British Rail Classes 101 and 102

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British Rail Classes 101 and 102
101 L832.jpg
Class 101 L832 at Reading in 1989
Interior of 101654.jpg
Interior of 101654
In service1956–2003
ManufacturerMetropolitan Cammell
Order no.
  • 30467 (DMBS, 51174-51253)
  • 30500 (DMBS, 51425-51470)
  • 30501 (DMCL, 51495-51539)
  • 30587 (DMCL, 51795-51801)
  • 30588 (DMCL, 51802-51808)
  • 30249 (DMCL, 53138-53150)
  • 30252 (DMBS, 53153-53157)
  • 30253 (DMCL, 53158-53163)
  • 30254 (DMBS, 53164-53166)
  • 30255 (DMCL, 53168-53171)
  • 30256 (DMCL, 53172-53197)
  • 30259 (DMBS, 53198-53208)
  • 30261 (DMBS, 53211-53233)
  • 30263 (DMCL, 53234-53245)
  • 30339 (DMBS, 53247-53248)
  • 30266 (DMBS, 53250-53259)
  • 30267 (DMCL, 53260-53269)
  • 30270 (DMBS, 53290-53296)
  • 39275 (DMBS, 53303-53320)
  • 30276 (DMCL, 53321-53338)
  • 30271 (DMCL, 53746-53751)
  • 30260 (DTCL, 54050-54092)
  • 30340 (DTCL, 54218-54220)
  • 30468 (DTCL, 54332-54409)
  • 30250 (TSL, 59042-59048)
  • 30251 (TBSL, 59049-59055)
  • 30257 (TSL, 59060-59072)
  • 30258 (TBSL, 59073-59085)
  • 30264 (TSL, 59086-59091)
  • 30265 (TBSL, 59092-59097)
  • 30269 (TSL, 59101-59107)
  • 30274 (TBSL, 59112-59113)
  • 30277 (TCL, 59114-59130)
  • 30273 (TS, 59302-59306)
  • 30502 (TCL, 59525-59568)
  • 30510 (TSL, 59569-59571)
  • 30589 (TCL, 59686-59692)[1]
Family nameFirst generation
ReplacedSteam locomotives and carriages
Constructed1956–1960
Entered service1956
Number builtClass 101: 527 (DMCL: 97, DMBS: 217, DTCL: 120, TSL: 41, TSLRB: 6, TCL: 18, TBSL: 28)
Class 102: 106 (DMCL: 53, TCL: 53)
Number preserved41 cars
Formation2-, 3-, or 4-car sets
Operator(s)British Rail
Network SouthEast
ScotRail
First North Western
Depot(s)
Specifications
Car length57 ft 0 in (17.37 m)
Width9 ft 3 in (2.82 m)
Height3.77 m (12 ft 4 in)
Maximum speed70 mph (113 km/h)
Weight32.5 tonnes (32.0 long tons; 35.8 short tons) (powered),
25 tonnes (25 long tons; 28 short tons) (unpowered)[2]
Prime mover(s)Two BUT (AEC or Leyland) 6-cylinder diesels
Power output150 bhp (112 kW) each engine
TransmissionMechanical: 4-speed epicyclic gearbox
Braking system(s)Vacuum
Coupling systemScrew-link couplings, British Standard gangways
Multiple working Blue Square
Track gauge4 ft 8+12 in (1,435 mm)

The British Rail Classes 101 and 102 diesel mechanical multiple units were built by Metro-Cammell at Washwood Heath in Birmingham, England from 1956 to 1959, following construction of a series of prototype units. These classes proved to be some of the most successful and longest-lived of BR's First Generation DMUs, second in longevity only to the Class 121, with the final five units being withdrawn on 24 December 2003. The oldest set was, by then, just over 47 years old.[3]

Background[edit]

