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|Birth name||Earl Rudolph Powell|
|Born||September 27, 1924|
Harlem, New York, U.S.
|Died||July 31, 1966 (aged 41)|
New York City, New York, U.S.
|Labels||Roost, Blue Note, Mercury, Norgran, Clef, Verve|
|Associated acts||Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, Art Blakey, Miles Davis, Dexter Gordon, Charles Mingus, Sonny Rollins|
Earl Rudolph "Bud" Powell (September 27, 1924 – July 31, 1966) was an American jazz pianist and composer. Along with Charlie Parker, Thelonious Monk, and Dizzy Gillespie, Powell was a leading figure in the development of modern jazz. His virtuosity led many to call him the Charlie Parker of the piano. Powell was also a composer, and many jazz critics credit his works and his playing as having "greatly extended the range of jazz harmony".
Life and career
He was born in Harlem, New York, United States. Powell's father was a stride pianist. Powell started classical piano lessons at the age of five. His teacher, hired by his father, was a West Indian man named Rawlins. At 10 years of age, Powell showed interest in the swing music that could be heard all over the neighborhood. He first appeared in public at a rent party, where he mimicked Fats Waller's playing style. The first jazz composition that he mastered was James P. Johnson's "Carolina Shout". Powell's older brother, William, played trumpet and violin, and by the age of 15 Powell was playing in William's band. Powell heard Art Tatum on the radio and tried to match his technique. Powell's younger brother, Richie Powell, was also a noted bebop pianist.
Early to mid-1940s
In his youth Powell listened to the adventurous performances at Uptown House, a venue near his home. This was where Charlie Parker first appeared as a solo act when he briefly lived in New York. Thelonious Monk played at Uptown House. When Monk met Powell he introduced Powell to musicians who were starting to play bebop at Minton's Playhouse. Monk was a resident pianist, and he presented Powell as his protégé. Their mutual affection grew, and Monk became Powell's greatest mentor. Powell eagerly experimented with Monk's idea. Monk's composition "In Walked Bud" is a tribute to their time together in Harlem. Powell was engaged in a series of dance bands, his incubation culminating in becoming the pianist for the swing orchestra of Cootie Williams. In late 1943 he was offered the chance to appear at a nightclub with the quintet of Oscar Pettiford and Dizzy Gillespie, but Powell's mother decided he would continue with the more secure job with the popular Williams.
Powell was the pianist on a handful of Williams's recording dates in 1944. The last included the first recording of Monk's "'Round Midnight". His job with Williams was terminated in Philadelphia in January 1945. After the band finished for the night, Powell wandered near Broad Street Station and was apprehended, drunk, by the private railroad police. He was beaten by them and incarcerated briefly by the city police. Ten days after his release, his headaches persisted and he was hospitalized at Bellevue, an observation ward, and then in a state psychiatric hospital sixty miles away. He remained there for two and a half months.
Powell resumed playing in Manhattan after his release. In 1945–46 he recorded with Frank Socolow, Sarah Vaughan, Dexter Gordon, J. J. Johnson, Sonny Stitt, Fats Navarro, and Kenny Clarke. Powell became known for his sight-reading and his skill at fast tempos. Charlie Parker chose Powell to be his pianist on a May 1947 quintet recording session with Miles Davis, Tommy Potter, and Max Roach; this was the only studio session in which Parker and Powell played together.
The Parker session was the only appearance that Powell made in a studio in 1947. In November, he had an altercation with a customer at a bar in Harlem. In the ensuing fight, Powell was hit over his eye with a bottle. When the staff at Harlem Hospital found him incoherent and rambunctious, they sent him to Bellevue, which had a record of his previous confinements. He was sent to Creedmoor State Hospital, where he spent eleven months. Powell adjusted to being in the hospital, though in psychiatric interviews he expressed feelings of persecution founded in racism. From February to April 1948, he received electroconvulsive therapy after an outburst which may have been prompted by learning from his girlfriend that she was pregnant with their child. The electroconvulsive therapy was considered ineffective, so the doctors gave him a second series of treatments in May. He was released in October 1948.
