen, Jesse (March 28, 2012). "Batman: Year One – Deluxe Edition Hardcover Review". IGN. Retrieved May 28, 2018.
  8. ^ "DC Comics Essentials – Batman: Year One Special Edition #1". DC Comics. November 5, 2014. Retrieved May 28, 2018.
  9. ^ "Absolute Batman: Year One". DC Comics. November 2, 2016. Retrieved May 28, 2018.
  10. ^ Tucker, Reed (October 2017). Slugfest. New York City: Da Capo Press. p. 157. ISBN 978-0306825477.
  11. ^ a b c d Matchett, Glenn (September 4, 2015). "Frank Miller's Batman Part One: YEAR ONE, or How Legends are Made". ComicsVerse. Retrieved May 30, 2018.
  12. ^ Miller, Frank; Mazzucchelli, Dave (January 10, 2007). Batman: Year One (Paperback ed.). DC Comics. ISBN 978-0290204890.
  13. ^ a b c Goldstein, Hilary (June 17, 2005). "Batman: Year One Review". IGN. Retrieved May 30, 2018.
  14. ^ Roberts, Nick. "'Classic Comic' Review – Batman: Year One". Geek Syndicate. Retrieved May 30, 2018.
  15. ^ Lovegrove, James (2016). "Batman: Year One". The 100 Greatest Graphic Novels of All Time. Future plc (1): 92–93.
  16. ^ Serafino, Jason (January 17, 2018). "The 25 Best DC Comics Of All Time". Complex. Retrieved May 31, 2018.
  17. ^ Sanderson, Peter (2006-02-06). "Comics in Context #119: All-Star Bats on IGN". Comics.ign.com. Archived from the original on 13 December 2010. Retrieved 2011-01-04.
  18. ^ "THE ASSOCIATED PRESS Announces BATMAN: ZERO YEAR". dccomics.com. 11 March 2013. Archived from the original on 22 October 2015.
  19. ^ Reinhart, Mark S. (31 July 2013). The Batman Filmography, 2d ed. ISBN 9780786468911.
  20. ^ "Batman Forever: How to Be a Superhero | The Reverse Gear". Retrieved 2020-06-21.
  21. ^ Dana Harris (2000-09-21). "WB sends Pi guy into the Bat Cave". Variety. Archived from the original on January 17, 2012. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  22. ^ Greenberg, James (2005-05-08). "Rescuing Batman". Los Angeles Times. p. E-10. Archived from the original on 2008-12-02. Retrieved 2019-05-11.
  23. ^ Brian Linder (2000-10-16). "The Bat-Men Speak". IGN. Archived from the original on 2008-12-06. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  24. ^ Dana Harris (2002-06-30). "WB: fewer pix, more punch". Variety. Archived from the original on January 17, 2012. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  25. ^ Kit, Borys (March 3, 2016). "A Rare Interview With Frank Miller: 'Dark Knight,' the Unmade Darren Aronofsky Batman Movie, and Donald Trump". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved May 28, 2018.
  26. ^ Dodd, Michael, "Back to the Beginning: The Evolving Influence of Batman: Year One Archived 2017-07-12 at the Wayback Machine," The Missing Slate.
  27. ^ "Batman: Year One Animated Update". worldsfinestonline.com. June 13, 2010. Archived from the original on August 12, 2014. Retrieved June 13, 2010.
  28. ^ Kit, Borys (April 20, 2011). "'Batman: Year One' Lines Up Voice Cast, Sets Comic-Con Premiere (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved June 18, 2011.
  29. ^ "BATMAN: YEAR ONE Animated Film Sneak Peek Video & Character Designs". The Daily BLAM!. Archived from the original on 2013-01-25. Retrieved 2013-01-23.
  30. ^ "Gotham Season 4 Draws from Long Halloween & Batman: Year One Comics". Screen Rant. July 27, 2017. Archived from the original on July 28, 2017. Retrieved July 28, 2017.

External links[edit]