101680 in old Regional Railways livery at Sheffield in 1998

In 1954, British Rail published a Modernisation Plan to streamline the railway network, bringing it up to date in comparison to European standards. Steam power would be phased out in favour of diesel powered railcars and locomotives, and projects were put out to tender.[4] BR hoped that by replacing steam with DMUs, costs would be reduced sufficiently to make rural lines viable.[5]

Since there was no time for BR to issue a standard specification, train builders were invited to submit plans on the understanding that the units could be built and put into service quickly. Having gained experience with early lightweight DMUs, Metro Cammell won a contract and put the Class 101 into production. The type featured a steel chassis with an aluminium body to reduce weight. Five orders for batches were placed for the type.[6]

Metro-Cammell advertised their new train highlighting the wide availability and modern features the 101 offered. Demand was so high that at one point four cars per week were rolling off the Washwood Heath production lines.[7] The trains underwent testing on the Sutton Park line near the works from 1956, before the sets were released to BR.[8]

The 101s came in two, three or four car units, with two driving carriages one or two of which were powered by 11.3 litre BUT six cylinder diesel engines with epicyclic gearboxes. Being a first generation DMU, they were a prime example of a slam door train. They had a top speed of 70 mph (110 km/h).[9]

Operations[edit]

The 101 DMU fleet was vast with 527 101s and 106 of the related Class 102s being built. The two types were distinguished by the type of engine fitted, but were eventually classified together as Class 101s only.[10] In all, 760 individual vehicles were built in total, 465 were for the Eastern Region and North Eastern Region, 159 for the Scottish Region and 139 for the London Midland Region.[11]

In the mid 1970s, the type was chosen for a refurbishment to extend their service life. The interior of vehicles were improved with the fitting of fluorescent lighting, new upholstery and carpeting, and fitting of extra heating equipment. They also had uprated engines fitted.[12] The work was carried out by BR Doncaster.[13]

The Class 111 was a variant of the 101, having more powerful Rolls-Royce engines. It was based to serve Greater Manchester and West Yorkshire PTE. The 111 lasted in service until 1989, fourteen years earlier than the 101.[14]

The 101 fleet was used across much of the British Rail network (with the notable exception of the Southern Region - apart from some inter-regional workings). Notable concentration of services included:

Scotland[edit]

Class 101s operated various routes in Scotland starting in July 1958. Edinburgh - Dundee was a regular working, with units stabled at Dundee depot.[15] Upon ScotRail's formation, the units continued in use and were in service up to Privatisation in 1997, with some painted in orange and black Strathclyde PTE livery.[16]

Class 101 in Strathclyde PTE livery at Glasgow Central.

In January 1984, a fire at Ayr depot destroyed six 101s and as a result an equivalent number of Class 104 were drafted in to fill the gap.[17] One unit was modified with larger windows to become an 'Observation Saloon', which was used on the Hebridean route between Inverness and Kyle of Lochalsh until the service was taken over by Sprinters.[18]

Upon Privatisation in 1997, ScotRail retained eleven units in service, running the Glasgow to Barrhead, East Kilbride, Paisley Canal and Whifflet as well as the Motherwell to Cumbernauld services. Although Class 101s were a common sight in Scotland up to the early 90s, they disappeared from Glasgow Central high level with the introduction of the Class 156.[19] Newer Class 170s started a stock cascade and the type's withdrawal began. Upon the 101s final withdrawal from Scotland in November 1999, the remaining sets were returned to Manchester.[20]

Wales[edit]

The type was seen in South Wales working commuter routed around the Valleys and West Wales Line until the early 1990s, and on rural Welsh lines until the early 2000s. In the 1970s, a diagram from Birmingham to Aberystwyth via the Cambrian Line was a regular route for the 101s.[21] From 1982, they were used on the Central Wales Line between Shrewsbury and Swansea.[22] The 101s were scheduled along with a mixture of other first generation DMUs and Sprinters to work the Crewe - Holyhead services from the early 1980s.[23]

