List of British Rail electric multiple unit classes

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This page lists every electric-powered multiple unit allocated a TOPS classification or used on the mainline network since 1948 (i.e. British Railways and post-privatisation). For a historical overview of electric multiple unit development in Great Britain, see British electric multiple units.

British Rail operated a wide variety of electric multiple units for use on electrified lines:

  • AC units operate off 25 kV alternating current (AC) from overhead wires. Where clearances for the overhead wires on the Great Eastern Main Line and London, Tilbury and Southend railway routes were below standard, a reduced voltage of 6.25 kV AC was used. The Midland Railway units used 6.6 kV AC. Under the computer numbering, AC units (including mixed-voltage units that can also work off a DC supply) were given a class in the range 300-399.
  • DC units operate off 650-850 V direct current (DC) from a third rail on the Southern Region and North London, Merseyside and Tyneside networks. The Manchester-Bury Railway line used 1,200 V DC from a side-contact third rail. The Manchester South Junction & Altrincham and "Woodhead" and initially the Great Eastern Railway routes used 1,500 V DC from overhead wires. Under the computer numbering, DC units were given a class in the range 400-599.

AC EMUs and dual-voltage EMUs[edit]

First generation[edit]

TOPS class Pre-TOPS class Name or Information Built Quantity (sets) Withdrawn Notes Image Scrapped
  ex-Ex-MR units Lancaster-Morecambe-Heysham 1908 3 (4-car) 1953 All
Class 300   Proposed parcels units Never built Planned parcels conversation from Class 307 Never built
  AM1 25 kV AC prototype units 1952 4 1966 All
Class 302 AM2 London-Tilbury-Southend 1958–1960 112 1999 BR 302 203 EMU.jpg About 110
Class 303 AM3 Strathclyde. Also on Greater Manchester area services during 1980s/early 1990s. 1959–1961 91 1974–2002 75613 from unit 303013 is still in use with the British Transport Police 303011 at Coatbridge Central.jpg 90
Class 304 AM4 Greater Manchester, Liverpool, Birmingham
1959 EMU
1960 45 1992–1996 Hugh llewelyn 304 006 (7850836098).jpg All
Class 305 AM5 Chingford, Enfield
1959 EMU
1959 71 1992–2001 Scotrail 305501 at Edinburgh Waverly.jpg
Class 306 AM6 Shenfield (inner-suburban) 1949 92 1981 Ordered by LNER in 1938, but construction was delayed due to World War II. Class 306 Green.jpg 91
Class 307 AM7 Southend (outer-suburban) 1954–1956 32 1990–1993 43 survived as parcel units until 2000 307-refurbishment-front-no-headboard.jpg 31
Class 308 AM8 Eastern Region lines
1959 EMU
1959 45 1983
British Rail Class 308 at Leeds 1996.jpg 44
Class 309 AM9 Clacton Express. 1962–1963 76 1994–2000 21.03.81 London Liverpool Street 309.625 (5958456051).jpg About 74
Class 310 AM10 Euston outer-suburban. Also West Midlands 1965–1967 50 1967 (1)
1989 (1)
310109 and 310113 survived in departmental use until 2005 310-blue-Harrow&Wealdstone2.jpg All
Class 311 AM11 Strathclyde 1967 19 1990 311103-4 survived in departmental use until 1999 311092 at Glasgow Central.jpg 18
Class 312 Great Eastern suburban
Great Northern suburban
West Midlands (four units)
1975–1978 49 2003–2004 312718 and 312721 at Kirby Cross.JPG About 47

Second generation[edit]

