List of British Rail electric multiple unit classes

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This page lists every electric-powered multiple unit allocated a TOPS classification or used on the mainline network since 1948 (i.e. British Railways and post-privatisation). For a historical overview of electric multiple unit development in Great Britain, see British electric multiple units.

British Rail operated a wide variety of electric multiple units for use on electrified lines:

  • AC units operate off 25 kV alternating current (AC) from overhead wires. Where clearances for the overhead wires on the Great Eastern Main Line and London, Tilbury and Southend railway routes were below standard, a reduced voltage of 6.25 kV AC was used. The Midland Railway units used 6.6 kV AC. Under the computer numbering, AC units (including mixed-voltage units that can also work off a DC supply) were given a class in the range 300-399.
  • DC units operate off 650-850 V direct current (DC) from a third rail on the Southern Region and North London, Merseyside and Tyneside networks. The Manchester-Bury Railway line used 1,200 V DC from a side-contact third rail. The Manchester South Junction & Altrincham and "Woodhead" and initially the Great Eastern Railway routes used 1,500 V DC from overhead wires. Under the computer numbering, DC units were given a class in the range 400-599.

AC EMUs and dual-voltage EMUs[edit]

First generation[edit]

TransClyde branded Class 303 unrefurbished unit no. 303 089 at Wemyss Bay railway station
TOPS class Pre-TOPS class Name or Information Image Withdrawn
Ex-MR units   Lancaster-Morecambe-Heysham 1951
Class 300   Proposed parcels units
  AM1 25 kV AC prototype units 1966
Class 302 AM2 London-Tilbury-Southend LTS unit (class 302) 298 1964 Barking.jpg 1999
Class 303 AM3 Strathclyde. Also on Greater Manchester area services during 1980s/early 1990s. Kirkhill railway station in 1979.jpg 2002
Class 304 AM4 Greater Manchester, Liverpool, Birmingham BR multiple unit at Altrincham station - - 199795.jpg 1996
Class 305 AM5 Chingford, Enfield 305-plat-8-broken-down-Stratford.jpg 2001
Class 306 AM6 Shenfield (inner-suburban) Class 306 Green.jpg 1980
Class 307 AM7 Southend (outer-suburban) 307-refurbishment-front-no-headboard.jpg 2000
Class 308 AM8 Eastern Region lines British Rail Class 308 at Leeds 1996.jpg 2001
Class 309 AM9 Clacton Express. 21.03.81 London Liverpool Street 309.625 (5958456051).jpg 2000
Class 310 AM10 Euston outer-suburban. Also West Midlands 23.01.82 Watford Junction 310.048 (5958457191).jpg 2002
Class 311 AM11 Strathclyde 311104 at a station.jpg 1999
Class 312 Great Eastern suburban
Great Northern suburban
West Midlands (four units)
312792 at Shoeburyness.jpg 2004

Second generation[edit]

