British Rail Class 195

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British Rail Class 195 Civity
195001 of Northern Trains at Lime Street.jpg
195001 at Liverpool Lime Street in May 2021
Class195 Interior.jpg
Interior of a Class 195 unit
In service1 July 2019 – present[1]
Built atIrun, Spain[2]
Newport, Wales[3]
Family nameCivity
ReplacedClass 142
Class 144
Class 156
Number built58 units[4]
Formation25 x 2-car units
DMSO+DMSOL (195/0)
33 x 3-car units
Fleet numbers195001–195025 (195/0)
195101–195133 (195/1)
Capacity124 seats (195/0)
204 seats (195/1)[5]
Operator(s)Northern Trains
Train length48.05 m (157+34 ft) (2-car 195/0)
71.4 m (234+14 ft) (3-car 195/1)
Car lengthDMSL & DMS: 24.03 m (78+34 ft)
MS: 23.35 m (76+12 ft)[6]
Width2.712 m (8 ft 10+34 in)
Height3.85 m (12+34 ft)
Maximum speed100 mph (160 km/h)[6][7]
Axle loadDMSL: 10.91 t (10.74 long tons; 12.03 short tons)
MS: 10.24 t (10.08 long tons; 11.29 short tons)
DMS: 10.94 t (10.77 long tons; 12.06 short tons)
Prime mover(s)One per car, Rolls-Royce MTU 6H1800R85L[8][9]
Engine type13-litre 6-cylinder turbo-diesel[10]
Power output523 bhp (390 kW) per engine[11][12]
TransmissionZF EcoLife 6-speed
Accelerationmax. 0.83 m/s/s (1.9 mph/s)[6]
Safety system(s)AWS
Coupling systemDellner automatic coupling[13]
Multiple workingWithin class
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) (standard gauge)

The British Rail Class 195 Civity[14] is a class of diesel multiple-unit passenger train manufactured by CAF, owned by Eversholt Rail Group and currently operated by Northern Trains. A total of 58 units have been built; 25 two-car units and 33 three-car units.[15][4] The class is almost identical to the Class 331 also produced by CAF, which is the electric version of the Class 195, differing only in traction type and (in some units) vehicle formation.

They were first introduced on 1 July 2019, entering service with the previous operator Arriva Rail North on the Manchester Airport and Liverpool Lime Street via Warrington, and Manchester Airport to Barrow-in-Furness routes.[16] The final 195 unit entered service in December 2020 and all 58 units work across all non-electrified routes across the Northern network.[17]


The introduction of new rolling stock for the Northern franchise was fuelled by the need to phase out the unpopular Pacer trains by 2020. The tender for the then-new franchise in 2015 originally permitted the continued use of Pacer trains, as it was judged by the Department for Transport (DfT) that a new rolling-stock order represented "poor value for money.".[18] However the House of Commons Transport Select Committee described the continued use of Pacer trains as "unacceptable" and recommended that the Secretary of State use franchise specification power to include the need for a new rolling-stock order.[19] Subsequently, the then Secretary of State for Transport Patrick McLoughlin issued a ministerial directive in February 2015 to force the new franchise to include a new rolling-stock order as part of the franchise agreement, which would enable the Pacer trains to be phased out.[20]

The announcement of the new trains was made by now-previous operator Arriva UK Trains when it was confirmed that it would become the next operator of the Northern franchise (after Serco-Abellio) from 1 April 2016.[21] The Class 195 order was based on Arriva's belief that the ageing and dilapidated state of rolling stock in Northern England was an inherent obstacle to enticing new passengers – particularly motorists – and that investing in new modern trains represented the best long-term strategy for enabling passenger growth.[15][22]

CAF was selected by Arriva, as it was the only manufacturer able to build both diesel and electric (Class 331) multiple units from the same platform, Civity, thus increasing familiarity for drivers and reducing maintenance costs once in operation.[15] Bombardier made a bid to produce electric Aventra units but was unable to offer a sister diesel unit which Arriva required.[23] Furthermore, Bombardier already had a long order book for Aventra units and Arriva believed that CAF was in a stronger position to guarantee on-time delivery of the units.[23]

Construction of the bodyshells began in Zaragoza in July 2017.[24] The wheelsets were constructed in Beasain and final assembly of the units took place in Irun.[25] The first completed Class 195 unit began undergoing tests at the Velim test track in May 2018.[26] The first unit arrived in England in June 2018[27] and testing on the main line began in September 2018.[28]


Arriva UK Trains stated its aim for a "step-change in quality" for the new trains when compared with older trains in the Northern fleet such as the Pacers and Sprinters. The interior, layout and driver cab of the Class 195 (DMU) are similar to their sister units, the Class 331 (EMU), the differences being in power generation and drivetrain.[29]