West Midlands[edit]

Starting on 14 April 1958, the region received a batch of two and three car units. Class 101s were extensively used for commuter services on the Cross-City Line and Chase Line in Birmingham and services to Worcester before being out to work in outlying areas.[24]

Operating from Tyseley depot, the type was used all over the West Midlands well into the 1980s. Just as with the Class 116 which was also heavily used on the same routes, the 101s were withdrawn from WMPTE service on 12 July 1993 when the Cross-City Line was fully electrified.[25]

Teesside[edit]

Arriving in 1957 at the newly opened Darlington depot, the 101s were initially used on runs between Darlington and Saltburn on the Tees Valley Line. Most of the first batch of 101s ordered were allocated to Darlington. The class continued to serve the line well into the 1980s.[26] The type was withdrawn 21 September 1989 in favour of Pacers[27]

Tyneside[edit]

A pair of Class 101s at Newcastle Central

The initial order of 339 vehicles were allocated to the Tyneside area. The 101s first went into service on 24 October 1956 when seven 4-car and 10 2-car units were delivered. A route from Newcastle to Middlesbrough followed. From February 1957, they began operating a stopping service between Newcastle and Carlisle. A longer diagram between Newcastle and Leeds offered a buffet service. The 101s routes were expanded to the whole Tyneside area, replacing the local steam-hauled services.[28]

Later services were run by Tyne and Wear Passenger Transport Executive and stabled at South Gosforth depot. They remained in service in the region until 30 May 1981 when they were superseded by the Tyne and Wear Metro.[29] At which point, the class was withdrawn and the sets sent to Neville Hill depot in Leeds to be re-deployed.

West Yorkshire[edit]

Class 101 at Bradford Interchange alongside a Class 150

An initial batch of 10 units went into service in Bradford in December 1956. Operating out of Neville Hill depot in Leeds, the 101s were used extensively for short commuter services. Because of the relatively underpowered engines, the more powerful Class 111 was paired up with some 101 units, while others were moved to other depots.[30] Some wore WYPTE livery. Occasional services between York - Manchester and beyond were worked via the Calder Valley. Regular services were run between Leeds, Bradford, York and Sheffield but the units could aso be seen in places such as Scarborough and Whitby.[31]

Western Region[edit]

NSE 101 L832 Sarah at Reading

From 1967, several 101 sets were transferred to serve the South West. Services from Reading to Gatwick Airport and Oxford to Paddington were common.[32] Diagrams expanded as more 101s arrived in the region with regular runs in the Bristol area. They were stabled at Reading and Plymouth, Laira depots, with the units serving until 1987 when they were largely replaced by Class 108s.[33] Several 101s received Network Southeast branding and by the early 1990s had been scaled back to running local services between Didcot, Oxford and Bicester.[34] However, some 101 units were still working in the Plymouth area as late as May 1993 with the final withdrawal coming in 1996.[35]

Thanks to the withdrawal of other units and types, 101s were paired up with different carriages. From the early 1980s it was not uncommon for example for a 101 trailer to be paired to another first generation DMU driving car on various routes and different regions.[36]

East Anglia[edit]

First introduced in the region in January 1970, the 101 units were allocated to Norwich depot and used on rural lines, notably Norwich to Sheringham and on the Fen line, as well as regular services to Ipswich among others. In later years, additional units were based at Cambridge.[37] The Cambridge based trains primarily ran shuttle services from Cambridge to Royston and from Hitchin to Huntingdon.[38] However with the electrification of the region and introduction of newer rolling stock, by the early 1990s they had fallen out of favour and were re-allocated to other parts of the rail network.[39] The remaining 101 unit was finally withdrawn from Norwich in August 1996.[40]

Greater Manchester[edit]

When the Pacers serving Manchester to Blackpool shortly after their introduction proved unreliable in the mid 1980s, the 101 filled the gap at short notice despite not being common in the region.[41] The 101s were then rolled out across the Greater Manchester area.