TOPS class Built for Current Operator(s) Builder Number built Image
Class 313[a] BR Eastern Region
(Great Northern suburban)
Govia Thameslink Railway
Network Rail
BREL York 1976-1977 64 x 3-car sets Enfield Chase railway station MMB 05 313046 313030.jpg
Class 314 BR Scottish Region
(Argyle Line)
Abellio ScotRail BREL York 1979 16 x 3-car sets Class314orange.jpg
Class 315 BR Eastern Region
(Great Eastern suburban)
London Overground
TfL Rail
BREL York 1980-1981 61 x 4-car sets 315850 at Romford.jpg
Class 316 (I) proposed units for Picc-Vic services - (never built) -
Class 316 (II) (AC Networker prototype) (never used in passenger service, now out of service) converted from class 210 and 313 cars 1 x 4-car set Hugh llewelyn 457 001 (6250540761).jpg
Class 316 (III) (test unit) (never used in passenger service, scrapped 2006) converted from class 307 1 x 3-car set
Class 317 Class 317/1 London Midland Region
Class 317/2 Network SouthEast
(Bedpan and Great Northern lines)
Greater Anglia
London Overground
BREL York 1981-1982(317/1)
72 x 4-car sets London Overground Class 317.jpg
Class 318 Provincial ScotRail
(for Strathclyde PTE)
Abellio ScotRail BREL York 1986-1987 21 x 3-car sets British Rail Class 318 264 f.jpg
Class 319[a] Network SouthEast
(Thameslink services)
West Midlands Trains
BREL York 1987-1988(319/0)
86 x 4-car sets 319456 C London St Pancras.JPG
Class 320 Provincial ScotRail
(for Strathclyde PTE)
Abellio ScotRail BREL York 1990 22 x 3-car sets Hyndland 320314.jpg
Class 321 Network SouthEast
(Great Eastern and Euston services)
Regional Railways
(for West Yorkshire PTE)
Greater Anglia
BREL York 1988-1991 117 x 4-car sets 321440 Greater Anglia.JPG
Class 322 Network SouthEast
(Stansted Express service)
Northern BREL York 1990 5 x 4-car sets 322485 at London Liverpool Street.JPG
Class 325[a] Rail Express Systems
(for Royal Mail)
DB Cargo UK ABB Derby 1995-1996 16 x 4-car units Hugh llewelyn 325 002 (6520031505).jpg

Modern/Third generation[edit]

Class 350/1 unit 350101 at Watford Junction

These use solid state switching devices (thyristors and transistors) and have electronic power control.