The 195s have a ⅓-⅔ door arrangement, and a top speed limited to 100 mph. They have air conditioning, power sockets, one toilet per train,[30] open gangways between individual carriages, passenger compartment CCTV, provision for wheelchair passengers, and a WiFi system. All trains are fitted with an automated audio information system, as well as display screens - six in each carriage, ensuring all passengers have an unobstructed view of at least one. These screens convey a variety of information, including station arrival times and informing alighting passengers when they need to be in a different carriage due to platforms being too short to accommodate the train.[31]

Northern selected a "wide and spacious" vestibule area to allow for quicker passenger flows when boarding and disembarking to minimise dwell times and thus reduce delays.[32] The large spaces around the doors create a flexible space, with flip-down seats for quiet times of day, and standing space in times of overcrowding where the objective is to ensure that all passengers can board.[33] Since the units are not fitted with fixed luggage racks (as these often reduce capacity on peak-time commuter trains) the space by the doors can also be used to store luggage and prams - thus not impacting on the capacity of the train or safety of passengers wishing to alight or board. In maintaining an objective for the interior to be spacious, seats are cantilevered off the body frame and there are no internal doors, with open gangways between carriages.[34]

The units were designed with a projected lifespan of 35 years and it was planned they will operate beyond 2050 with maintenance and refurbishment.[35] A feature is a digital seat reservation system, however this is to future-proof the train and Northern did not envisage using it on many, if any routes. Although the vast majority of services will operate as three- or four-car formations (two-car units doubled), some three-car units will be doubled up to form six-car services, such as the route between Manchester Airport and Liverpool via Warrington Central. As a result, they are fitted with Automatic Selective Door Operation (ASDO) for use on routes where station platform lengths are not sufficient to fully accommodate the train. This ASDO system is linked to an automated system which informs the passengers through both audio announcements and the passenger information screens in each saloon.


Northern Trains[edit]

British Rail Class 195 in Northern Trains service at Bradford Interchange in 2020

On 1 March 2020 the Northern franchise was taken over by Northern Trains.[36] All Class 195 units transferred to Northern Trains on 1 March 2020 along with the rest of the Northern fleet.

Named units[edit]

  • 195104 – Deva Victrix[37]
  • 195109 – Pride of Cumbria[38]
  • 195111 – Key Worker[39]
  • 195116 – Proud To Be Northern[40]
  • 195128 – Calder Champion[41]

Fleet details[edit]

Originally, 25 two-car and 30 three-car units were ordered; in November 2018 it was announced that an additional 3 three-car units had been ordered.[4] A tender notice for a further 20 multiple units was published in December 2021.[2]

Class Operator Number Year Built Cars Unit nos.
Class 195/0 Northern Trains 25 2017-2020 2 195001–195025
Class 195/1 33 3 195101–195133
Northern Trains Class 195/0
Northern Trains Class 195/1