Despite the intention to phase out the type and other Heritage DMUs in favour of newer stock, the 101 proved to be a dependable workhorse. Thirty five units were removed from service by 1992 and received a further refurbishment. At this point, they were repainted in Regional Railways livery, and had the class number applied concurrently with several Sprinter and Pacer sets. The work was once again undertaken at Doncaster.[42] Along with other first generation types, corrosion of the body panels and asbestos used during construction was seen as major concerns and were leading causes for their eventual retirement.[43]

Once the units from Scotland had returned, they were put into use working the rural lines around Greater Manchester, especially the Buxton and Hope Valley Lines on services into Manchester Picadilly.[44] It was intended to phase the 101s out of service in favour of the Class 142 in the late 1990s, but the Privatisation of British Rail delayed those plans.[citation needed]

Post privatisation[edit]

First North Western 101685 at Manchester Piccadilly on 24 December 2003, the last day of service

Following privatisation the remaining 101 sets in mainline service fell under the ownership of Angel Trains and operated by the First North Western franchise once the units from Scotland had been returned to Manchester. FNW declined to repaint the trains again, and they retained their former liveries. A total of 18 sets were in service initially.[45] Ongoing problems with the Pacer units and the Sprinters' use on other lines meant that the 101s were called on to continue in service. The 101s outlasted the Class 141 Pacer in service, a type which had been intended to replace the older unit.[46]

The 101 was seen regularly running on the North Wales Coast Line service between Crewe and Holyhead alongside loco hauled trains as late as 1999.[47] The type was unsuited to the route, and was replaced with the British Rail Class 175 from 2000.[48] It fell to the 101s to run the stopping service from Manchester to Stoke-on-Trent, along with other rural routes in the north west.[49]

Beginning in late 2000, the age of the units was starting to tell and the remaining 101s were gradually retired. They were used exclusively on the Hope Valley services until the end of their career. The very last scheduled service for the type anywhere was run on 24 December 2003 between Rose Hill and Manchester Piccadilly at which point the final five units were decommissioned from service, and sent to Shoeburyness for storage.[50]

Farewell[edit]

Because of the type's popularity and longevity in service, a final farewell tour for the 101s was run in late 2003 which was a railtour of northwest England.[51]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

  • On 10 August 1961, Class 45 D105 running light to Neville Hill over-ran signals and collided with a Leeds - Scarborough Class 101 almost opposite Leeds East Signal Box. Leaking diesel caught fire and the leading two DMU vehicles (51440 & 59533) overturned, but were returned to traffic after repair. One person was killed, and two injured. The driver of the locomotive mistakenly accepted the signal that had been cleared for the DMU.[52]
  • On 15 June 1965, an empty stock train passed a colour light signal and two ground subsidiary signals at danger before colliding at slow speed with the leading coach of the approaching 15.57 Scarborough - Leeds Class 101. Both drivers and twelve passengers were injured.
  • On 11 July 1967, A 101 working on the 10.11 Chester to Manchester Exchange service collided at a speed of approx. 20 mph with the rear of the 02.00 Margam to Carlisle Class 5 freight train which was standing at the Winwick Junction Down Fast Home signal. There were no injuries.[53]
  • On 16 February 1977, an express passenger train hauled by Class 55 locomotive 55 008 collided with a Class 101 diesel multiple unit operating an empty stock train after failing to stop at Darlington. One of the vehicles of the DMU overturned. The guard of the express was slightly injured. The cause of the accident was that the brakes on the carriages of the express had become isolated whilst the train was moving in a freak event. The train had struck an object on the track, which had caused a traction motor cover to come lose. This struck the handle of the brake isolating cock, closing it and thus separating the brakes between the locomotive and train.[54]
  • On 28 March 1983, the 20.58 Falkirk Grahamston to Glasgow Queen St service collided with a van that was allowed to roll away and drop 40 feet into the cutting near Eastfield shed.