TOPS class Built for Current Operator(s) Builder Number Built Image
Class 323 Regional Railways
(for West Midlands PTE and Greater Manchester PTE)
West Midlands Trains
Hunslet 1992-1993 43 x 3-car sets London Midland Class 323.jpg
Class 331 (I) Original classification of Class 332
Class 331 (II)
Northern CAF 2017-present 31 x 3-car units
12 x 4-car units
Class 332 Heathrow Express Heathrow Express Siemens/CAF 1997-1998 9 x 4-car sets
5 x 5-car sets
Heathrow Express 332 008.jpg
Class 333 Arriva Trains Northern
(for West Yorkshire PTE)
Northern Siemens/CAF 2000 16 x 4-car sets Northern-333015-03.jpg
Class 334
(for Strathclyde PTE)
Abellio ScotRail Alstom Birmingham 1999-2002 40 x 3-car sets SPT trains.jpg
Class 341
proposed units for Crossrail - (never built) -
Class 342
proposed units for CTRL Domestic Services - (never built) -
Class 345
Crossrail Bombardier Derby, 2015-2018 70 x 9-car sets Unit 345007 passes Stratford 7th July 2017 08.jpg
Class 350 (I) Original classification of Class 325
Class 350 (II)[a]
Central Trains
TransPennine Express
West Midlands Trains
Siemens 2004-2005
87 x 4-car sets London Midland class 350 - 2007-11-16.jpg
Class 357
LTS Rail c2c Adtranz/Bombardier Derby 1999-2002 74 x 4-car sets 357036 at Southend Central.jpg
Class 360
First Great Eastern
Heathrow Connect
Greater Anglia
TfL Rail
Siemens 2002-2003
21 x 4-car sets
5 x 5-car sets
360109 at Marks Tey.jpg
Class 365[a]
Network SouthEast
(Great Northern and South Eastern services)
Govia Thameslink Railway
Abellio ScotRail
ABB York 1994-1995 41 x 4-car sets Class 365 near Watlington.jpg
Class 371[a]
proposed units for Thameslink 2000 - (never built) -
Class 375[a]
Connex South Eastern
South Eastern Trains
Southeastern Adtranz/Bombardier Derby 1999-2005 10 x 3-car sets
102 x 4-car sets
375909 A London Bridge.JPG
Class 376[a]
South Eastern Trains Southeastern Bombardier Derby 2004-2005 36 x 5-car sets Charing Cross station MMB 25 376019.jpg
Class 377[a]
Southern Govia Thameslink Railway
Bombardier Derby 2001-2005
28 x 3-car sets
177 x 4-car sets
34 x 5-car sets
Unit 377213 Watford.JPG
Class 378[a]
London Overground London Overground Bombardier Derby 2008-2011 57 x 5-car sets Unit 378138 at Hoxton.jpg
Class 379
National Express East Anglia Greater Anglia Bombardier Derby 2010-2011 30 x 4-car sets 379001 at Norwich 8 January 2011.jpg
Class 380
First ScotRail Abellio ScotRail Siemens 2009-2011 22 x 3-car sets
16 x 4-car sets
380101 at Glasgow Central.jpg
Class 381[a]
proposed Network SouthEast express units - (never built) -
Class 385
Abellio ScotRail Abellio ScotRail Hitachi Kudamatsu & Hitachi Newton Aycliffe 2015-2018 46 x 3-car sets
24 x 4-car sets
385001 at Gourock.jpg
Class 387[a]
Govia Thameslink Railway
Great Western Railway
Govia Thameslink Railway
Great Western Railway
Bombardier Derby 2014-2017 107 x 4-car sets 387106 departs Brighton station.jpg
Class 700[a]
Desiro City
Govia Thameslink Railway Govia Thameslink Railway Siemens 2014-2018 60 x 8-car sets
55 x 12-car sets
700114 Victoria to Sevenoaks 3T74 at Bromley South (28136957233).jpg
Class 701[a]
South Western Railway Bombardier TBC 30 x 5-car sets
60 x 10-car sets
Class 707[a]
Desiro City
South West Trains South Western Railway Siemens 2016-2018 30 x 5-car sets InnoTrans 2016 – SouthWest Trains Class 707 (29818504695).jpg
Class 710[a]
London Overground Bombardier Derby, 2017-2019 48 x 4-car sets
6 x 5-car sets
Class 711 (II)
c2c Bombardier Derby, 2019-2020 6 x 10-car sets
Class 717[a]
Desiro City
Govia Thameslink Railway Siemens 2016-2018 25 x 6-car sets Innotrans 2018, Berlin ( 1070474).jpg
Class 720
Greater Anglia Bombardier Derby, 2018-2020 89 x 5-car sets
22 x 10-car sets
Class 730
West Midlands Trains Bombardier Derby, 2020-2021 36 x 3-car sets
45 x 5-car sets
Class 745
Stadler Flirt
Greater Anglia Stadler Rail 2018-2020 20 x 12-car sets BR Class 745 in Velim.jpg
Class 755
Stadler Flirt
Greater Anglia Stadler Rail 2018-2020 14 x 3-car sets
24 x 4-car sets
Innotrans 2018, Berlin (P1070432).jpg
Class 769[a]
Great Western Railway
Transport for Wales
BREL York, 1987-88
Brush Traction 2017 (conversion)
35 x 4-car sets
Class 777[a]
Merseyrail Stadler Rail 2018-2020 52 x 4-car sets

High speed trains[edit]

TOPS class Built for Current Operator(s) Builder Number Built Image
Class 370
prototype APT (out of service) BREL Derby 1979 6 x 7-car half sets
2 spare cars
Apt 370004 - euston - 13-02-1980.jpg
Class 373
Eurostar Eurostar GEC Alsthom, La Brugeoise et Nivelles 1992-1996 14 x 8-car half sets
62 x 10-car half sets
1 spare car
Eurostar Neige, Chambéry (2015).JPG
Class 374
Velaro UK
Eurostar Eurostar Siemens 2011-2018 34 x 8-car half sets Class 374 in Paris.jpg
Class 390
Virgin West Coast Virgin Trains Alstom Birmingham 2001-2004
Alstom Savigliano, Italy 2009-2012
22 x 9-car sets
35 x 11-car sets
390045 at Carlisle.JPG
Class 395[a]
Southeastern Southeastern Hitachi, Japan 2007-2009 29 x 6-car sets St Pancras railway station MMB 31 395018.jpg
Class 397
TransPennine Express CAF 12 x 5-car sets
Class 800
Super Express
London North Eastern Railway Hitachi, Kudamatsu & Newton Aycliffe 2014-2019 34 x 9-car sets
46 x 5-car sets
Hitachi Class 800 unveiled in Japan (1).jpg
Great Western Railway
Class 801
Super Express
London North Eastern Railway Hitachi Kudamatsu & Newton Aycliffe 2017-2019 30 x 9-car sets
12 x 5-car sets[1]
Hitachi Super Express mockup (1).jpg
Class 802
Great Western Railway Hitachi Kudamatsu & Hitachi Rail Italy 2017-2020 46 x 5-car
14 x 9-car sets
2017-08-19 GWR 802001 Test Unit - Swindon.jpg
Hull Trains
TransPennine Express
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t DC 600-750V 3rd rail support.

