Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Clermont

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Archdiocese of Clermont
Archidioecesis Claromontanus
Archidiocèse de Clermont
Clermont-Ferrand katedra.jpg
Location
Country  France
Ecclesiastical province Clermont
Statistics
Area 8,016 km2 (3,095 sq mi)
Population
- Total
- Catholics
(as of 2013)
619,000
600,000 (96.9%)
Information
Denomination Roman Catholic
Sui iuris church Latin Church
Rite Roman Rite
Established 3rd Century (As Diocese of Auvergne)
8 December 2002 (As Archdiocese of Clermont)
Cathedral Cathedral of Notre Dame in Clermont-Ferrand
Patron Saint Saint Austremonius of Clermont
Current leadership
Pope Francis
Metropolitan Archbishop François Kalist
Suffragans Diocese of Le Puy-en-Velay
Diocese of Moulins
Diocese of Saint-Flour
Map
Provinces ecclésiastiques 2002 (France).svg
Website
Website of the Archdiocese

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Clermont (Latin: Archidioecesis Claromontanus; French: Archidiocèse de Clermont) is an Archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic church in France. The diocese comprises the department of Puy-de-Dôme, in the Region of Auvergne. The Archbishop's seat is Clermont-Ferrand Cathedral. Throughout its history Clermont was the senior suffragan of the Archdiocese of Bourges. It became a metropolitan see itself, however, in 2002. The current Archbishop is François Kalist.

At first very extensive, the diocese lost Haute-Auvergne in 1317 through the reorganization of the structure of bishoprics in southern France and Aquitaine by Pope John XXII, resulting in the creation of the diocese of Saint-Flour.[1] In 1822, in the reorganization of French dioceses by Pope Pius VII, following the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy, the diocese of Clermont lost the Bourbonnais, on account of the erection of the diocese of Moulins. Since the reorganization in 2002 by Pope John Paul II, there are now four dioceses in the Province of Clermont: Clermont, Le Puy-en-Velay, Moulins, and Saint-Flour.

History[edit]

The first Bishop of Clermont was Saint Austremonius (Stramonius). According to local tradition he was one of the seventy-two Disciples of Christ, by birth a Jew, who came with Saint Peter from Palestine to Rome and subsequently became the Apostle of Auvergne, Berry, Nivernais, and Limousin. At Clermont he is said to have converted the senator Cassius and the pagan priest Victorinus, to have sent Saint Sirenatus (Cerneuf) to Thiers, Saint Marius to Salers, Saint Nectarius (Nectaire) and Saint Antoninus into other parts of Auvergne, and to have been beheaded in 92. This tradition is based on a life of Saint Anstremonius written in the tenth century in the monastery of Mozac, where the body of the saint had rested from 761, and rewritten by the monks of Issoire, who retained the saint's head. Gregory of Tours, born in Auvergne in 544 and well versed in the history of that country, looks upon Austremonius as one of the seven envoys who, about 250, evangelized Gaul; he relates how the body of the saint was first interred at Issoire, being there the object of great veneration.[2]

Clermont counted amongst its bishops a large number of saints, as Saint Urbicus (c. 312); Saint Leoguntius; Saint Illidius (Allyre), who, about 385, cured the daughter of the Emperor Maximus at Trier; the saint's name was given to the petrifying springs of Clermont, and his life was written by Gregory of Tours; Saint Nepotianus (died 388); Saint Artemius (died about 394); Saint Venerandus (Veau, died about 423); Saint Rusticus (424–46); Saint Namatius (446–62), founder of Clermont Cathedral, where he deposited the relics of Saint Vitalis and Saint Agricola brought from Bologna; Sidonius Apollinaris (470–79), the celebrated Christian writer who brought to Clermont the priest Saint Amabilis; Saint Aprunculus (died about 491); Saint Euphrasius (491–515); Saint Quintianus (died about 527), whose life was written by Gregory of Tours; Saint Gallus (527–51), of whom Gregory of Tours was the biographer and nephew; Saint Avitus (second half of the sixth century), founder of Notre-Dame du Port; Saint Caesarius (c. 627); Saint Gallus II (c. 650); Saint Genesius (c. 660); Saint Praejectus (Prix), historian of the martyrs of Clermont and assassinated at Volvic 25 January, 676; Saint Avitus II (676–91); Saint Bonitus, intimate friend of Sigebert II (end of seventh century); Saint Stabilis (823–60). and Saint Sigo (866).

