Buddy Rich at the Arcadia Ballroom in New York City, May 1947.
|Birth name||Bernard Rich|
|Also known as||Traps the Drum Wonder (as a boy)
"B" (as an adult)
September 30, 1917|
Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
|Died||April 2, 1987
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
|Genres||Jazz, big band, swing, bebop|
|Occupation(s)||Musician, songwriter, bandleader, actor|
|Instruments||Drums, percussion, vocals|
|Labels||Clef, Norgran, Verve, RCA, Pacific Jazz, Liberty, Blue Note, Groove Merchant, EmArcy, Mercury, MCA, Argo|
|Associated acts||Joe Marsala, Bunny Berigan, Artie Shaw, Tommy Dorsey, Benny Carter, Harry James, Les Brown, Frank Sinatra, Charlie Ventura, Jazz at the Philharmonic, Nat King Cole, Ella Fitzgerald, Gene Krupa, Louis Armstrong|
Known for his virtuoso technique, power and speed, Rich was billed as "the world's greatest drummer" during his career. He performed with many bandleaders, most notably Tommy Dorsey, Harry James, Count Basie, and led his own "Buddy Rich Big Band".
- 1 Biography
- 2 Drumming technique and well-known performances
- 3 Instruments
- 4 Personality
- 5 Legacy
- 6 Discography
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Rich was born in Brooklyn to Jewish-American parents Bess (née Skolnik) and Robert Rich, both vaudevillians.:6 His talent for rhythm was first noted by his father, who saw that Buddy could keep a steady beat with spoons at the age of one. He began playing drums in vaudeville when he was 18 months old, billed as "Traps the Drum Wonder". At the peak of Rich's childhood career, he was reportedly the second-highest paid child entertainer in the world (after Jackie Coogan).
At age 11, he was performing as a bandleader. He received no formal drum instruction and went so far as to claim that instruction would only degrade his musical talent. He also never admitted to practicing, claiming to play the drums only during performances and was not known to read music.
Rich first played jazz with a major group in 1937 with Joe Marsala and guitarist Jack Lemaire. He then played with Bunny Berigan (1938) and Artie Shaw (1939), and even instructed a 14-year-old Mel Brooks in drumming for a short period when playing for Shaw. At 21, Rich participated in his first major recording with the Vic Schoen Orchestra (the band that backed the Andrews Sisters). In 1938, he was hired to play in Tommy Dorsey's orchestra, where he met and performed with Frank Sinatra. In 1942, Rich left the Dorsey band to join the United States Marine Corps. Rich served as a judo instructor, never saw combat, and was discharged for medical reasons. He rejoined the Dorsey group after leaving the Marines two years later. In 1946, Rich formed his own band with financial support from Sinatra, and continued to lead different groups on and off until the early fifties.:92, 95
In addition to Tommy Dorsey (1939–42, 1945, 1954–55), Rich also played with Benny Carter (1942), Harry James (1953–56–62, 1964, 1965), Les Brown, Charlie Ventura, and Jazz at the Philharmonic, as well as leading his own band and performing with all-star groups. In the early fifties Rich played with Dorsey and began to perform with trumpeter Harry James, an association which lasted until 1966. In 1966, Rich left James to develop a new big band. For most of the period from 1966 until his death, he led successful big bands in an era when the popularity of big bands had waned from their 1930s and 1940s peak. In this later period, Rich continued to play clubs, but stated in multiple interviews that the great majority of his big bands' performances were at high schools, colleges and universities, with club performances done to a much lesser degree. Rich also served as the session drummer for many recordings, where his playing was often much more understated than in his own big-band performances. Especially notable were Rich's sessions for recordings of Ella Fitzgerald and Louis Armstrong, on which he worked with pianist Oscar Peterson and his famous trio featuring bassist Ray Brown and guitarist Herb Ellis. In 1968 Rich collaborated with the Indian tabla player Ustad Alla Rakha in the studio album "Rich à la Rakha" by Buddy Rich and Alla Rakha.
