List of British Rail electric multiple unit classes

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This page lists every electric-powered multiple unit allocated a TOPS classification or used on the mainline network since 1948 (i.e. British Railways and post-privatisation). For a historical overview of electric multiple unit development in Great Britain, see British electric multiple units.

British Rail operated a wide variety of electric multiple units for use on electrified lines:

  • AC units operate off 25 kV alternating current (AC) from overhead wires. Where clearances for the overhead wires on the Great Eastern Main Line and London, Tilbury and Southend railway routes were below standard, a reduced voltage of 6.25 kV AC was used. The Midland Railway units used 6.6 kV AC. Under the computer numbering, AC units (including mixed-voltage units that can also work off a DC supply) were given a class in the range 300-399.
  • DC units operate off 650-850 V direct current (DC) from a third rail on the Southern Region and North London, Merseyside and Tyneside networks. The Manchester-Bury Railway line used 1,200 V DC from a side-contact third rail. The Manchester South Junction & Altrincham and "Woodhead" and initially the Great Eastern Railway routes used 1,500 V DC from overhead wires. Under the computer numbering, DC units were given a class in the range 400-599.

AC EMUs and dual-voltage EMUs[edit]

First generation[edit]

TOPS class Pre-TOPS class Name or Information Built Quantity (sets) Withdrawn Notes Image Scrapped
  ex-Ex-MR units Lancaster-Morecambe-Heysham 1908 3 (4-car) 1953 ?
Class 300   Proposed parcels units Never built Planned parcels conversation from Class 307 Never built
  AM1 25 kV AC prototype units 1952 4 1966 ?
Class 302 AM2 London-Tilbury-Southend 1958–1960 112 1999 LTS unit (class 302) 298 1964 Barking.jpg About 110
Class 303 AM3 Strathclyde. Also on Greater Manchester area services during 1980s/early 1990s. 1959–1961 91 1974–2002 75613 from unit 303013 is still in use with the British Transport Police 14.06.83 Milngavie 303.016 (6076992180).jpg 90
Class 304 AM4 Greater Manchester, Liverpool, Birmingham
1959 EMU
1960 45 1992–1996 Hugh llewelyn 304 006 (7850836098).jpg All
Class 305 AM5 Chingford, Enfield
1959 EMU
1959 71 1992–2001 305-plat-8-broken-down-Stratford.jpg
Class 306 AM6 Shenfield (inner-suburban) 1949 92 1981 Ordered by LNER in 1938. Class 306 Green.jpg ?
Class 307 AM7 Southend (outer-suburban) 1954–1956 32 1990–1993 43 survived as parcel units until 2000 307-refurbishment-front-no-headboard.jpg 31
Class 308 AM8 Eastern Region lines
1959 EMU
1959 45 1983
1992
2001
British Rail Class 308 at Leeds 1996.jpg 44
Class 309 AM9 Clacton Express. 1962–1963 76 1994–2000 21.03.81 London Liverpool Street 309.625 (5958456051).jpg About 74
Class 310 AM10 Euston outer-suburban. Also West Midlands 1965–1967 50 1967 (1)
1989 (1)
2001–2002
310109 and 310113 survived in departmental use until 2005 310-blue-Harrow&Wealdstone2.jpg All
Class 311 AM11 Strathclyde 1967 19 1990 311103-4 survived in departmental use until 1999 Dalmuir railway station in 1978.jpg 18
Class 312 Great Eastern suburban
Great Northern suburban
West Midlands (four units)
1975–1978 49 2003–2004 312792 at Shoeburyness.jpg About 47

Second generation[edit]