Among the Bishops of Clermont should also be mentioned: Pierre de Cros (1301–04), engaged by Thomas Aquinas to complete his Summa; Étienne Aubert (1340–42), later Pope Innocent VI (1352–62); Guillaume du Prat (1528–60), founder of the Clermont College in Paris, and delegate of Francis I of France to the Council of Trent; and Massillon, the illustrious orator (1717–42).[citation needed]

Several famous Jansenists were natives of Clermont: Blaise Pascal, author of the Pensées (1623–62); the Arnauld family, and Jean Soanen (1647–1740), Bishop of Senez, famous for his stubborn opposition to the Bull "Unigenitus". On the other hand the city of Riom in the diocese of Clermont was the birthplace of Jacques Sirmond, the learned Jesuit (1559–1651), Confessor to Louis XIII and editor of the volumes on the ancient councils of Gaul.

Other natives worth mention were the Abbé Jacques Delille, poet and Academician (1738–1813); and François Dominique de Reynaud, Comte de Montlosier, the publicist (1755–1838), who was a member of the Estates General of 1789 for Clermont-Ferrand and a Royalist in the Convention, famous for his memoir against the Jesuits and for his being refused a Catholic burial by Bishop Ferou. The famous Jesuit paleontologist and philosopher Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (1881-1955) was born only seven miles from Clermont, in the Château d'Orcines; his publications were condemned by the Roman Catholic Church.[3] Undoubtedly, and by far, the most famous native sons of the diocese of Clermont were Édouard Michelin (1859–1940) and his elder brother André Michelin (1853-1931), who perfected the pneumatic tire.

Religious Orders[edit]

The Diocese of Clermont can likewise claim a number of monks whom the Church honours as saints, viz: St. Calevisus (Calais, 460–541), a pupil in the monastery of Menat near Riom, whence he retired to Maine, where he founded the Abbey of Anisole; St. Maztius (died 527), founder at Royat near Clermont of a monastery which became later a Benedictine priory; St. Portianus (sixth century), founder of a monastery to which the city of Saint-Pourçain (Allier) owes its origin; St. Étienne de Muret (1046–1124), son of the Viscount of Thiers and founder of the Order of Grandmont in Limousin, and St. Peter the Venerable (1092–1156), of the Montboissier family of Auvergue, noted as a writer and Abbot of Cluny.

In the diocese of Clermont, the King of France enjoyed the right of nomination of the head of numerous houses.[4] These included the Benedictine abbeys of Saint-Austremoine d'Issiore,[5] Ebrulles,[6] La Chaise-Dieu,[7] Saint-Allire-les-Clermont,[8] Manlieu (Grand-lieu),[9] Mauzac près de Riom,[10] Menat,[11] Saint Symphorien, Thiers,[12] and Aurillac. Cistercian abbeys included: Bellaigue, Bouchet (Vau-Luisant), Mont-Peyroux, and Val-honneste. The king nominated the Abbot of the Augustinian house at Chantoin, as well as the Premonstratensian Abbots of Saint-André-lez-Clermont, Saint-Gilbert-de-Neuf-fontaines, and the abbeys of Beaumont, La Boissie, Cessac, and L'Eschelle. Priories which were royal benefices were: Bragat, Cusset, Theulle (Ordre de Grammont), and Sallignac. He also held the nomination of the Collegiate Churches of Arthonne (the Abbot), Verneul (the Dean, Chanter, and five prebends), and the Dean of Saint-Amable de Rion. Other abbeys in the diocese included Saint-Pourçain, between Clermont and Moulins.[13]

The mendicant orders began to appear in the diocese of Clermont at an early date. The Franciscans were installed in Montferrand around 1224, and shortly thereafter at Le Puy. The Dominicans were in evidence in Clermont itself by 1227 and the Franciscans in 1241. The Dominicans also settled in Aurillac ca 1230, at Riom (1233) and at Brioude (ca. 1240-1244). Clermont also had houses of Clarisses and Carmelites. The Augustinians settled at Ennezat in 1352 and the Carmelites at Aurillac in 1358. The Dominicans opened a convent at Saint-Flour before 1367. The Celestines took up residence in Vichy in 1410. The reformed Franciscans appeared in the fifteenth century, and the observant Franciscans in 1430 at Murat.[14]