The "West Side Story Medley"
Perhaps his most popular later performance was a big-band arrangement of a medley derived from Leonard Bernstein's West Side Story, first released on the 1966 album Swingin' New Big Band. The "West Side Story medley" is a complex big-band arrangement which highlights Rich's ability to blend the rhythm of his drumming into his band's playing of the musical chart. Penned by Bill Reddie, Rich received the West Side Story arrangement of Leonard Bernstein's melodies from the famed musical in the mid-1960s and found it challenging. It consists of many rapid-fire time changes and signatures and took almost a month of constant rehearsals to perfect. It later became a staple in all his performances, clocking in at various lengths from seven to fifteen minutes. In 2002, a DVD was released called The Lost West Side Story Tapes that captured a 1985 performance of this along with other numbers.
Channel One Suite
After the "West Side Story Medley", Rich's most famous performance was the "Channel One Suite" by Bill Reddie. Like the "West Side Story Medley", the "Channel One Suite" generally was a quite long performance ranging from about 12 minutes to about 26 minutes and usually contained two or three drum solos. A recording of one of his live performances was released in January 2001, which contained a 26-minute "Channel One Suite".
A live recording of the "Channel One Suite" is featured on the 1968 Buddy Rich Big Band album, Mercy, Mercy, recorded at Caesars Palace in 1968. The album received acclaim as the "finest all-round recording by Buddy Rich's big band".
In the 1950s, Rich was a frequent guest on The Steve Allen Show and other television variety shows. Beginning in 1962, Rich was a frequent guest on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson and The Merv Griffin Show, among others, and appeared with his big band on British television, on Michael Parkinson's talk show Parkinson and on the Terry Wogan Show (the last time on October 29, 1986, several months before Rich's death). Rich starred in a 1967 summer replacement television series called Away We Go along with singer Buddy Greco and comedian George Carlin.
In 1973, PBS broadcast and syndicated Rich's February 6, 1973, performance at the Top of the Plaza in Rochester, New York. It was the first time thousands of drummers were exposed to Buddy in a full-length concert setting, and many drummers continue to name this program as a prime influence on their own playing. One of his most widely seen television performances was in a 1981 episode of The Muppet Show, in which he engaged Muppet drummer "Animal" (played by Ronnie Verrell) in a drum battle. Rich's famous televised drum battles also included Gene Krupa, Ed Shaughnessy and Louie Bellson.
Buddy Rich continued touring and performing until the end of his life. On April 2, 1987, he died of heart failure following surgery for a malignant brain tumor. He was interred in the Westwood Village Memorial Park Cemetery in Los Angeles. He was 69.
Drumming technique and well-known performances
Rich typically held his sticks using the traditional grip. He also used the matched grip technique at times when playing on the floor toms (as captured in early video footage) and sometimes around the drum set while performing cross-stickings (crossing arm over arm), which was one of his party tricks, often leading to loud cheers from the audience. Another technique he used to impress during his performances was the stick-trick : a fast roll performed by slapping two drumsticks together in a circular motion using "taps" or single-stroke stickings.
He often used contrasting techniques to keep long drum solos from getting mundane. Aside from his energetic, explosive displays, he would go into quieter passages. One passage he would use in most solos started with a simple single-stroke roll on the snare picking up speed and power, then slowly moving his sticks closer to the rim as he got quieter, and eventually playing on just the rim itself while still maintaining speed. Then he would reverse the effect and slowly move towards the center of the snare while increasing power.
Though well known as an explosive, powerful drummer, he did occasionally use brushes. On one album, 1955's The Lionel Hampton Art Tatum Buddy Rich Trio, Rich played with brushes almost exclusively throughout. In 1942, Rich and drum teacher Henry Adler co-authored the instructional book Buddy Rich's Modern Interpretation of Snare Drum Rudiments, regarded as one of the more popular snare-drum rudiment books One of Adler's former students introduced Adler to Rich. Adler said, "The kid told me Buddy played better than [Gene] Krupa. Buddy was only in his teens at the time and his friend was my first pupil. Buddy played and I watched his hands. Well, he knocked me right out. He did everything I wanted to do, and he did it with such ease. When I met his folks, I asked them who his teacher was. 'He never studied', they told me. That made me feel very good. I realized that it was something physical, not only mental, that you had to have."