TOPS class Built for Current Operator(s) Builder Number built Image Withdrawn Scrapped Notes
Class 313[a] BR Eastern Region
(Great Northern suburban)
Govia Thameslink Railway
Network Rail
Southern
BREL York 1976-1977 64 x 3-car sets Enfield Chase railway station MMB 05 313046 313030.jpg 2019 on 23
Class 314 BR Scottish Region
(Argyle Line)
Abellio ScotRail BREL York 1979 16 x 3-car sets Class314orange.jpg 2018 on 6
Class 315 BR Eastern Region
(Great Eastern suburban)
London Overground
TfL Rail
BREL York 1980-1981 61 x 4-car sets 315850 at Romford.jpg 2018 on 12
Class 316 (I) proposed units for Picc-Vic services - (never built) - Never built Never built Never built
Class 316 (II) (AC Networker prototype) (never used in passenger service, now out of service) converted from class 210 and 313 cars 1 x 4-car set Hugh llewelyn 457 001 (6250540761).jpg Out of service - Out of service
Class 316 (III) (test unit) (never used in passenger service, scrapped 2006) converted from class 307 1 x 3-car set 2006 1 Scrapped in 2006
Class 317 Class 317/1 London Midland Region
Class 317/2 Network SouthEast
(Bedpan and Great Northern lines)
Greater Anglia
London Overground
BREL York 1981-1982(317/1)
1985-1987(317/2)
72 x 4-car sets London Overground Class 317.jpg still in use 0
Class 318 Provincial ScotRail
(for Strathclyde PTE)
Abellio ScotRail BREL York 1986-1987 21 x 3-car sets British Rail Class 318 264 f.jpg
Class 319[a] Network SouthEast
(Thameslink services)
Northern
West Midlands Trains
BREL York 1987-1988(319/0)
1990(319/1)
86 x 4-car sets 319456 C London St Pancras.JPG 38 Converted to Class 769
1 Converted to Class 799
Class 320 Provincial ScotRail
(for Strathclyde PTE)
Abellio ScotRail BREL York 1990 22 x 3-car sets Hyndland 320314.jpg 12 Converted from Class 321/4s
Class 321 Network SouthEast
(Great Eastern and Euston services)
Regional Railways
(for West Yorkshire PTE)
Greater Anglia
Northern
BREL York 1988-1991 117 x 4-car sets 321440 Greater Anglia.JPG 12 Converted to Class 320/4s
Class 322 Network SouthEast
(Stansted Express service)
Northern BREL York 1990 5 x 4-car sets 322485 at London Liverpool Street.JPG
Class 325[a] Rail Express Systems
(for Royal Mail)
DB Cargo UK ABB Derby 1995-1996 16 x 4-car units Hugh llewelyn 325 002 (6520031505).jpg 2012 (1) 1

Modern/Third generation[edit]

These use solid state switching devices (thyristors and transistors) and have electronic power control.