The Jesuits established themselves in Clermont with the College de Clermont in 1630, after a stormy beginning in which the municipality attempted to bring the College under its control. The institution grew in numbers and prestige until 1762, when an ordinance of the Parlement of Paris of 27 February forbade the municipal officers of Clermont from choosing the masters and regents of the College from among the Jesuits. The Jesuits left Clermont in March, and the Society of Jesus was completely suppressed in France in 1764. Thereafter the College was administered by a committee, authorized by a royal order, of which the Bishop was the chair. In 1791 the College became an 'Institut' administered by the Directorate of the Département, and in 1796 it became the École centrale du département de Puy-de-Dôme and was administerd by the municipal committee on public instruction.[15] The Jesuits also had colleges at Billom and Mauriac.[16]

Other religious orders suffered in the Revolution. All monastic vows were abolished by the Constituent Assembly in the Autumn of 1789, and on 10 October 1789 all the properties and lands of the Church were confiscated for the benefit of the people. On 13 February 1790 all religious orders in France were dissolved.

Councils and Papal Visits[edit]

Church councils took place at Clermont in 535, [17] 549,[18] ca. 585–588,[19] 590,[20] 1095,[21] 1130.[22]

The Council of 535 met under the presidency of Bishop Honoratus of Bourges and ratified at least fifteen canons, including one (§2) that ordered that bishops be elected by the clergy and people, with the consent of the Metropolitan; and one (§8) that forbade that Jews be appointed judges over Christians. Canon 6 prohibited sexual relations between a Christian and a Jew.[23]

The Council of 590 met at the southern border of the diocese of Clermont, where it touches the dioceses of Mende and Rodez. The bishops at the meeting, including perhaps Avitus of Clermont and Innocentius of Rodez attempted to deal with the complicated business of Tetradia, the widow of one Desiderius, and her dealings with Count Eulalius.[24]

Pope Urban II came to Clermont in mid-November 1095[25] to preside at the Council which launched the First Crusade;[26] Pope Paschal II visited the city in 1106; Callistus II on 19 May 1119;[27] Innocent II from mid-November to early-December 1130, where he held a synod;[28] Pope Alexander III from 13 to 19 August 1162, and again from 25 May to 25 June 1165;[29] and, in 1166, Thomas Becket.[30] It was also at Clermont that, in 1262, in presence of St. Louis, the marriage of Philip the Bold and Isabella of Aragon was solemnized.[31]

Cathedral[edit]

Saint Austremonius

The earliest cathedral in Clermont is naturally attributed to Saint Austremonius, the first bishop, and would therefore be a work of the third century; this is hardly likely, since Christianity was still an illegal cult, nor is it likely that it was dedicated to the Virgin Mary, given that the second cathedral had a different dedication. The second building is attributed to Bishop Namatius, in the mid-fifth century, and took twelve years to construct. It was dedicated to SS. Vitalis and Agricola.[32] This building is described by Gregory of Tours in glowing terms.[33] The first stone for the third cathedral was laid in 937, and it was dedicated by Bishop Stephanus (II) nine years later. It was dedicated to the Virgin, SS. Vitalis and Agricola, S. Croix, S. Gervais, S. John the Baptist, S. Julian the Martyr, and the Holy Angel.[34] The fourth and current cathedral was founded in 1248 by Bishop Hugues de la Tour, who laid the first stone before his departure for Crusade. The cathedral was finally consecrated in 1341, though it was still uncompleted.[35]

The Cathedral Chapter of Clermont had three dignities (the Provost,[36] the Abbot,[37] and the Dean[38]); there were thirty-five Canons,[39] all of which were filled by vote of the Chapter.[40] The Chapter was suppressed by the Constitutional government in 1793. It was reestablished in accordance with the Concordat of 1801 by Bishop Du Valk de Dampierre in April 1803, with only one dignity, the Grand Chantre, and ten canons.[41]