In a 1985 interview, Adler clarified the extent of his teacher-student relationship with Rich and their collaboration on the instructional book. "I had nothing to do with [the rumor that I taught Buddy how to play]. That was a result of Tommy Dorsey's introduction to the Buddy Rich book", Adler said. "I used to go around denying it, knowing that Buddy was a natural player. Sure, he studied with me, but he didn't come to me to learn how to hold the drumsticks. I set out to teach Buddy to read. He'd take six lessons, go on the road for six weeks and come back. He didn't have time to practice. ... Tommy Dorsey wanted Buddy to write a book and he told him to get in touch with me. I did the book and Tommy wrote the foreword. Technically, I was Buddy's teacher, but I came along after he had already acquired his technique."
When asked about Rich's ability to read music, Bobby Shew, lead trumpeter in Rich's mid-60s big band replied: "No. He'd always have a drummer there during rehearsals to read and play the parts initially on new arrangements... He'd only have to listen to a chart once and he'd have it memorized. We'd run through it and he'd know exactly how it went, how many measures it ran and what he'd have to do to drive it... The guy had the most natural instincts."
Rich was known as a performer and endorser of Ludwig, Slingerland and Rogers Drums. He switched exclusively to Ludwig for much of the 1970s to the early 1980s. While recovering from a heart attack in 1983, Rich was presented with a 1940s-vintage Slingerland Radio King set – refurbished by Joe MacSweeney of Eames Drums – which he used until his death in 1987. Rich's typical setup included a 14"X24" bass drum, a 9"X13" mounted tom, two 16"X16" floor toms (with the second tom serving as a towel holder), and a 5.5"X14" snare drum. His cymbals were typically Avedis Zildjian: 14" New Beat hi-hats, 20" medium ride, 6" or 8" splash, two 18" crashes (thin and medium-thin), and later a 22" swish.
Rich was known to have a short temper. Dusty Springfield reportedly slapped Rich after several days of "putting up with Rich's insults and show-biz sabotage". He was also known for his rivalry with Frank Sinatra—which sometimes ended in brawls—when both were members of Tommy Dorsey's band. However, the two remained lifelong friends and Sinatra delivered a eulogy at Rich's funeral. Billy Cobham stated he once met Rich in a club and asked him to sign his snare but Rich dropped it down the stairs.
According to bassist Bill Crow, Rich reacted strongly to Max Roach's increasing popularity when he was the drummer for Charlie Parker, especially when a jazz critic stated Roach had topped Rich as the world's greatest drummer. Drummer John JR Robinson told Crow he was with Roach when Rich came driving with a beautiful woman next to him and Rich yelled: "Hey, Max! Top this!". Nonetheless the two worked together for the album Rich Versus Roach (1959) and Roach appeared on the Rich tribute album Burning For Buddy (1994).
Rich preferred to concentrate his efforts on big band and jazz music, rarely venturing outside of those genres. He held a low opinion of country and rock and declined to involve himself with those genres. During the medical therapy prior to his death, a nurse asked him whether he was allergic to anything, to whom Rich replied "Yes, country and western music".
The Bus Tapes
Rich's temper, mercurial attitude, and imposing personality were documented in secret recordings that pianist Lee Musiker made during some of his tantrums on tour buses and backstage in the early 1980s. These recordings, long circulated in bootleg form, have done much to fuel the reputation of Rich's personality. The tapes were popular with comedians Jerry Seinfeld and Larry David, who used three quotes from them more or less verbatim on Seinfeld:
- "If I have to tell you again, we're gonna take it outside and I'm gonna show you what it's like!" ("The Opposite")
- "This guy – this is not my kind of guy." ("The Understudy")
- "Then let's see how he does, up there, without all the assistance!" ("The Butter Shave")
On one recording, Rich threatens to fire Dave Panichi, a trombonist, for having a beard. While he threatened many times to fire members of his band, he seldom did so, and for the most part he lauded his musicians during television and print interviews. The day before Rich died, he was visited by Mel Tormé, who claims that one of Rich's last requests was to hear the tapes that featured his angry outbursts. At the time, Tormé was working on an authorized biography of Rich, which was released after Rich's death, titled Traps – The Drum Wonder: The Life of Buddy Rich. Tormé included edited excerpts of the tapes in the book, but never played them for Rich.:215
Rich's technique, including speed, smooth execution and precision, is one of the most coveted in drumming and has become a common standard. Gene Krupa defined him as "the greatest drummer ever to have drawn breath".