Original TOPS classes[edit]

When TOPS was originally introduced only the Driving Motor Brake Second (DMBS) and the Driving Motor Composite (with Lavatory) (DMCL) were classified as Class 101 (AEC engines) or Class 102 (Leyland engines). The Driving Trailer Composite (with Lavatory) (DTCL) were either Class 144 or Class 147. The Trailer Seconds (with Lavatory) (TSL) were Class 162, the Trailer Brake Second (with Lavatory) (TBSL) were Class 168 and the Trailer Composite (with Lavatory) (TCL) were Class 171. Later all the cars were reclassified, becoming Class 101.

Table of orders and numbers
Fleet
numbers
Type Class Seating Weight Lot No Diagram Formation (Original) Year built
50138–50151 DMC(L) 101/1 12F 45S (2/2) 32t 30249 BR 618 4-car 1956
50152–50157 DMBS 101/2 52S 32t 30252 BR 523 Power-Twin 1956/7
50158–50163 DMC(L) 101/1 12F 53S 32t 30253 BR 620 Power-Twin 1956/7
50164–50167 DMBS 101/2 52S 32t 30254 BR 523 Power-Twin 1956/7
50168–50171 DMC(L) 101/1 12F 53S 32t 30255 BR 620 Power-Twin 1956/7
50172–50197 DMC(L) 101/1 12F 53S 32t 30256 BR 620 4-car 1957
50198–50209 DMBS 101/2 52s 32t 30259 BR 523 P/Trailer 1957
50210–50233 DMBS 101/2 52s 32t 30261 BR 523 P/Trailer 1957
50234–50245 DMC(L) 101/1 12F 45S 32t 30263 BR 619 4-car 1957
50246–50248 DMBS 101/2 52S 32t 30339 BR 619 P/Trailer 1957
50250–50259 DMBS 101/2 52S 32t 30266 BR 523 Power-Twin 1957
50260–50269 DMC(L) 101/1 12f 53S 32t 30267 BR 621 Power-Twin 1957
50290–50292 DMBS 101/2 52S 32t 30270 BR 523 3-car 1957
50293–50296 DMBS 101/2 52S 32t 30270 BR 523 Power/Trailer 2-car 1957
50303–50320 DMBS 101/2 52S 32t 30275 BR 523 3-car 1958
50321–50338 DMC(L) 101/1 12F + 53S 32t 30276 BR 621 3-car 1958
50745–50747 DMC(L) 101/1 12F + 53S 32t 30271 BR 621 3-car 1957
50748–50751 DMC(L) 101/1 12F + 53S 32t 30271 BR 621 4-car 1957
51174–51203 DMBS 101/1 52S 32t 30467 BR 523 Power/Trailer 2-car 1958
51204–51223 DMBS 101/2 52S 32t 30467 BR 523 Power/Trailer 2-car 1958
51224–51253 DMBS 101/2 52S 32t 30467 BR 523 Power/Trailer 2-car 1958
51425–51434 DMBS 102/2 52S 32t 30500 BR 523 Power/Trailer 2-car 1959
51435–51444 DMBS 102/2 52S 32t 30500 BR 523 4-car 1959
51445–51470 DMBS 102/2 52S 32t 30500 BR 523 3-car 1959
51495–51504 DMC(L) 102/1 12f+53S 32t 30501 BR 621 P/Twin 1959
51505–51514 DMC(L) 102/1 12f+53S 32t 30501 BR 621 4-car 1959
51515–51540 DMC(L) 102/1 12f+53S 32t 30501 BR 621 3-car 1959
51795–51801 DMBS 102/2 52S 32t 30587 BR 523 3-car 1959
51802–51808 DMC(L) 102/1 12F+53S 32t 30588 BR 621 3-car 1959
56050–56061 DTC(L) 144 12F+53S 25t 30260 BR 630 Power/Trailer 2-car 1957
56062–56085 DTC(L) 144 12F+53S 25t 30262 BR 630 Power/Trailer 2-car 1957
56086–56089 DTC(L) 144 12F+52S 25t 30272 BR 630 Power/Trailer 2-car 1957
56218–56220 DTC(L) 144 12F+45S 25t 30340 BR 629 Power/Trailer 2-car 1957
56332–56361 DTC(L) 144 12F+53S 25t 30340 BR 630 Power/Trailer 2-car 1957
56362–56381 DTC(L) 144 12F+53S 25t 30468 BR 630 Power/Trailer 2-car 1957
56382–56411 DTC(L) 144 12F+53S 25t 30468 BR 630 Power/Trailer 2-car 1957
59042–59048 TS(L) 162 61S 25t 30250 BR 622 4-car 1956
59049–59055 TBS(L) 168 45S 25t 30251 BR 626 4-car 1956
59060–59072 TS(L) 162 71S 25t 30257 BR 623 4-car 1957
59073–59085 TBS(L) 168 53S 25t 30258 BR 627 4-car 1957
59086–59091 TS(L) 162 61S 25t 30264 BR 622 4-car 1957
59092–59097 TBS(L) 168 45S 25t 30265 BR 622 4-car 1957
59112–59113 TBS(L) 168 53S 25t 30274 BR 627 4-car 1957
59114–59131 TC(L) 171 12F+53S 25t 30277 BR 624 3-car 1957
59302–59304 TS(L) 162 71S 25t 30273 BR 623 3-car 1957
59305–59306 TC(L) 171 71S 25t 30273 BR 623 4-car 1957
59523–59542 TC(L) 171 12F+53S 25t 30277 BR 624 3-car 1957
59543–59568 TC(L) 171 12F+53S 25t 30502 BR 624 3-car 1958
59685–59692 TC(L) 171 12F+53S 25t 30589 BR 624 3-car 1959
59569–59572 TS(L) 164 71S 25t 30510 BR 623 - 1960
59573–59578 TSB(L) 165 71S 25t 30510 BR 625 - 1960