DC EMUs[edit]

Southern Region units[edit]

The Southern Railway and its successor, the Southern Region of British Rail, used three letter codes to classify their DC EMU fleets, as shown after the TOPS class numbers. Southern Region EMUs were classified in the 400 series under TOPS.


4Sub unit no. 8143 at the National Railway Museum
TOPS class SR class Name or Information Image
Class 401 2-Bil 2-bil emu.jpg
Class 402 2-Hal 2-HAL.jpg
2-SL South London
2-Wim Wimbledon-Croydon
3-Sub 4 sub emu3.jpg
Class 404 4-Cor 3131 at National Railway Museum.JPG
4-DD Double Deck EMU Class 4DD no 4902 at Ashford Steam Centre.jpg
4-Lav 4-lav emu.jpg
Class 405 4-Sub 4 sub emu1.jpg
Class 403 5-Bel Brighton Belle
London Victoria-Brighton
BB at Purley Oaks (1964).jpg
6-Cit London Bridge-Brighton
6-Pan Pantry units
6-Pul Pullman
London Victoria-Brighton

Mark 1 and 2 bodyshell[edit]

Gatwick Express Class 489 unit no. 489110 at London Victoria
South Eastern Trains Class 411 unit no. 1586 at London Victoria
TOPS class SR class Name or Information Image
Class 410 4-Bep 1521 at Waterloo East.jpg
Class 411 4-Cep
Class 412 4-Bep
Class 413 4-Cap 2 x 2Hap permanently coupled
Class 414 2-Hap 2 hap emu.jpg
Class 415 4-EPB 4EPB set at Wimbledon.jpg
Class 416 2-EPB 416 at Dalton Kingsland1.jpg
Class 418 2-Sap 2Hap units with declassified 1st Class accommodation 2 sap emu.jpg
Class 419 MLV London-Dover/Folkestone boat trains Class419.JPG
Class 420 4-Big 1396 at Clapham Junction.jpg
Class 421 4/3-Cig
Last 2 units of this type in service were withdrawn in 2010
Class 422 4-Big
Class 423 4-Vep
3445 at Waterloo East.jpg
Class 427 4-Veg First stock used for Gatwick Express
Class 430 4-Rep 3005 Eastleigh Works 22-10-73.jpg
Class 431 6-Rep
Class 432 4-Rep
Class 438 3-TC
Weymouth Quay railway station 1986.jpg
Class 480 8-Vab
Class 482 (I) 8-Mig
Class 488 Gatwick Express Trailers 8313 at London Victoria.jpg
Class 489 GLV Gatwick Express driving trailers 9107 at Wirksworth.jpg
Class 499 (I) TLV

Tube Stock[edit]

TOPS class SR class Name or Information Image
Class 482 (II) Waterloo & City line
sold to London Underground
65507 at Bank LUL station.jpg
Class 483 Island Line Trains
ex LU 1938 stock
Class 485 4-Vec ex LU Standard stock Shanklinstn.jpg
Class 486 3-Tis ex LU Standard stock 16.03.85 Sandown 486.036 (6076456875).jpg
Class 487 Waterloo & City Line Class 487 at London Transport Museum Depot.jpg