The Grand Seminaire de Clermont was the idea of Bishop Louis d'Estaing (1650-1664), whose principal concern was the improvement of the condition of the clergy of his diocese. In 1653 the bishop entered into an agreement with the Abbey of Saint-Alyre for the conversion of an unused priory in Clermont for his seminary, in exchange for a tax abatement. The project won the approval of the government of Louis XIV in a royal edict of 1654. In 1775 the Grand Seminary was transferred to larger quarters, and its quarters handed over to the Petit Seminaire which had been founded in 1712. Both were closed by order of the Revolutionary government and the buildings were sold on 11 February 1791 and turned into a barracks. The Grand Seminary was reconstituted by Bishop Du Valk de Dampierre in 1804 at Montferrand, along with the Minor Seminary.[42] In 1980 the Grand Seminaire de Clermont was forced to close its doors, due to the small number of ordinands. Students for the priesthood from the diocese now attend the Séminaire Saint-Irénée de Francheville, near Lyon.[43]

Bishops[edit]

To 1000[edit]

1000 to 1300[edit]

  • Stephan III. (c. 1010–1014)
  • Stephan IV. (1014–?)
  • Rencon (1030–1053)
  • Stephan V. de Polignac (c. 1053–1073)
  • Guillaume de Chamalières (1073–1076)
  • Durand (1077–1095)
  • Guillaume de Baffie (1096)
  • Pierre Roux (1105–1111)
  • Aimeri (1111–1150)
  • Stephan VI. de Mercœur (1151–1169)
  • Pons (1170–1189)
  • Gilbert[64] (1190–1195)
  • Robert D'Auvergne (1195–1227)
  • Hughes de la Tour[65] (1227–1249)
  • Guy de la Tour (1250–1286)
  • Aimar de Cros (1286–1297)
  • Jean Aicelin (1298–1301)

1300 to 1500[edit]

1500 to 1800[edit]

Jean-Baptiste Massillon

From 1800[edit]