TOPS class Built for Current Operator(s) Builder Number Built Image
Class 323 Regional Railways
(for West Midlands PTE and Greater Manchester PTE)
Northern
West Midlands Trains
Hunslet 1992-1993 43 x 3-car sets London Midland Class 323.jpg
Class 331 (I) Original classification of Class 332
Class 331 (II)
Civity
Northern CAF 2017-present 31 x 3-car units
12 x 4-car units
331001 approaching Crewe platform 1.jpg
Class 332 Heathrow Express Heathrow Express Siemens/CAF 1997-1998 9 x 4-car sets
5 x 5-car sets
Heathrow Express 332 008.jpg
Class 333 Arriva Trains Northern
(for West Yorkshire PTE)
Northern Siemens/CAF 2000 16 x 4-car sets Northern-333015-03.jpg
Class 334
Juniper
ScotRail
(for Strathclyde PTE)
Abellio ScotRail Alstom Birmingham 1999-2002 40 x 3-car sets SPT trains.jpg
Class 341
Networker
proposed units for Crossrail - (never built) -
Class 342
Networker
proposed units for CTRL Domestic Services
Class 345
Aventra
Crossrail Bombardier Derby, 2015-2019 70 x 9-car sets (7-car sets until 2019) Unit 345007 passes Stratford 7th July 2017 08.jpg
Class 350 (I) Original classification of Class 325
Class 350 (II)[a]
Desiro
Silverlink
Central Trains
TransPennine Express
West Midlands Trains
Siemens 2004-2005
2008-2009
2013-2014
87 x 4-car sets London Midland class 350 - 2007-11-16.jpg
Class 357
Electrostar
LTS Rail c2c Adtranz/Bombardier Derby 1999-2002 74 x 4-car sets 357036 at Southend Central.jpg
Class 360
Desiro
First Great Eastern
Heathrow Connect
Greater Anglia
TfL Rail
Siemens 2002-2003
2004-2005
21 x 4-car sets
5 x 5-car sets
360109 at Marks Tey.jpg
Class 365[a]
Networker
Network SouthEast
(Great Northern and South Eastern services)
Govia Thameslink Railway
Abellio ScotRail
ABB York 1994-1995 41 x 4-car sets Class 365 near Watlington.jpg
Class 371[a]
Networker
proposed units for Thameslink 2000 - (never built) -
Class 375[a]
Electrostar
Connex South Eastern
South Eastern Trains
Southeastern Adtranz/Bombardier Derby 1999-2005 10 x 3-car sets
102 x 4-car sets
375909 A London Bridge.JPG
Class 376[a]
Electrostar
South Eastern Trains Southeastern Bombardier Derby 2004-2005 36 x 5-car sets Charing Cross station MMB 25 376019.jpg
Class 377[a]
Electrostar
Southern Govia Thameslink Railway
Southeastern
Bombardier Derby 2001-2005
2008-2009
2013-2014
28 x 3-car sets
177 x 4-car sets
34 x 5-car sets
Unit 377213 Watford.JPG
Class 378[a]
Capitalstar
London Overground London Overground Bombardier Derby 2008-2011 57 x 5-car sets Unit 378147 at Highbury & Islington.jpg
Class 379
Electrostar
National Express East Anglia Greater Anglia Bombardier Derby 2010-2011 30 x 4-car sets 379001 at Norwich 8 January 2011.jpg
Class 380
Desiro
First ScotRail Abellio ScotRail Siemens 2009-2011 22 x 3-car sets
16 x 4-car sets
380101 at Glasgow Central.jpg
Class 381[a]
Networker
proposed Network SouthEast express units - (never built) -
Class 385
A-Train
Abellio ScotRail Abellio ScotRail Hitachi Kudamatsu & Hitachi Newton Aycliffe 2015-2018 46 x 3-car sets
24 x 4-car sets
385001 at Gourock.jpg
Class 387[a]
Electrostar
Govia Thameslink Railway
Great Western Railway
c2c
Govia Thameslink Railway
Great Western Railway
c2c
Bombardier Derby 2014-2017 107 x 4-car sets 387106 departs Brighton station.jpg
Class 700[a]
Desiro City
Govia Thameslink Railway Govia Thameslink Railway Siemens 2014-2018 60 x 8-car sets
55 x 12-car sets
700114 Victoria to Sevenoaks 3T74 at Bromley South (28136957233).jpg
Class 701[a]
Aventra
South Western Railway Bombardier TBC 30 x 5-car sets
60 x 10-car sets
Class 705 Original classification of Class 701
Class 707[a]
Desiro City
South West Trains South Western Railway Siemens 2016-2018 30 x 5-car sets InnoTrans 2016 – SouthWest Trains Class 707 (29818504695).jpg
Class 710[a]
Aventra
London Overground Bombardier Derby, 2017-2019 48 x 4-car sets
6 x 5-car sets
710263 Willesden Junction.jpg
Class 711 (I) Original classification of Class 701
Class 711 (II)
Aventra
c2c Bombardier Derby, 2019-2020 6 x 10-car sets
Class 717[a]
Desiro City
Govia Thameslink Railway Siemens 2016-2018 25 x 6-car sets Innotrans 2018, Berlin ( 1070474).jpg
Class 720
Aventra
Greater Anglia Bombardier Derby, 2018-2020 89 x 5-car sets
22 x 10-car sets
Class 730
Aventra
West Midlands Trains Bombardier Derby, 2020-2021 36 x 3-car sets
45 x 5-car sets
Class 745
Stadler Flirt
Greater Anglia Stadler Rail 2018-2020 20 x 12-car sets BR Class 745 in Velim.jpg
Class 755
Stadler Flirt
Greater Anglia Stadler Rail 2018-2020 14 x 3-car sets
24 x 4-car sets
Innotrans 2018, Berlin (P1070432).jpg
Class 769[a]
Flex
Great Western Railway
Northern
Transport for Wales
BREL York, 1987-88
Brush Traction 2017 (conversion)
35 x 4-car sets
Class 777[a]
METRO
Merseyrail Stadler Rail 2018-2020 52 x 4-car sets Merseyrail - Class 777 mock-up, Lime Street, November 2018.jpg
Class 799[a]
HydroFlex
Porterbrook BREL York, 1987
Quinton Rail Technology Centre 2019 (conversion)
1 x 4-car set 319001 Sevenoaks to London Blackfriars (15096483538).jpg

High speed trains[edit]