Preservation[edit]

The Class 101 was one of the largest classes of first-generation DMUs and, partly thanks to their relatively late withdrawal from revenue-earning service, numerous vehicles have been preserved on heritage railways, including the Great Central Railway and the North Yorkshire Moors Railway. There are only three centre cars preserved: at the Ecclesbourne Valley Railway, North Yorkshire Moors Railway and Mid-Norfolk Railway. No Trailer Brake Seconds were saved.

Set number Vehicle numbers Livery Location Notes
DMBS TCL DMCL
101685 50164 59539 50160 BR Green North Yorkshire Moors Railway Last to be withdrawn, operational
960992 - - 50193 BR Blue and Grey Great Central Railway Stored.
- 50203 - 50266 BR Blue Great Central Railway Operational
101680 50204 - 51511 BR Green North Yorkshire Moors Railway Stored
Iris 2 50222 - 50338 BR Green Barry Island Railway Operational
101692 50253 59303 (TSL) 50170 BR Green Ecclesbourne Valley Railway Operational
- 50256 - 56343(DTCL) BR Blue Wensleydale Railway Stored
- 51187 - 51512 BR Green Cambrian Heritage Railways Under repair
- 51188 - 51505 BR Blue Ecclesbourne Valley Railway Operational (51188 on loan to North Norfolk Railway for 2018/19)
- 51189 - 51803 BR Green Keighley and Worth Valley Railway Operational
- 51192 - 56352(DTCL) BR Green North Norfolk Railway Operational
- 51205 - 56055(DTCL) BR Green Cambrian Heritage Railways Operational
101678 51210 - 50746 BR Blue / BR Blue and Grey Wensleydale Railway Last to be withdrawn, under restoration
- 51213 - 56358(DTCL) BR Blue and Grey / BR Blue East Anglian Railway Museum Operational
101695 51226 - 51499 BR Green Mid Norfolk Railway Operational
- 51228 - 56062(DTCL) BR Green North Norfolk Railway Operational
960993 51427 59575 (Class 111) 50321 BR Green Great Central Railway Operational
L836 51434(DMBC) 59117 51503 BR Blue and Grey Mid Norfolk Railway Operational (Currently as 2-car only)
- - - 56342(DTCL) BR Blue and Grey Great Central Railway Under restoration
- - - 56347(DTCL) BR Green Mid Norfolk Railway Operational
- - - 56356(DTCL) Non Standard Green and Cream Barry Island Railway Stored
- - - 56408(DTCL) SR Malachite Green Spa Valley Railway Operational
- 50211 - - Regional Railways Private Site Stored, cab only
- - - 50269 Regional Railways Private Site Stored, cab only
- 51177 - - BR Blue Private Site, Ashton-under-Lyne, Lancashire Cab only, used as a store room.