Archbishop Hippolyte Louis Jean Simon

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Saint-Flour (Diocese) [Catholic-Hierarchy][self-published source]
  2. ^ Louis Duchesne (1910). Fastes épiscopaux de l'ancienne Gaule: II. L'Aquitaine et les Lyonnaises. Paris: Fontemoing. pp. 117–122.  Cf. François Arbellot (1870). Observations critiques à MM. Bourassé et Chevalier sur la légende de saint Austremoine et les origines chrétiennes de la Gaule (in French). Tours: J. Bouserez.  (polemical, defensive of hagiographical tradition).
  3. ^ Dietrich von Hildebrand, Teilhard de Chardin: A False Prophet (Franciscan Herald Press 1970).
  4. ^ Pouillé royal contenant les bénéfices appartenant à la nomination ou à la collection du roi (in French). 1648. pp. 55–57.  On each of the abbeys see: Abel Poitrineau (1970). Le mémoire sur l'état de la Généralité de Riom en 1697 (in French). Clermont-Ferrand: Presses Univ Blaise Pascal. pp. 68–86. ISBN 978-2-87741-006-9. 
  5. ^ Gallia christiana II, pp. 357-360.
  6. ^ Gallia christiana II, pp. 369-372.
  7. ^ Gallia christiana II, pp. 327-351. Frédérique-Anne Costantini (2003). L'abbatiale Saint-Robert de La Chaise-Dieu (in French). Paris: H. Champion. ISBN 978-2-7453-0897-9.  Maurice Faucon (1904). Notice sur la construction de l'eglise de La Chaise-Dieu (Haute-Loire): son fondateur, son architecte, ses décorateurs (1344-1352) (in French). Paris: A. Picard. 
  8. ^ Gallia christiana II, pp. 323-327.
  9. ^ Gallia christiana II, pp. 360-363.
  10. ^ Gallia christiana II, pp. 351-357.
  11. ^ Gallia christiana II, pp. 366-369.
  12. ^ Gallia christiana II, pp. 363-366.
  13. ^ Gallia christiana II, pp. 371-374.
  14. ^ Martin (ed.), p. 443. Gallia christiana II, pp. 223-224; 322-324.
  15. ^ Tardieu, p. 616-620.
  16. ^ Poitrineau, pp. 88-89.
  17. ^ Charles Joseph Hefele (1895). A History of the Councils of the Church, from the Original Documents. Vol. IV. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark. pp. 190–192. 
  18. ^ Hefele, IV, p. 371. J.D. Mansi, Sacrorum conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio, editio novissima, Tomus IX (Florence 1763), pp. 141-146. It is interesting that no bishop of Auvergne (Clermont) subscribes, though Bishop Gallus was present at the Council of Orleans earlier in the same year.
  19. ^ The Council of 585/588 was a provincial synod, presided over by the Archbishop of Bourges: Mansi, IX (Florence 1763), 973-974.
  20. ^ The council in confinio trium civitatum (Arverni, Gabalitani, Rutheni; Clermont, Mende, Rodez): Gregory of Tours, Historia Francorum Book X, chapter 8. Mansi, Tomus X, pp. 453-456. Gonod (1833), p. 13. De Clercq, p. 261.
  21. ^ Robert Somerville (1974). "The Council of Clermont (1095), and Latin Christian Society". Archivum Historiae Pontificiae. 12: 55–90, especially 57–60. JSTOR 23563638. Retrieved 2017-01-09. (registration required (help)). 
  22. ^ Mansi, XXI (Venice 1776), pp. 437-440.
  23. ^ Hefele, p. 191. De Clercq, pp. 106-107.
  24. ^ Gregory of Tours, Historia Francorum Book X, chapter 8. Duchesne, pp. 36, 40, 55.
  25. ^ P. Jaffé, Regesta pontificum Romanorum, I, editio altera (Leipzig 1885), p. 681-682. Urban II left Clermont in the first days of December.
  26. ^ Adrien de Brimont (1862). Un Pape au moyen âge. Urbain II. (in French). Paris: Ambroise Bray. pp. 243–285.  D. C. Munro, "The Speech of Pope Urban II at Clermont," American Historical Review, XI (1906), 231—242. R. Somerville (1976), 'The Council of Clermont and the First Crusade', Studia Gratiana, 20 (1976), pp. 335-337.
  27. ^ Jaffé, p. 782, no. 6695.
  28. ^ Jaffé, p. 845.
  29. ^ Jaffé, II (Leipzig 1888), pp. 160-161; 192-193.
  30. ^ Cf. Frank Barlow (1990). Thomas Becket. Berleley-Los Angeles: University of California Press. pp. 136–139. ISBN 978-0-520-07175-9. 
  31. ^ Claude Fleury, Historia ecclesiastica (ed. B. Parode and D. Ziegler) Tomus XXI (Augsburg 1765), pp. 405-406.
  32. ^ Tardieu, p. 216.
  33. ^ Gregory of Tours, Historia Francorum, Book II, chapter 16. It was 150 feet long, 60 feet wide, and 50 feet high; it had 42 windows and eight entries. It was decorated with mosaics.
  34. ^ Tardieu, p. 217.