TOPS class Built for Current Operator(s) Builder Number built Image Withdrawn Scrapped
Class 313[a] BR Eastern Region
(Great Northern suburban)
Network Rail
BREL York 1976-1977 64 x 3-car sets 313201 British Rail Blue Lewes Station.jpg still in use 44
Class 314 BR Scottish Region
(Argyle Line)
None BREL York 1979 16 x 3-car sets 314210 at Gourock 10 June 2019.jpg 2018–19 12
Class 315 BR Eastern Region
(Great Eastern suburban)
London Overground
TfL Rail
BREL York 1980-1981 61 x 4-car sets 315 807 in Liverpool Street station.jpg 2018– 18
Class 316 (I) proposed units for Picc-Vic services - (never built) - Never built Never built
Class 316 (II) (AC Networker prototype) (never used in passenger service, now out of service) converted from class 210 and 313 cars 1 x 4-car set Hugh llewelyn 457 001 (6250540761).jpg Out of service 1
Class 316 (III) (test unit) (never used in passenger service, scrapped 2006) converted from class 307 1 x 3-car set 2006
Class 317 Class 317/1 London Midland Region
Class 317/2 Network SouthEast
(Bedpan and Great Northern lines)
Greater Anglia
London Overground
BREL York 1981-1982(317/1)
72 x 4-car sets 317345 at Cambridge 2.jpg still in use None
Class 318 Provincial ScotRail
(for Strathclyde PTE)
Abellio ScotRail BREL York 1986-1987 21 x 3-car sets 318261 in saltire livery at Gourock.jpg
Class 319[a] Network SouthEast
(Thameslink services)
West Midlands Trains
BREL York 1987-1988(319/0)
86 x 4-car sets Manchester Piccadilly - Arriva 319364 Liverpool service.JPG
Class 320 Provincial ScotRail
(for Strathclyde PTE)
Abellio ScotRail BREL York 1990 22 x 3-car sets 320414 at Gourock.jpg
Class 321 Network SouthEast
(Great Eastern and Euston services)
Regional Railways
(for West Yorkshire PTE)
Greater Anglia
BREL York 1988-1991 117 x 4-car sets 321109Doncaster.jpg 12 TSOs
Class 322 Network SouthEast
(Stansted Express service)
Northern BREL York 1990 5 x 4-car sets 322485 Leeds.jpg None
Class 325[a] Rail Express Systems
(for Royal Mail)
DB Cargo UK ABB Derby 1995-1996 16 x 4-car units Class 325 Mail Train on British Railways.jpg 1

Modern/Third generation[edit]

These use solid state switching devices (thyristors and transistors) and have electronic power control.