TOPS class Built for Current Operator(s) Builder Number Built Image Scrapped
Class 370
APT-P
prototype APT Withdrawn 1985–1986 BREL Derby 1979 6 x 7-car half sets
2 spare cars
Apt 370004 - euston - 13-02-1980.jpg 35 cars
Class 373
TGV
Eurostar Eurostar
IZY
GEC Alsthom, La Brugeoise et Nivelles 1992-1996 14 x 8-car half sets
62 x 10-car half sets
1 spare car
Eurostar Neige, Chambéry (2015).JPG 16
Class 374
Velaro UK
Eurostar Eurostar Siemens 2011-2018 34 x 8-car half sets Class 374 in Paris.jpg 0
Class 390
Pendolino
Virgin West Coast Virgin Trains Alstom Birmingham 2001-2004
Alstom Savigliano, Italy 2009-2012
22 x 9-car sets
35 x 11-car sets
390045 at Carlisle.JPG 1
Class 395[a]
Javelin
Southeastern Southeastern Hitachi, Japan 2007-2009 29 x 6-car sets St Pancras railway station MMB 31 395018.jpg 0
Class 397
Civity
TransPennine Express CAF 12 x 5-car sets Class 397 TransPennine Express Velim.jpg
Class 800
Super Express
London North Eastern Railway Hitachi, Kudamatsu & Newton Aycliffe 2014-2019 34 x 9-car sets
46 x 5-car sets
Hitachi Class 800 unveiled in Japan (1).jpg
Great Western Railway
Class 801
Super Express
London North Eastern Railway Hitachi Kudamatsu & Newton Aycliffe 2017-2019 30 x 9-car sets
12 x 5-car sets[1]
VTEC 801101.jpg
Class 802
A-Train
Great Western Railway Hitachi Kudamatsu & Hitachi Rail Italy 2017-2020 46 x 5-car
14 x 9-car sets
2017-08-19 GWR 802001 Test Unit - Swindon.jpg
Hull Trains
TransPennine Express
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u DC 600-750 V 3rd rail support.

DC EMUs[edit]

Southern Region units[edit]

The Southern Railway and its successor, the Southern Region of British Rail, used three letter codes to classify their DC EMU fleets, as shown after the TOPS class numbers. Southern Region EMUs were classified in the 400 series under TOPS.

Pre-Nationalisation[edit]

4Sub unit no. 8143 at the National Railway Museum
TOPS class SR class Name or Information Image Scrapped
Class 401 2-Bil 2-bil emu.jpg 151
Class 402 2-Hal 2-HAL.jpg ?
2-Pan[2]
2-Nol All
2-SL South London
2-Wim Wimbledon-Croydon
3-Sub 4 sub emu3.jpg ?
4-Buf Weybridge station geograph-2386531-by-Ben-Brooksbank.jpg ?
Class 404 4-Cor 3131 at National Railway Museum.JPG
4-DD Double Deck EMU Class 4DD no 4902 at Ashford Steam Centre.jpg 2
4-Gri -
4-Lav 4-lav emu.jpg All
4-Res -
Class 405 4-Sub 4 sub emu1.jpg About 184
Class 403 5-Bel Brighton Belle
London Victoria-Brighton
BB at Purley Oaks (1964).jpg 2
6-Cit London Bridge-Brighton 38 in total
6-Pan Pantry units
6-Pul Pullman
London Victoria-Brighton

Mark 1 and 2 bodyshell[edit]

Gatwick Express Class 489 unit no. 489110 at London Victoria
TOPS class SR class Name or Information Image Scrapped
Class 410 4-Bep 1586 at London Victoria.jpg About 114 in total
Class 411 4-Cep
Class 412 4-Bep
Class 413 4-Cap 2 x 2Hap permanently coupled BR 4-CEP 413207.jpg All
Class 414 2-Hap 2 hap emu.jpg 207
Class 415 4-EPB 4EPB set at Wimbledon.jpg ?
Class 416 2-EPB 416 at Dalton Kingsland1.jpg 121
Class 418 2-Sap 2Hap units with declassified 1st Class accommodation 2 sap emu.jpg ?
Class 419 MLV London-Dover/Folkestone boat trains Class419.JPG 2
Class 420 4-Big 4BIG set 7059 and D6535 Great Central Railway.jpg About 140 in total
Class 421 4/3-Cig
3-Cop
Last 2 units of this type in service were withdrawn in 2010
Class 422 4-Big
8-Dig
Class 423 4-Vep
4-Vop
3417 Eastleigh 100.JPG About 188 in total
Class 427 4-Veg First stock used for Gatwick Express
Class 430 4-Rep 3005 Eastleigh Works 22-10-73.jpg ?
Class 431 6-Rep
Class 432 4-Rep
Class 438 3-TC
4-TC
Okehampton Station 4.jpg 27
Class 480 8-Vab -
Class 482 (I) 8-Mig
Class 488 Gatwick Express Trailers 8313 at London Victoria.jpg 14
Class 489 GLV Gatwick Express driving trailers 9107 at Wirksworth.jpg 3
Class 499 (I) TLV ?