  35. ^ Tardieu, p. 218.
  36. ^ List of Provosts of Clermont: Tardieu, pp. 250-251.
  37. ^ List of the Abbots of Clermont: Tardieu, pp. 251-253.
  38. ^ List of the Deans of Clermont: Tardieu, pp. 253-254.
  39. ^ List of Canons of Clermont: Tardieu, pp. 256-264.
  40. ^ Gallia christiana IX, p. 223. Privileges of the Cathedral Chapter: Tardieu, pp. 265-270.
  41. ^ Tardieu, p. 275.
  42. ^ Tardieu, pp. 627-630.
  43. ^ Martin, p. 435.
  44. ^ B. Gonod, Chronologie des évêques de Clermont, pp. 2-4. Gams, p. 537.
  45. ^ Gonod, Chronologie des évêques de Clermont, p. 4. Gams, p. 537.
  46. ^ also Legonus, Legontius. He is known from Gregory of Tours, Historia Francorum, Book I, chapter 39, as the successor of Urbicus. Gallia christiana II, p. 227. Gams, p. 537.
  47. ^ Illidius (Allyre): Gregory of Tours, Historia Francorum, Book I, chapter 40. Gallia christiana II, pp. 227-228. Gonod, Chronologie des évêques de Clermont, pp. 4-5.
  48. ^ Nepotianus: Gregory of Tours, Historia Francorum, Book I, chapter 41; de gloria confessorum 5. Gallia christiana II, p. 228-229. Gonod, Chronologie des évêques de Clermont, p. 5.
  49. ^ Artemius: Gregory of Tours, Historia Francorum, Book I, chapter 41. Gallia christiana II, p. 229. Gonod, Chronologie des évêques de Clermont, p. 5.
  50. ^ Venerandus: Gregory of Tours, Historia Francorum, Book II, chapter 13. de gloria confessorum 35. Gallia christiana II, p. 229. Gonod, Chronologie des évêques de Clermont, p. 5.
  51. ^ Rusticus: Gregory of Tours, Historia Francorum, Book II, chapter 13. Gallia christiana II, p. 229-230. Gonod, Chronologie des évêques de Clermont, pp. 5-6.
  52. ^ Namatius: Gregory of Tours, Historia Francorum, Book II, chapter 17; de gloria martyrum 44. Gallia christiana II, p. 230-231. Gonod, Chronologie des évêques de Clermont, p. 6.
  53. ^ Eparchius: Gregory of Tours, Historia Francorum, Book II, chapter 21. Gallia christiana II, p. 231. Gonod, Chronologie des évêques de Clermont, pp. 6-7.
  54. ^ Sidonius Apollinaris: Gallia christiana II, p. 231-234. Jill Harries (1994). Sidonius Apollinaris and the Fall of Rome, AD 407-485. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0-19-814472-4.  Johannes A. van Waarden, "Episcopal Self-Presentation: Sidonius Apollinaris and the Episcopal Election in Bourges A.D. 470," in: Johan Leemans; et al., eds. (2011). Episcopal Elections in Late Antiquity. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. pp. 555–561. ISBN 978-3-11-026855-3. 
  55. ^ Abrunculus was Bishop of Langres, who came to Clermont shortly after the death of Sidonius Apollinaris, and was chosen to succeed him. Gregory of Tours, Historia Francorum Book II, chapter 23. Duchesne, p. 35, no. 12.
  56. ^ Bishop Gallus was not present at the Council of Orléans of 533, though he sent a delegate, or at the Council of Orléans of 538, to which he sent his representative. He was present in 535 at the Council of Clermont, presided over by Bishop Honoratus of Bourges; at the Council of Orléans of 541; and at the Council of Orléans of 549. C. De Clercq, Concilia Galliae, A. 511 – A. 695 (Turnholt: Brepols 1963), pp. 110-111; 130; 143; 158. Tardieu, p. 181.
  57. ^ Cautinus was a 'bad bishop', having been chosen by King Theodebert at Metz and consecrated by his bishops. When he appeared in Clermont, Cautinus was opposed by the priest Cato, who was the choice of the bishops who had come to bury Bishop Gallus. A schism resulted. Both Cautinus and Cato were killed by the plague of 571. Gregory of Tours, Historia Francorum Book IV, chapters 7-35. Tardieu, p. 181. Duchesne, p. 36 no. 17.
  58. ^ Praejectus was elected during the reign of Childeric II (663–675), who approved his election, and died on 25 January 676, massacred at Volvic (13 km north of Clermont) by the followers of Hector, Patrician of Marseille: Duchesne, p. 37-38 no. 25. Gonod (1833), pp. 15-16. Tardieu, pp. 182-183.
  59. ^ Bishop Avitus is said to have founded a monastery at Volvic, at the tomb of Bishop Praejectus. He ruled for fifteen years, and passed the diocese on to his brother Bonitus. Armand G. Mallay (1838). Essai sur les églises Romanes et Romano-Bysantines du département du Puy-de-Dôme (in French). Moulins: Desrosiers. pp. 28–29.  Tardieu, p. 183. Duchesne, p. 38 no. 26.