Modern EMUs[edit]

TOPS class SR class Name or Information Image
Class 424 Networker Classic Prototype Class 424 at Victoria.jpg
Class 442 5-Wes Wessex Express 2407 at Moreton, Dorset.JPG
Class 444 5-Des Siemens Desiro 444026 at Waterloo.jpg
Class 445 4-Pep Second Generation EMU prototype - 4 car 4-PEP-4002.jpg
Class 446 2-Pep Second Generation EMU prototype - 2 car
Class 447 Proposed Battersea Bullet
Class 450 4-Des Siemens Desiro 450083 at Waterloo.jpg
Class 455 Gb-BeckenhamJn-455842.jpg
Class 456 South West Trains 456006, Wimbledon (15894675838).jpg
Class 457 DC Networker prototype Hugh llewelyn 457 001 (6250540761).jpg
Class 458 5-Jop Juniper Clapham Junction - SWT 458503-458531 down train.JPG
Class 460 8-Gat Juniper - Gatwick Express 460002 at East Croydon.jpg
Class 465 Networker - 4 car South Eastern Trains 465238 at Greenwich 2005-12-10 02.jpg
Class 466 Networker - 2 car Maidstone West Station 04.JPG
Class 471 Proposed Networker - Main Line Express Class471MockUp006.jpg

Other DC units[edit]

The 500 series classes were reserved for miscellaneous DC EMUs not from the Southern Region. This included the DC (third/fourth rail) lines in North London, Manchester and Merseyside and the OHLE lines in Greater Manchester. The DC electric network around Tyneside had been de-electrified by the time TOPS was introduced, and the stock withdrawn or transferred to the Southern Region.

TOPS classes
Class Info Image Withdrawn Notes
Class 501 North London stock Class-501-train-B1-headcode.jpg 1985 650 V Third & Fourth Rail
Class 502 Liverpool-Southport/Ormskirk stock Sandhills 1979001 1.jpg 1980 650 V Third Rail
Class 503 Mersey-Wirral stock Image-British-Rail-Class-503.jpg 1985 650 V Third Rail
Class 504 Manchester-Bury stock British Rail Class 504 ManVic prior to Metrolink.jpg 1991 1.2 kV Side Contact Third Rail
(Unique on BR network)
Class 505 Manchester-Altrincham stock 1971 1.5 kV OHLE
Class 506 Manchester-Hadfield/Glossop stock Class 506 EMU and Class 104 DMU Longsight 1983.jpg 1984 1.5 kV OHLE
Class 507 Merseyside stock 507001 Hunts Cross.jpg 750 V Third Rail
Class 508 Merseyside stock 508141-LiverpoolLS-01.jpg 750 V Third Rail
Class 510 Original classification of Class 455
Pre-TOPS classes

Battery electric multiple unit (BEMU)[edit]

The original BEMU was a one-off unit, withdrawn before the introduction of TOPS.

A new generation battery EMU (called an Independently Powered Electric Multiple Unit) is being created in 2014, converted from a Class 379.[citation needed]

Non National Rail units[edit]

All rail vehicles operating on part of the National Rail network are required to be given TOPS codes. For this reason, London Underground, Sheffield Supertram and Tyne & Wear Metro trains have their own TOPS classes:

Class Info Image Notes
Class 399 Sheffield Supertram tram-train stock Supertram 399202.jpg Will be used for a trial service to Rotherham via the Dearne Valley line
Class 499 (II) London Underground rolling stock LUL-S-Stock-arrives-Croxley.jpg Classification given to all London Underground stock operating on Network Rail, regardless of line
Class 994 Tyne & Wear Metro rolling stock 4057 at Monument Metro station, Newcastle, 20 June 2015.jpg Used for operation between Pelaw and Sunderland

See also[edit]


  1. ^
  2. ^ Atkinson, John. "Southern Railway's 2 HAL Units". Retrieved 15 March 2014.

External links[edit]