Model railways[edit]

Hornby Railways first produced a version of the BR Class 101 in OO gauge in 1958 which was last produced in 1977.[55] Lima also produced a Class 101 for a number of years, in Green, Blue/Grey, Regional Railways and Network Southeast liveries. The tooling was used by Hornby following purchase of their assets. Bachmann Industries launched their BR Class 101 in OO gauge in 2014 and this has also been produced in a variety of liveries

In fiction[edit]

The Class 101 DMUs were the basis for the character Daisy the Diesel Railcar in The Railway Series books written by the Rev. W. Awdry, and the adapted television series Thomas the Tank Engine and Friends, although Daisy is a single car.[56]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Fox 1987, pp. 8, 10-11, 15-16, 26, 28-33, 35-36.
  2. ^ "CLASS 101, 102, 144, 147, 162, 164, 168, 171". The RailwayCentre.Com. Archived from the original on 7 February 2009.
  3. ^ https://railcar.co.uk/type/class-101/
  4. ^ https://www.railwaysarchive.co.uk/docsummary.php?docID=23
  5. ^ https://www.nymr.co.uk/br-class-101-diesel-multiple-unit-no-101680
  6. ^ https://internationalmagazinecentre.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Rail-Express.pdf
  7. ^ https://www.railcar.co.uk/type/class-101/met-camm-adverts
  8. ^ https://oldrailwaystuff.com/gallery/
  9. ^ Bolton, William F. (1963). "Railcar Transmissions". The Railwayman's Diesel Manual (4th ed.). pp. 137–143.
  10. ^ https://www.nymr.co.uk/br-class-101-diesel-multiple-unit-no-101685-daisy
  11. ^ https://www.flickr.com/photos/pics-by-john/14461853403/
  12. ^ https://www.gcrailway.co.uk/the-railway/locomotives/class-101/
  13. ^ Cole, Andrew (15 August 2017). First Generation DMUs. ISBN 9781445666419.
  14. ^ https://www.railcar.co.uk/type/class-111/
  15. ^ https://brdmus.livejournal.com/669.html
  16. ^ https://www.flickr.com/photos/22455491@N02/2564841351
  17. ^ http://ftp.sasolchevron.com/page/Class+104
  18. ^ http://preserved.railcar.co.uk/56356.html
  19. ^ http://www.scot-rail.co.uk/page/class+101
  20. ^ https://www.railcar.co.uk/type/class-101/decline
  21. ^ https://www.2d53.co.uk/cambriancoast/DMUs1.htm
  22. ^ Howat, Colin J. (15 August 2019). First Generation Scottish DMUs. ISBN 9781445691886.
  23. ^ http://www.penmorfa.com/Archive/sixteen.htm
  24. ^ http://miac.org.uk/class101.html
  25. ^ https://railrevisited.blogspot.com/2020/01/west-midlands-cross-city-south-the-diesel-years.html?m=1
  26. ^ http://www.davidheyscollection.com/page42.htm
  27. ^ https://www.flickriver.com/photos/66289212@N07/12719826975/
  28. ^ https://www.railcar.co.uk/type/class-101/initial-operations
  29. ^ https://www.flickr.com/photos/66289212@N07/11010752744
  30. ^ https://www.railcar.co.uk/type/class-101/later-operations