  60. ^ Bonitus had studied law, and became Referendary (judge) for King Sigebert III of Austrasia (ca. 634–ca. 660). He then served as Governor of Marseille for Thierry III, King of Neustria (673–691) and Austrasia (679–691). Bonitus became bishop of Auvergne on the death of his brother Avitus, in an election of questionable canonical validity, though he was confirmed by Pepin of Herstal (679–695). After ten years as bishop he retired to the monastery of Manglieu, later making a pilgrimage to Rome. He died at Lyon, where he had been resident for some four years, ca. 707. Gonod (1833), pp. 16-17. Tardieu, p. 183.
  61. ^ Bishop Bonitus had designated Nordebertus as his successor, and, at the request of the clergy and people he was confirmed by the King. Gonod (1833), p. 17. Tardieu, p. 183.
  62. ^ Bishop Stephanus was Bishop of Clermont when the city was taken by siege by Pepin the Short in 761. Gonod (1833), p. 18. Duchesne, p. 38 no. 30.
  63. ^ Sigo attended the Council of Soissons in August 866. Mansi, Tomus XV (Venice 1770), p. 731. Tardieu, p. 184. Duchesne, p. 39 no. 33.
  64. ^ Gilbert was the first Bishop of Auvergne to call himself Bishop of Clermont. R. Twigge, "Medieval Service Books of Aquitaine, IV. Clermont-Ferrand," Nicholas Patrick Wiseman, ed. (1897). The Dublin Review. Vo. CXXI. London: Burns and Oates. pp. 355–377, at 356. 
  65. ^ Bishop Robert d'Auvergne was transferred to the diocese of Lyon on 3 April 1227. Bishop Hugo was only a subdeacon and Provost when approved by Pope Gregory IX, and therefore he was named Administrator. Next year he was named Bishop. He died on 28 December 1249. Eubel, I, p. 192 with note 1.
  66. ^ Pierre André had been Canon of Paris and Bishop of Noyon (1340–1342) before his appointment to Clermont on 25 September 1342. His Vicar-General and official at Clermont was Guillaume de Grimoard, who became Pope Urban V. Bishop Pierre was transferred to the diocese of Cambrai on 17 February 1349. He died on 13 September 1368. Eubel, I, pp. 160, 192, 372.
  67. ^ Pierre was subsequently Bishop of Uzès (1357–1366). Eubel, I, p. 192 and 511.
  68. ^ Jean de Mello was previously Bishop of Châlons-sur-Saône (1353–1357). His transfer received papal approval on 8 February 1357. Eubel, I, p. 151, 192.
  69. ^ Jacques de Comborn was approved by Pope Eugene IV on 10 May 1445. He died on 15 February 1475. Eubel, II, p. 130.
  70. ^ Allemand had previously been Bishop of Cahors (1465–1475). He was approved as Bishop of Clermont on 8 March 1475. Eubel, II, pp. 123 and 130.
  71. ^ Bishop Charles de Bourbon died on 22 February 1504/5. Jacques d'Amboise was the brother of Cardinal Georges d'Amboise, Archbishop of Rouen. He was elected by the Chapter of Clermont on 15 March 1505, and his bulls were approved on 23 May 1505. He died on 27 December 1516, and was buried at Cluny, where he had also been the Abbot. Gallia christiana X, pp. 205-206. Eubel, III, p. 169 with note 4.
  72. ^ Bishop Thomas Duprat, a native of Issoire, was the brother of Antoine Duprat, Chancellor of France. He opened a new university at Issoire in the diocese of Clermont in 1519, but it was forced to close in 1520 because of pressure from the University of Paris and Charles, Duc de Bourbon. M.G. des Devises du Dezert, "L'enseignement secondaire et supérieur à Clermont-Ferrand," Association française pour l'avancement des sciences (1908). Clermont-Ferrand et le Puy-de-Dôme: Congres de l'Association française pour l'avancement des sciences, 1908 (in French). Société anonyme du "Moniteur du Puy-de-Dome" et des imprimeries G. Mont-Louis. p. 287.  Duprat died at Modena in 1528, where he had been sent as Ambassador Extraordinary to conduct Renée of France, daughter of Louis XII, to her marriage to the Duke of Ferrara.
  73. ^ Guillaume Duprat was a nephew of Bishop Thomas Duprat and Cardinal Antoine Duprat, Chancellor of France. Stéphane Gomis (2006). Les "enfants prêtres" des paroisses d'Auvergne, XVIe-XVIIIe siècles (in French). Clermont-Ferrand: Presses Univ Blaise Pascal. pp. 25–29. ISBN 978-2-84516-290-7. 