Tube Stock[edit]

TOPS class SR class Name or Information Image Scrapped
Class 482 (II) Waterloo & City line
sold to London Underground
65507 at Bank LUL station.jpg 0
Class 483 Island Line Trains
ex LU 1938 stock
ISLAND LINE EX LT TUBE TRAIN AT RYDE ESPLANADE STATION JULY 2011 (5961075499).jpg 4
Class 485 4-Vec ex LU Standard stock Shanklinstn.jpg ?
Class 486 3-Tis ex LU Standard stock 16.03.85 Sandown 486.036 (6076456875).jpg
Class 487 Waterloo & City Line Class 487 at London Transport Museum Depot.jpg 27

Modern EMUs[edit]

TOPS class SR class Name or Information Image Scrapped
Class 424 Networker Classic Prototype 1
Class 442 5-Wes Wessex Express 2407 at Moreton, Dorset.JPG About 6
Class 444 5-Des Siemens Desiro 444026 at Waterloo.jpg 0
Class 445 4-Pep Second Generation EMU prototype - 4 car 4-PEP-4002.jpg All
Class 446 2-Pep Second Generation EMU prototype - 2 car
Class 447 Proposed Battersea Bullet Never built
Class 450 4-Des Siemens Desiro 450083 at Waterloo.jpg 0
Class 455 Gb-BeckenhamJn-455842.jpg
Class 456 South West Trains 456006, Wimbledon (15894675838).jpg
Class 457 DC Networker prototype Hugh llewelyn 457 001 (6250540761).jpg 1
Class 458 5-Jop Juniper Clapham Junction - SWT 458503-458531 down train.JPG 0
Class 460 8-Gat Juniper - Gatwick Express 460002 at East Croydon.jpg
Class 465 Networker - 4 car South Eastern Trains 465238 at Greenwich 2005-12-10 02.jpg
Class 466 Networker - 2 car Maidstone West Station 04.JPG
Class 471 Proposed Networker - Main Line Express Class471MockUp006.jpg Never built

Other DC units[edit]

The 500 series classes were reserved for miscellaneous DC EMUs not from the Southern Region. This included the DC (third/fourth rail) lines in North London, Manchester and Merseyside and the OHLE lines in Greater Manchester. The DC electric network around Tyneside had been de-electrified by the time TOPS was introduced, and the stock withdrawn or transferred to the Southern Region.

TOPS classes
Class Info Image Withdrawn Notes Scrapped
Class 501 North London stock Class-501-train-B1-headcode.jpg 1985 650 V Third & Fourth Rail 56
Class 502 Liverpool-Southport/Ormskirk stock Sandhills 1979001 1.jpg 1980 650 V Third Rail 150
Class 503 Mersey-Wirral stock Image-British-Rail-Class-503.jpg 1985 650 V Third Rail 44
Class 504 Manchester-Bury stock British Rail Class 504 ManVic prior to Metrolink.jpg 1991 1.2 kV Side Contact Third Rail
(Unique on BR network)
25
Class 505 Manchester-Altrincham stock 1971 1.5 kV OHLE ?
Class 506 Manchester-Hadfield/Glossop stock Guide Bridge 1967001 1.jpg 1984 1.5 kV OHLE About 7
Class 507 Merseyside stock 507001 Hunts Cross.jpg 750 V Third Rail 1
Class 508 Merseyside stock 508141-LiverpoolLS-01.jpg 750 V Third Rail 15 in total
Class 510 Original classification of Class 455
Pre-TOPS classes

Battery electric multiple unit (BEMU)[edit]

The original BEMU was a one-off unit, withdrawn before the introduction of TOPS.

A new generation battery EMU (called an Independently Powered Electric Multiple Unit) is being created in 2014, converted from a Class 379.[citation needed]

Non National Rail units[edit]

All rail vehicles operating on part of the National Rail network are required to be given TOPS codes. For this reason, London Underground, Sheffield Supertram and Tyne & Wear Metro trains have their own TOPS classes:

Class Info Image Notes
Class 399 Sheffield Supertram tram-train stock Supertram 399202.jpg Will be used for a trial service to Rotherham via the Dearne Valley line
Class 499 (II) London Underground rolling stock LUL-S-Stock-arrives-Croxley.jpg Classification given to all London Underground stock operating on Network Rail, regardless of line
Class 994 Tyne & Wear Metro rolling stock 4057 at Monument Metro station, Newcastle, 20 June 2015.jpg Used for operation between Pelaw and Sunderland

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.abrail.co.uk/emuformations.htm
  2. ^ Atkinson, John. "Southern Railway's 2 HAL Units". Retrieved 15 March 2014.

External links[edit]