Rich's influence extended from jazz to rock music and jazz fusion. He influenced drummers such as Led Zeppelin's John Bonham, Deep Purple's Ian Paice, Black Sabbath's Bill Ward, and Emerson, Lake & Palmer's Carl Palmer. Phil Collins stopped using two bass drums and started playing the hi-hat after reading Rich's opinion on the importance of the hi-hat. Queen drummer Roger Taylor has acknowledged Rich as the best drummer he ever saw for sheer technique. Topper Headon of the punk rock band the Clash often stated Buddy Rich and Billy Cobham as his favourite drummers.
Since Rich's death, a number of memorial concerts have been held. In 1994, the Rich tribute album Burning for Buddy: A Tribute to the Music of Buddy Rich was released. Produced by Rush drummer/lyricist Neil Peart, the album features performances of Rich staples by a number of jazz and rock drummers such as Joe Morello, Steve Gadd, Max Roach, Billy Cobham, Dave Weckl, Simon Phillips, Steve Smith, and Peart himself, accompanied by the Buddy Rich Big Band. A second volume was issued in 1997. Phil Collins also featured in a DVD tribute organized by Rich's daughter, A Salute to Buddy Rich, which included Steve Smith and Dennis Chambers.
In the 2014 film Whiplash, a first-year jazz student at the prestigious (fictional) Shaffer Conservatory aspires to become one of the greats like Buddy Rich; though both the film's treatment of music in general and jazz in particular, and the choice of Rich as a jazz personality to aspire to, have been criticized by jazz aficionados.
In 2016, Rolling Stone ranked Buddy Rich no.15 in their list of the 100 Greatest Drummers of all time.
Studio and live albums as leader or co-leader
- 1953: The Flip Phillips Buddy Rich Trio (Clef Records)
- 1954: The Swinging Buddy Rich (Norgran Records)
- 1955: Sing and Swing with Buddy Rich (Norgran)
- 1955: Buddy and Sweets (Norgran)
- 1955: The Lester Young Buddy Rich Trio (Norgran)
- 1955: The Wailing Buddy Rich (Norgran)
- 1955: Krupa and Rich (Clef) – with Gene Krupa
- 1955: The Lionel Hampton Art Tatum Buddy Rich Trio (Clef)
- 1956: Buddy Rich Sings Johnny Mercer (Verve Records)
- 1956: This One's for Basie (Verve) – re-issued 1967 as Big Band Shout
- 1957: Buddy Rich Just Sings (Verve)
- 1958: Buddy Rich in Miami (Verve)
- 1959: Richcraft (Mercury Records) – also The Rich Rebellion (Wing)
- 1959: Rich versus Roach (Mercury) – with Max Roach
- 1959: The Voice is Rich (Mercury)
- 1960: The Driver (EmArcy Records)
- 1961: Playtime (Argo Records)
- 1961: Blues Caravan (Verve)
- 1962: Burnin' Beat (Verve) – with Gene Krupa
- 1965: Are You Ready for This? (Roost) – with Louie Bellson
- 1966: Swingin' New Big Band (Pacific Jazz Records/Blue Note Records)
- 1966: The Sounds of '66 (Reprise Records) – Live, with Sammy Davis, Jr.