  31. ^ Edgar, Gordon (15 February 2015). Yorkshire & Humberside Traction. ISBN 9781445643335.
  32. ^ https://www.nsers.org/dmu.html
  33. ^ https://www.railcar.co.uk/type/class-101/later-operations
  34. ^ http://www.hondawanderer.com/Class_101.htm
  35. ^ http://www.taillampphotography.com/DMU%20Classes%20101_118.htm
  36. ^ http://www.scot-rail.co.uk/page/Class+105
  37. ^ https://www.mandgn.org/Projects/Class-101-Met-Cam
  38. ^ http://www.disused-stations.org.uk/c/cambridge/index18.shtml
  39. ^ http://www.hondawanderer.com/Class_101.htm
  40. ^ http://preserved.railcar.co.uk/51503.html
  41. ^ https://www.flickr.com/photos/martynhilbert/44499848410/
  42. ^ http://nnrailway.blogspot.com/2015/08/completion-special-class-101-railcar.html?m=1
  43. ^ https://www.railexpress.co.uk/1013/a-fiery-end/
  44. ^ https://www.videoscene.co.uk/the-manchester-south-class-101-dmu
  45. ^ Marks, Roger (15 February 2015). Heritage DMUs: The Final Years. ISBN 9781445640297.
  46. ^ St John Thomas, David; Whitehouse, Patrick (1990). BR in the Eighties. Newton Abbot: David & Charles. ISBN 0-7153-9854-7.
  47. ^ "Class 101". www.zen70752.zen.co.uk. Retrieved 24 May 2021.
  48. ^ "First North Western - News". 28 November 1999. Archived from the original on 28 November 1999. Retrieved 24 May 2021.
  49. ^ https://www.scribd.com/article/434699565/A-Second-Chance-To-See-Class-101-Dm-Us
  50. ^ https://www.nnrailway.co.uk/portfolio-items/class-101-dmu-eastern/
  51. ^ "North Wales Coast Railway Notice Board 23 December 2013". www.nwrail.org.uk. Retrieved 24 May 2021.
  52. ^ http://www.railwaysarchive.co.uk/docsummary.php?docID=1053
  53. ^ http://www.railwaysarchive.co.uk/eventsummary.php?eventID=1476
  54. ^ "Report on the collision that occurred on 16th February 1977 at Darlington in the Eastern Region of British Railways" (PDF). Department of Transport. 13 July 1978. Retrieved 2 August 2019.
  55. ^ "Hornby BR Class 101 DMU". Hornby Railways Collector Guide. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  56. ^ http://www.docbrown.info/docspics/ArchiveSteam/lococlass101.htm

Sources[edit]

  • Fox, Peter (1987). Multiple Unit Pocket Book. British Railways Pocket Book No.2 (Summer/Autumn 1987 ed.). Platform 5 Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0906579740. OCLC 613347580.
  • Fox, Peter; Webster, Neil (July 1982). Multiple Unit Pocket Book. Sheffield: Platform 5 Publications. ISBN 0-906579-26-0.
  • Golding, Brian. A Pictorial Record of British Railways Diesel Multiple Units.
  • Haresnape, Brian. British Rail Fleet Survey 8: Diesel Multiple Units—The First Generation.
  • Marsden, Colin J. Motive Power Recognition: 3 DMUs.
  • Robertson, Kevin. British Railway Pictorial: First Generation DMUs.

External links[edit]

Media related to British Rail Class 101 at Wikimedia Commons