  74. ^ A Doctor of theology (Paris), nephew of Bishop Guillaume Rose and an ardent member of the Catholic League, Rose had been Bishop of Senlis (1601-1610). Rose's bulls were granted on 1 March 1610. He died in January 1614. Gauchat, Hierarchia catholica IV, p. 153 with note 2; 316 with n. 2.
  75. ^ D' Estaing, the nephew of Cardinal de la Rochefoucauld, was approved by Pope Paul V on 12 January 1615. He died on 11 September 1650. Gallia christiana X, pp. 299-300.
  76. ^ Louis d'Estaing: Gallia christiana X, pp. 300-301. Joseph Bergin (1996). The Making of the French Episcopate, 1589-1661. New Haven CT USA: Yale University Press. p. 620. ISBN 978-0-300-06751-4. 
  77. ^ D'Arbouze died on 19 April 1682. Gallia christiana X, pp. 301-302. Bernard Dompnier, "Clermont en 1665. Un diocese a l'ecart de la reforme Catholique?" Emmanuèle Lesne-Jaffro, ed. (2000). Fléchier et les Grands Jours d'Auvergne: actes d'une journée d'étude, Université Blaise Pascal-Clermont-Ferrand, 3 octobre 1997. Biblio, 17 (in French). Tübingen: Gunter Narr Verlag. pp. 33–53. ISBN 978-3-8233-5534-2.  Gonod (1833), 51-52. Jean, pp. 105-106. Gams, p. 538.
  78. ^ Bochart was born in Paris and was Bachelor in theology from the local university. He was nominated to the diocese of Clermont by King Louis XIV on 18 May 1687, and preconized (approved) by Pope Innocent XII on 10 March 1792. The delay in his bulls was caused by the excommunication of Louis XIV and his diplomatic rupture with Pope Innocent XI. Bochart was consecrated on 31 August 1692. He died on 11 August 1715. Gonod (1833), pp. 52-53. Ritzler, Hierarchia catholica V, p. 161 with note 3.
  79. ^ Massillon: Hugues Du Tems (1775). Le clergé de France, ou tableau historique et chronologique des archevêques, évêques, abbés, abbesses et chefs des chapitres principaux du royaume, depuis la fondation des églises jusqu'à nos jours, par M. l'abbé Hugues Du Tems. Tome troisième. Paris: Brunet. pp. 150–151.  Victor Lenoire, "L'inventaire fait après le décès de Massillon," Revue d'Auvergne (in French). 14. Clermont-Ferrand: G. Mont-Louis. 1897. pp. 87–96.  Ritzler, Hierarchia catholica V, p. 161 with note 4.
  80. ^ Le Maistre was born in the Château de la Garlaye (Nantes), and was Doctor in theology and Licenciate in Civil and Canon Law (Valence). He was Canon and a Vicar General of Lyon, as well as a royal Aumonier. He was nominated to the diocese of Clermont by King Louis XV on 30 October 1742, and preconized (approved) by Pope Benedict XIV on 28 January 1743. He died on 5 June 1776. Gonod (1833), p. 54. Jean, p. 108. Ritzler, Hierarchia catholica VI, p. 169 with note 2.
  81. ^ Bonnal was born at the Château de Bonnal in the diocese of Agen, and held a doctorate in theology (Besançon). He was named Abbot Commendatory of Saint-Ambroix (Bourges). He was Archdeacon Major, with a canonry and prebend, in the Church of Châlons-sur-Saône, and was a Vicar-General of the diocese. He was nominated by King Louis XVI on 23 June 1776, and preconized by Pope Pius VI on 16 September 1776. He refused to take the Oath to the Constitution, and emigrated. He was arrested by advancing French armies in Holland in 1795 and imprisoned at Altona. He died in exile in Munich on 3 September 1800 at the age of 66. Gonod (1833), pp. 54-59. Jean, p. 108. Ritzler, p. 169 with note 3.
  82. ^ Gonod, p. 58-59. In 1802 Périer was named to the diocese of Avignon.
  83. ^ Du Valk: Abbé Fouilhaux, in: Société bibliographique (France) (1907)., L'épiscopat français..., pp. 197-198.
  84. ^ Féron: Abbé Fouilhaux, in: Société bibliographique (France) (1907)., L'épiscopat français..., pp. 198-199.
  85. ^ Boyer was later Archbishop of Bourges (1893-1896). He was named a cardinal by Pope Leo XIII on 29 November 1895; he received the red hat and was named Cardinal Priest of Santissima Trinità dei Monti on June 25, 1896. He died in Bourges on December 16, 1896. Abbé Fouilhaux, in: Société bibliographique (France) (1907)., L'épiscopat français..., pp. 199-200.
  86. ^ Belmont: Abbé Fouilhaux, in: Société bibliographique (France) (1907)., L'épiscopat français..., p. 200.

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