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Northern launches new £500m fleet of 101 trains". BBC News. 26 June 2019. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  2. ^ Clinnick, Richard (31 January 2018). "Northern unveils its first new CAF-built train". Rail. Peterborough.
  3. ^ Clinnick, Richard (23 October 2018). "Northern to introduce first new trains from December". Rail. Peterborough. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
  4. ^ a b c "UK railway news round-up". Rail Business UK. London. 15 November 2018.
  5. ^ "Northern Franchise Agreement" (PDF). Eversheds LLP. 2015. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
  6. ^ a b c "Class 195". Eversholt Rail. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
  7. ^ "CIVITY DIESEL REGIONAL TRAIN FOR NORTHERN FRANCHISE". CAF. Archived from the original on 5 May 2021. Retrieved 2 December 2021.
  8. ^ "140 MTU PowerPacks from Rolls-Royce for CAF regional trains in the North of England" (Press release). MTU. 3 February 2017. Archived from the original on 4 February 2017.
  9. ^ "MTU Rail Power for the UK & Ireland" (PDF). Rolls Royce. September 2018.
  10. ^ "140 MTU powerpacks from Rolls-Royce for CAF regional trains in the North of England" (Press release). MTU. 3 February 2017. Archived from the original on 4 February 2017.
  11. ^ "Engines ordered for Civity UK DMUs". Railway Gazette International. London. 3 February 2017. Retrieved 2 July 2019.
  12. ^ [1] DIESEL ENGINE 6H 1800
  13. ^ "Northern's trains from Spain". Rail Engineer. Coalville. 3 April 2018. Archived from the original on 30 October 2020. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  14. ^ "Long Term Passenger Rolling Stock Strategy for the Rail Industry, Fourth Edition, March 2016". Rail Delivery Group. Retrieved 22 March 2016.[permanent dead link]
  15. ^ a b c Shirres, David (3 April 2018). "Northern's trains from Spain". Railway Engineer. Archived from the original on 15 September 2018. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
  16. ^ @northernassist (28 November 2018). "#ProudToBeHelping" (Tweet). Retrieved 1 December 2018 – via Twitter.
  17. ^ "CAF completes final Class 195 DMU for Northern". Railway Gazette. 11 December 2020. Retrieved 11 May 2021.
  18. ^ "McLoughlin overrules officials who called Pacer replacement 'poor value'". Rail Technology Magazine. 27 February 2015.
  19. ^ "Proposals to withdraw Pacer trains by 2020". House of Commons. 27 February 2015.
  20. ^ "Pacer vehicles withdrawal: confirming the ministerial direction". 27 February 2015. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
  21. ^ "Intention to award Northern franchise to Arriva". Arriva Rail North. Archived from the original on 17 March 2016. Retrieved 22 March 2016.
  22. ^ "Northern's new trains set to trigger fleet rejuvenation". Rail. Peterborough. 13 February 2018. Retrieved 14 September 2018. However, Northern believed that withdrawal of the Pacers by the end of next year meant attention would then turn to the quality of the remaining trains. There was concern that Class '150', '155' and '156' DMUs dating from 1985 onwards will still be in traffic into the next decade, and the operator believes the standards set by the new '195' and '331' fleets will generate an evaluation of what is on offer.
  23. ^ a b Lea, Robert (23 January 2016). "Spain wins £490m race to replace unloved Pacer". The Times. London. Retrieved 15 September 2018. However, the Arriva order needed a substantial number of diesel trains, too, because so much of the network in the north is not electrified. It is understood that Bombardier declined to bid for the diesel train sets. The Spanish acquisition is likely to have been determined by CAF's ability to deliver the trains more quickly than rivals.
  24. ^ "CAF begins production of new trains for Northern".
  25. ^ RAIL magazine issue 823
  26. ^ Barrow, Keith (8 May 2018). "First CAF Civity EMU for Northern on test at Velim". International Railway Journal. Retrieved 26 July 2018.
  27. ^ "First of Northern's £500m Class 195 train fleet arrives in the UK". Railway Technology. 29 June 2018. Retrieved 26 July 2018.
  28. ^ Clinnick, Richard (15 September 2018). "CAF DMUs for Northern begin main line testing". Rail. Peterborough. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  29. ^ Shires, David (3 April 2018). "Northern's trains from Spain". Rail Engineer. Retrieved 2 November 2019. Other than their power source, drive train and coach formations, the Class 195 and 331 units are virtually identical.
  30. ^ only one toilet per train
  31. ^ Clinnick, Richard (9 September 2019). "On their way to Northern". Rail. Peterborough. Retrieved 2 November 2019. Customer Information Screens are being fitted. Hyde says these will display live information supplied by the Darwin system, enabling passengers to access the latest travel details not just for the service they are on, but also elsewhere on the network (should that be required).
  32. ^ Shires, David (3 April 2018). "Northern's trains from Spain". Rail Engineer. Retrieved 2 November 2019. The electrically powered double-leaf sliding plug doors are at 1/3 and 2/3 car door positions and have large vestibules to provide good movement within the coach to minimise dwell times.
  33. ^ "New trains in 2019 6: Northern's Class 195 and 331". busandtrainuser. 10 July 2019. Retrieved 2 November 2019. Aside from the seats and tables one noticeable feature as you board are the wide doorway vestibule areas leading into the saloon but the area is also useful to store over-sized suitcases passengers now wheel around especially on the Airport run as well as prams. It's a good idea and works well on Thameslink where there's a very wide area around each set of doors.
  34. ^ Bigland, Paul (28 June 2019). "Rolling blog: New trains for Northern". Retrieved 2 November 2019. Looking through the gangway into the next car. There are no internal doors, giving a feeling of spaciousness.
  35. ^ Shires, David (3 April 2018). "Northern's trains from Spain". Rail Engineer. Retrieved 2 November 2019. They have a 35-year design life.
  36. ^ Syal, Rajeev; Topham, Gwyn (2 January 2020). "Troubled rail firm Northern brought under government control". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  37. ^ Holmes, David (14 October 2019). "New 100mph trains to operate on Chester to Leeds route". Chester Chronicle. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
  38. ^ "Pride of Cumbria marks 175 years of railway history". Rail Insider. 1 October 2021. Retrieved 10 October 2021.
  39. ^ Northern Trains [@northernassist] (23 April 2020). "🚆 195111, now aptly known as 'Key Worker', is the first of 4 newly covered trains heading out on our network today. We're sure you'll agree, it looks great..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  40. ^ Bendall, Simon; Nicholls, Mark (September 2019). "Fleet Review". Railways Illustrated. No. 199. p. 18.
  41. ^ "Calder Valley sees latest launch of Northern's new trains" (Press release). Northern. 18 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.