TOPS class Built for Current Operator(s) Builder Number Built Image Scrapped
Class 323 Regional Railways
(for West Midlands PTE and Greater Manchester PTE)
West Midlands Trains
Hunslet 1992-1993 43 x 3-car sets Stockport - Arriva 323236 Stoke-on-Trent service.JPG None
Class 331 (I) Original classification of Class 332
Class 331 (II)
Northern Northern CAF 2017-present 31 x 3-car units
12 x 4-car units
331001 approaching Crewe platform 1.jpg None
Class 332 Heathrow Express Heathrow Express Siemens/CAF 1997-1998 9 x 4-car sets
5 x 5-car sets
43190 and Heathrow Express (20109291225).jpg
Class 333 Arriva Trains Northern
(for West Yorkshire PTE)
Northern Siemens/CAF 2000 16 x 4-car sets 01.08.19 Leeds 333004 (48441492037).jpg
Class 334
(for Strathclyde PTE)
Abellio ScotRail Alstom Birmingham 1999-2002 40 x 3-car sets Trains at Haymarket railway station 05.jpg
Class 341
proposed units for Crossrail - (never built) - Never built
Class 342
proposed units for CTRL Domestic Services
Class 345
Crossrail Crossrail Bombardier Derby, 2015-2019 70 x 9-car sets (7-car sets until 2019) 345012 at Hayes & Harlington.jpg None
Class 350 (I) Original classification of Class 325
Class 350 (II)[a]
Central Trains
TransPennine Express
West Midlands Trains
Siemens 2004-2005
87 x 4-car sets Smethwick Galton Bridge - WMT 350121 (London Midland colours).JPG None
Class 357
LTS Rail c2c Adtranz/Bombardier Derby 1999-2002 74 x 4-car sets 357015 Upminster.jpg
Class 360
First Great Eastern
Heathrow Connect
Greater Anglia
TfL Rail
Siemens 2002-2003
21 x 4-car sets
5 x 5-car sets
360101 at a Frosty Manningtree.jpg
Class 365[a]
Network SouthEast
(Great Northern and South Eastern services)
Govia Thameslink Railway ABB York 1994-1995 41 x 4-car sets Downham Market Railway Station (geograph 5394608).jpg 1
Class 371[a]
proposed units for Thameslink 2000 - (never built) - Never built
Class 375[a]
Connex South Eastern
South Eastern Trains
Southeastern Adtranz/Bombardier Derby 1999-2005 10 x 3-car sets
102 x 4-car sets
Southeastern Railway Class 375 Electrostar at Birchington-on-Sea June 2019.jpg None
Class 376[a]
South Eastern Trains Southeastern Bombardier Derby 2004-2005 36 x 5-car sets 376001 Cannon Street to Plumstead 2E79 (16248197338).jpg
Class 377[a]
Southern Southeastern
Bombardier Derby 2001-2005
28 x 3-car sets
177 x 4-car sets
34 x 5-car sets
Ramsgate - South Eatsern 377163 and 375908.JPG
Class 378[a]
London Overground London Overground Bombardier Derby 2008-2011 57 x 5-car sets 378150 at Clapham Junction.jpg
Class 379
National Express East Anglia Greater Anglia Bombardier Derby 2010-2011 30 x 4-car sets 379028 Stanstead Express 1B40 (32298229532).jpg
Class 380
First ScotRail Abellio ScotRail Siemens 2009-2011 22 x 3-car sets
16 x 4-car sets
Gourock Railway Station concourse Mar 2019.jpg
Class 381[a]
proposed Network SouthEast express units - (never built) - Never built
Class 385
Abellio ScotRail Abellio ScotRail Hitachi Kudamatsu & Hitachi Newton Aycliffe 2015-2018 46 x 3-car sets
24 x 4-car sets
Dunblane - Abellio 385106 shunting.JPG None
Class 387[a]
Govia Thameslink Railway
Great Western Railway
Govia Thameslink Railway
Great Western Railway
Bombardier Derby 2014-2017 107 x 4-car sets Reading - GWR 387132+387143 Didcot service.JPG
Class 700[a]
Desiro City
Govia Thameslink Railway Govia Thameslink Railway Siemens 2014-2018 60 x 8-car sets
55 x 12-car sets
Class 700 at West Hampstead (16.08.19).jpg
Class 701[a]
South Western Railway Bombardier TBC 30 x 5-car sets
60 x 10-car sets
Class 705 Original classification of Class 701
Class 707[a]
Desiro City
South West Trains South Western Railway Siemens 2016-2018 30 x 5-car sets Clapham Junction - SWR 707027+707013 passing 442420.JPG None
Class 710[a]
London Overground London Overground Bombardier Derby, 2017-2019 48 x 4-car sets
6 x 5-car sets
Class 710 at Walthamstow Queen's Road.jpg
Class 711 Original classification of Class 701
Class 717[a]
Desiro City
Govia Thameslink Railway Govia Thameslink Railway Siemens 2016-2018 25 x 6-car sets Great Northern Class 717 Desiro City at Palmers Green June 2019.jpg None
Class 720
Greater Anglia
Bombardier Derby, 2018-2020 89 x 5-car sets
28 x 10-car sets
Class 730
West Midlands Trains Bombardier Derby, 2020-2021 36 x 3-car sets
45 x 5-car sets
Class 745
Greater Anglia Stadler Rail 2018-2020 20 x 12-car sets BR Class 745 in Velim.jpg
Class 755
Greater Anglia Greater Anglia Stadler Rail 2018-2020 14 x 3-car sets
24 x 4-car sets
755407 at Wymondham.jpg
Class 756
Transport for Wales Stadler Rail TBC 7 × 3-car sets
17 × 4-car sets
Class 769[a]
Great Western Railway
Transport for Wales
BREL York, 1987-88
Brush Traction 2017 (conversion)
35 x 4-car sets
Class 777[a]
Merseyrail Stadler Rail 2018-2020 52 x 4-car sets Merseyrail - Class 777 mock-up, Lime Street, November 2018.jpg
Class 799[a]
Porterbrook Porterbrook BREL York, 1987
Quinton Rail Technology Centre 2019 (conversion)
1 x 4-car set 319001 Sevenoaks to London Blackfriars (15096483538).jpg

High speed trains[edit]