- 1967: Big Swing Face (Pacific Jazz) – Live
- 1967: The New One! (Pacific Jazz) – aka Take it Away
- 1968: Rich à la Rakha (World Pacific) – with Alla Rakha
- 1968: Mercy, Mercy (Pacific Jazz) – Live
- 1969: Buddy & Soul (Pacific Jazz) – Live
- 1970: Keep the Customer Satisfied (Liberty Records) – Live
- 1971: A Different Drummer (RCA Records)
- 1971: Rich in London (RCA) – expanded UK release – Buddy Rich: Very Alive at Ronnie Scott's (RCA (UK)) – Live
- 1971: Conversations (with Louie Bellson, Kenny Clare, & the Bobby Lamb/Ray Premru Orch) (London Records) – Reissued 2011
- 1972: Stick It (RCA)
- 1973: The Roar of '74 (Groove Merchant Records)
- 1974: Very Live at Buddy's Place (Groove Merchant) – Live
- 1974: Transition (Groove Merchant) – with Lionel Hampton
- 1974: The Last Blues Album, Vol. 1 (Groove Merchant)
- 1975: Big Band Machine (Groove Merchant)
- 1976: Speak No Evil (RCA)
- 1977: Buddy Rich Plays and Plays and Plays (RCA)
- 1977: Lionel Hampton Presents Buddy Rich (Who's Who in Jazz) – aka Buddy's Cherokee... also released as The Sound of Jazz, Vol 10
- 1977: Class of '78 (The Great American Gramophone Company) – also released as The Greatest Drummer That Ever Lived with The Best Band I Ever Had
- 1978: Together Again: For the First Time (Gryphon/Century) – aka When I Found You (with Mel Tormé)
- 1980: Live at Ronnie Scott's (DRG) – Live. aka The Man from Planet Jazz
- 1981: The Buddy Rich Band (MCA)
- 1982: Live at the 1982 Montreal Jazz Festival (Hudson Music)
- 1983: Rich and Famous (Amway) – aka The Magic of Buddy Rich, aka Buddy Rich – The Man
- 1985: Mr. Drums: ...Live on King Street (Cafe) – "Live" in-studio concert recording. Also released on (2 separate) video discs
Posthumous releases of previously unreleased recordings
- 1993: Europe '77 (Magic)
- 1996: Buddy Rich & His Big Band At Stadthalle Leonberg, Germany 10 July 1986 (Jazz Band)
- 2001: Wham! The Buddy Rich Big Band Live (Label M)
- 2004: No Funny Hats (Lightyear)
- 2007: Time Out (Lightyear)
- 2009: Buddy Rich Up Close (Drum Channel, LLC) - DVD and CD package
- 2015: Birdland (Buddy Rich's best hits)
Notable compilation and retrospective albums
- 1960: The Drum Battle (Gene Krupa and Buddy Rich at JATP) (Verve)
- 1964: The Best of Buddy Rich (Pacific Jazz)
- 1969: Super Rich (Verve)
- 1971: Time Being (Bluebird/RCA)
- 1987: Compact Jazz: Buddy Rich (Verve)
- 1990: Compact Jazz: Gene Krupa & Buddy Rich (Verve)
- 1992: No Jive (Novus)
- 1994: Burning For Buddy: A Tribute to the Music Of Buddy Rich (Atlantic Records) – Produced By Neil Peart
- 1998: Buddy Rich: The Legendary '47–'48 Orchestra Vol. 1 (Hep Records)
- 1998: Buddy Rich: The Legendary '46–'48 Orchestra Vol. 2 (Hep)
- 2005: Classic EmArcy, Verve, Small Group Buddy Rich Sessions (Mosaic Records No. 232) – 7 CD box set
|This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (November 2015)|
With Count Basie
With Benny Carter
- Alone Together (Norgran, 1952 )
- Benny Carter Plays Pretty (Norgran, 1954)
- New Jazz Sounds (Norgran, 1954)
With Roy Eldridge
- Little Jazz (Clef, 1954)
With Harry James
With Charlie Parker
- Big Band (Clef, 1954)
- Pres and Sweets (Norgran, 1955)
- Yanow, Scott. "Artist Biography by Scott Yanow". AllMusic. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
- Tormé, Mel (1991). Traps – The Drum Wonder: The Life of Buddy Rich. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-1888408034.
- Barron, James, New York Times obituary, "Buddy Rich...dies". April 3, 1987; accessed March 9, 2010.
- Making of Burning for Buddy Part III DVD – Cathy Rich Interview
- Howard, Jeffrey K., FilmScoreMonthly.com "Mel Brooks Interview", 1997
- "Encyclopedia of Jazz – Buddy (Bernard) Rich". Jazz.com. Retrieved February 25, 2011.
- Jazz.com, Encyclopedia of Jazz Musicians, "Buddy (Bernard) Rich"; accessed February 28, 2010.
- louisarmstronghouse.org, "Louis Armstrong House Museum", ; accessed October 30, 2014.