TOPS class Built for Current Operator(s) Builder Number Built Image Scrapped
Class 370
prototype APT Withdrawn 1985–1986 BREL Derby 1979 6 x 7-car half sets
2 spare cars
Apt 370004 - euston - 13-02-1980.jpg 35 cars
Class 373
Eurostar Eurostar
GEC Alsthom, La Brugeoise et Nivelles 1992-1996 14 x 8-car half sets
62 x 10-car half sets
1 spare car
Eurostar d'hiver quittant Albertville (2018).JPG 16
Class 374
Velaro UK
Eurostar Eurostar Siemens 2011-2018 34 x 8-car half sets Paris Nord 2017 2.jpg None
Class 390
Avanti West Coast Avanti West Coast Alstom Birmingham 2001-2004
Alstom Savigliano, Italy 2009-2012
22 x 9-car sets
35 x 11-car sets
Avanti Livery 390156 at Preston 1Z17.jpg 1
Class 395[a]
Southeastern Southeastern Hitachi, Japan 2007-2009 29 x 6-car sets 395017 at Ashford International.jpg None
Class 397
TransPennine Express TransPennine Express CAF 12 x 5-car sets Transpennine Express 397003 at Wigan North Western April 2019.jpg
Class 800
Super Express
London North Eastern Railway London North Eastern Railway Hitachi, Kudamatsu & Newton Aycliffe 2014-2019 34 x 9-car sets
46 x 5-car sets
Great Western Railway Great Western Railway
Class 801
Super Express
London North Eastern Railway London North Eastern Railway Hitachi Kudamatsu & Newton Aycliffe 2017-2019 30 x 9-car sets
12 x 5-car sets[1]
801109 - 801102 KGX.jpg
Class 802
Great Western Railway Great Western Railway Hitachi Kudamatsu & Hitachi Rail Italy 2017-2020 46 x 5-car
14 x 9-car sets
Dawlish - GWR 802002+802007 London train.JPG
Hull Trains Hull Trains
TransPennine Express TransPennine Express
Class 803 (I) Original classification of Class 802/2
Class 803 (II)
East Coast Trains Hitachi TBC 5 x 5-car sets None
Class 804
East Midlands Railway Hitachi Newton Aycliffe TBC 33 x 5-car sets
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u DC 600-750 V 3rd rail support.

DC EMUs[edit]

Southern Region units[edit]

The Southern Railway and its successor, the Southern Region of British Rail, used three letter codes to classify their DC EMU fleets, as shown after the TOPS class numbers. Southern Region EMUs were classified in the 400 series under TOPS.


4Sub unit no. 8143 at the National Railway Museum
TOPS class SR class Name or Information Image Scrapped
Class 401 2-Bil 2-bil emu.jpg 151
Class 402 2-Hal 2-HAL.jpg ?
2-Nol All
2-SL South London
2-Wim Wimbledon-Croydon
3-Sub 4 sub emu3.jpg ?
4-Buf Weybridge station geograph-2386531-by-Ben-Brooksbank.jpg ?
Class 404 4-Cor 3131 at National Railway Museum.JPG
4-DD Double Deck EMU Class 4DD no 4902 at Ashford Steam Centre.jpg 2
4-Gri -
4-Lav 4-lav emu.jpg All
4-Res -
Class 405 4-Sub 4 sub emu1.jpg About 184
Class 403 5-Bel Brighton Belle
London Victoria-Brighton
BB at Purley Oaks (1964).jpg 2
6-Cit London Bridge-Brighton 38 in total
6-Pan Pantry units
6-Pul Pullman
London Victoria-Brighton

Mark 1 and 2 bodyshell[edit]

Gatwick Express Class 489 unit no. 489110 at London Victoria
TOPS class SR class Name or Information Image Scrapped
Class 410 4-Bep 1586 at London Victoria.jpg About 114 in total
Class 411 4-Cep
Class 412 4-Bep
Class 413 4-Cap 2 x 2Hap permanently coupled BR 4-CEP 413207.jpg All
Class 414 2-Hap 2 hap emu.jpg 207
Class 415 4-EPB 4EPB set at Wimbledon.jpg ?
Class 416 2-EPB 416 at Dalton Kingsland1.jpg 121
Class 418 2-Sap 2Hap units with declassified 1st Class accommodation 2 sap emu.jpg All
Class 419 MLV London-Dover/Folkestone boat trains Class419.JPG 2
Class 420 4-Big 4BIG set 7059 and D6535 Great Central Railway.jpg About 140 in total
Class 421 4/3-Cig
Last 2 units of this type in service were withdrawn in 2010
Class 422 4-Big
Class 423 4-Vep
3417 Eastleigh 100.JPG About 188 in total
Class 427 4-Veg First stock used for Gatwick Express
Class 430 4-Rep 3005 Eastleigh Works 22-10-73.jpg 14
Class 431 6-Rep
Class 432 4-Rep
Class 438 3-TC
Okehampton Station 4.jpg 27
Class 480 8-Vab -
Class 482 (I) 8-Mig
Class 488 Gatwick Express Trailers 8313 at London Victoria.jpg 14
Class 489 GLV Gatwick Express driving trailers 9107 at Wirksworth.jpg 3
Class 499 (I) TLV All

Tube Stock[edit]