- Bowers, Jack. "Buddy Rich: The Lost Tapes", All About Jazz. December 9, 2005; accessed June 27, 2007
- Jack Bowers. "Buddy Rich: The Lost Tapes". All About Jazz. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
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- Scott Yanow. "Mercy, Mercy - Buddy Rich - Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards - AllMusic". AllMusic. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
- Numerous sources include Scott Yanow: Jazz on Film: The Complete Story of the Musicians & Music Onscreen (2004 ISBN 0-87930-783-8), and Ben Alba: Inventing Late Night: Steve Allen and the Original Tonight Show (2005); ISBN 1-59102-342-4
- imdb.com; accessed April 5, 2010.
- "Away We Go". IMDB. 1967. Retrieved October 12, 2011.
- Buddy Rich – At the Top
- Smith, Gareth Dylan (2013). I Drum, Therefore I Am: Being and Becoming a Drummer. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 9781409473084.
- "Buddy Rich Parkinson the last interview 1987 Part 1". YouTube. Retrieved January 25, 2015.
- Buddy Rich at Find a Grave
- "Henry Adler- Legendary Drum Teacher", February 4, 2011.
- Totaldrumsets.com, "Buddy Rich's Modern Interpretation Of The Snare Drum Rudiments", January 1, 2006.
- "Bobby Shew on Buddy Rich (Part 2)". JazzWax. Retrieved 2016-04-23.
- Cohan, Jon. Star Sets: Drum Kits of the Great Drummers, Hal Leonard Corporation. 1995, p. 23.
- Cohan, Jon. Star Sets: Drum Kits of the Great Drummers, Hal Leonard Corporation. 1995, p. 21.
- "www.dustyspringfield.info". dustyspringfield.info. Retrieved February 25, 2011.
- "www.powells.com". powells.com. November 9, 2001. Retrieved February 25, 2011.
- "Buddy Rich: The World's Greatest Drummer". moderndrummer.com. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
- "Interview: drummer Billy Cobham and his fusion jazz career". ft.com. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
- Korall, Burt. Drummin' Men: The Heartbeat of Jazz The Bebop Years, Oxford University Press, 2004, p.94
- "Buddy Rich, Frenetic Jazz Drummer, Dies". Los Angeles Times. April 3, 1987. Retrieved December 20, 2015.
- "Buddy Rich on Larry King Live!". YouTube.com. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
- Milkowski, Bill. "Jazz Articles: The Buddy Rich Tapes – Jazz Articles". Jazztimes.com. Retrieved February 25, 2011.
- Jerry Seinfeld (Interviewee) (2005). Seinfeld Season 6 "Inside Looks" featurette on "The Understudy" (DVD). Sony Pictures Home Entertainment. Event occurs at 00:04:04. Retrieved June 24, 2007.
- Audio tape recording of Buddy Rich tirade – Transcription by Ientilucci, Emmett J. "Buddy Rich: World's Greatest Drummer, Audio Four" (link). Accessed January, 2012
- "I Got Nothin' for You", Dave Panichi discusses the Buddy Rich 'scream tapes' with Richard Cooke in The Monthly, July 2007 (link).
- Eder, Bruce. "John Bonham". AllMusic. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
- Julie, Kevin J. "An Exclusive Interview With Deep Purple's Drummer". thehighwaystar.com. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
- "Never say Die!: Bill Ward interview". Heavy—The Story of Metal. staythirstymedia.com. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
- Steenweg, Clemens. "Carl Palmer interview". classicrock-startpage.com. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
- Alexander, Susan. "Phil Collins On the Move". Modern Drummer. March 1979.
- "Roger's Drum Master Class (Music Works - BBC World Service, November 28 1993)". Queen Online. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
- Kelman, John (14 July 2004). "A Salute To Buddy Rich". All About Jazz. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "Buddy Rich's Grandson, Nick Rich". bcwtj.forumotion.com. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
- "Whiplash: the cult of the drummer". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-04-23.
- "Getting Jazz Right in the Movies, Richard Brody". www.newyorker.com. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- "Whiplash drums up the tension, but doesn't do justice to jazz, Alayne McGregor". ottawajazzscene.ca. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- "J.K. Simmons is Malevolent, Brilliant in 'Whiplash', Matt Stieb". San Antonio Current. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- Norgran, Clef, Verve, Mercury, Pacific Jazz, etc. discographies at jazzdisco.org
- "www.hepjazz.com". hepjazz.com. Retrieved February 25, 2011.
- "Harry James And His Orchestra – Wild About Harry". Discogs. Retrieved 2015-12-18.
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