TOPS class SR class Name or Information Image Scrapped
Class 482 (II) Waterloo & City line
sold to London Underground
65507 at Bank LUL station.jpg 0
Class 483 Island Line Trains
ex LU 1938 stock
Class 485 4-Vec ex LU Standard stock Shanklinstn.jpg ?
Class 486 3-Tis ex LU Standard stock 16.03.85 Sandown 486.036 (6076456875).jpg
Class 487 Waterloo & City Line Class 487 at London Transport Museum Depot.jpg 27

Modern EMUs[edit]

TOPS class SR class Name or Information Image Scrapped
Class 424 Networker Classic Prototype 1
Class 442 5-Wes Wessex Express 2407 at Moreton, Dorset.JPG 0
Class 444 5-Des Siemens Desiro 444026 at Waterloo.jpg
Class 445 4-Pep Second Generation EMU prototype - 4 car 4-PEP-4002.jpg All
Class 446 2-Pep Second Generation EMU prototype - 2 car
Class 447 Proposed Battersea Bullet Never built
Class 450 4-Des Siemens Desiro 450083 at Waterloo.jpg 0
Class 455 Gb-BeckenhamJn-455842.jpg
Class 456 South West Trains 456006, Wimbledon (15894675838).jpg
Class 457 DC Networker prototype Hugh llewelyn 457 001 (6250540761).jpg 1
Class 458 5-Jop Juniper Clapham Junction - SWT 458503-458531 down train.JPG 0
Class 460 8-Gat Juniper - Gatwick Express 460002 at East Croydon.jpg
Class 465 Networker - 4 car South Eastern Trains 465238 at Greenwich 2005-12-10 02.jpg
Class 466 Networker - 2 car Maidstone West Station 04.JPG
Class 471 Proposed Networker - Main Line Express Class471MockUp006.jpg Never built
Class 484 Isle of Wight D-Train
ex-LU D78 Stock

Other DC units[edit]

The 500 series classes were reserved for miscellaneous DC EMUs not from the Southern Region. This included the DC (third/fourth rail) lines in North London, Manchester and Merseyside and the OHLE lines in Greater Manchester. The DC electric network around Tyneside had been de-electrified by the time TOPS was introduced, and the stock withdrawn or transferred to the Southern Region.

TOPS classes
Class Info Image Withdrawn Notes Scrapped
Class 501 North London stock Class-501-train-B1-headcode.jpg 1985 650 V Third & Fourth Rail 56
Class 502 Liverpool-Southport/Ormskirk stock Sandhills 1979001 1.jpg 1980 650 V Third Rail 150
Class 503 Mersey-Wirral stock Image-British-Rail-Class-503.jpg 1985 650 V Third Rail 44
Class 504 Manchester-Bury stock British Rail Class 504 ManVic prior to Metrolink.jpg 1991 1.2 kV Side Contact Third Rail
(Unique on BR network)
Class 505 Manchester-Altrincham stock 1971 1.5 kV OHLE ?
Class 506 Manchester-Hadfield/Glossop stock Guide Bridge 1967001 1.jpg 1984 1.5 kV OHLE About 7
Class 507 Merseyside stock 507001 Hunts Cross.jpg 750 V Third Rail 1
Class 508 Merseyside stock 508141-LiverpoolLS-01.jpg 750 V Third Rail 15 in total
Class 510 Original classification of Class 455
Pre-TOPS classes

Battery electric multiple unit (BEMU)[edit]

The original BEMU was a one-off unit, withdrawn before the introduction of TOPS.

A new generation battery EMU (called an Independently Powered Electric Multiple Unit) was created in 2014, converted from a Class 379.[citation needed]

Non National Rail units[edit]

All rail vehicles operating on part of the National Rail network are required to be given TOPS codes. For this reason, London Underground, Sheffield Supertram and Tyne & Wear Metro trains have their own TOPS classes:

Class Info Image Notes
Class 398 Transport for Wales tram-train stock Planned use on Valley Lines services with street running through Cardiff
Class 399 Sheffield Supertram tram-train stock Class 399 at Cathedral tram stop.jpg Will be used for a trial service to Rotherham via the Dearne Valley line
Class 499 (II) London Underground rolling stock LUL-S-Stock-arrives-Croxley.jpg Classification given to all London Underground stock operating on Network Rail, regardless of line
Class 994 Tyne & Wear Metro rolling stock 4057 at Monument Metro station, Newcastle, 20 June 2015.jpg Used for operation between Pelaw and Sunderland

See also[edit]


  1. ^
  2. ^ Atkinson, John. "Southern Railway's 2 HAL Units". Retrieved 15 March 2014.

External links[edit]