Solo and trio recordings (1949–1958)
After a brief hospitalization in early 1949, Powell made several recordings over the next two and a half years, most of them for Blue Note, Mercury, Norgran, and Clef. He also recorded that summer for two independent producers, a session that resulted in eight masters. Max Roach and Curly Russell were his accompanists. The recordings were unreleased till 1950, when Roost Records bought the masters and released them on a series of 78 rpm records. Musicologist Guthrie Ramsey wrote of the session that "Powell proves himself the equal of any of the other beboppers in technique, versatility, and feeling." The first Blue Note session in August 1949 included Fats Navarro, Sonny Rollins, Tommy Potter and Roy Haynes, and the compositions "Bouncing with Bud" and "Dance of the Infidels". The second Blue Note session in 1951 was a trio with Curley Russell and Max Roach and included "Parisian Thoroughfare" and "Un Poco Loco". The latter was selected by literary critic Harold Bloom for his short list of the greatest works of twentieth-century American art. Sessions for Granz included Ray Brown, George Duvivier, Percy Heath, Roach, Russell, Lloyd Trotman, Art Blakey, Kenny Clarke, Osie Johnson, Buddy Rich, and Art Taylor.
Powell's rivalry with Parker led to feuding and bitterness on the bandstand. Contributing factors were Powell's worsening mental and physical health. Powell recorded for Blue Note and Granz throughout the 1950s, interrupted by another stay in a psychiatric facility from late 1951 to early 1953 after being arrested for possession of heroin. He was released into the guardianship of Oscar Goodstein, owner of the Birdland nightclub. A 1953 trio session for Blue Note with Duvivier and Taylor included Powell's composition "Glass Enclosure", the title inspired possibly by his near-imprisonment in Goodstein's apartment. On May 15, 1953 he played at Massey Hall in Toronto with the quintet, including Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, Charles Mingus, and Max Roach. The performance was recorded and released by Debut Records as the album Jazz at Massey Hall. After being released from the hospital, his piano playing was negatively affected by the Largactil he was taking as treatment for schizophrenia. In 1956 his brother Richie Powell and trumpeter Clifford Brown were killed in a car crash.
After several more periods in the hospital, Powell moved to Paris in 1959 with Altevia "Buttercup" Edwards and her son, John. Powell had met Edwards directly after an incarceration in 1954. The couple and child moved into the Hotel La Louisiane. She managed his finances and his medicine. Powell continued to perform and record.
Last years (1964–1966)
In 1963, Powell contracted tuberculosis. During the next year, he returned to New York to perform at Birdland with drummer Horace Arnold and bassist John Ore. His performances during these years were adversely affected by his alcoholism. His emotions became unbalanced, and he was hospitalized in New York after months of erratic behavior and self-neglect. On July 31, 1966, he died of tuberculosis, malnutrition, and alcoholism.
Bud Powell was influenced primarily by Thelonious Monk and Art Tatum.
His solos imitated the attack of horn players, contained frequent arpeggios, and utilized much chromaticism. According to author Alan Morrison, "Powell freed the right hand for continuous linear exploration at the expense of developing the left."
Reception and influence
Miles Davis in his autobiography said of Powell: "[He] was one of the few musicians I knew who could play, write, and read all kinds of music." "Bud was a genius piano player–the best there was of all the bebop piano players."
In 1986 Francis Paudras wrote a book about his friendship with Powell, translated into English in 1997 as Dance of the Infidels: A Portrait of Bud Powell. The book was the basis for Round Midnight, a film inspired by the lives of Powell and Lester Young, in which Dexter Gordon played the lead role of an expatriate jazzman in Paris.
Powell influenced countless younger musicians, especially pianists. These included Horace Silver, Wynton Kelly, Andre Previn, McCoy Tyner, Cedar Walton, and Chick Corea. Corea debuted a song called "Bud Powell" on his live album with Gary Burton, In Concert, Zürich, October 28, 1979, and in 1997 dedicated an entire album, Remembering Bud Powell to him.
Bill Evans, who described Powell as his single greatest influence, paid the pianist a tribute in 1979: "If I had to choose one single musician for his artistic integrity, for the incomparable originality of his creation and the grandeur of his work, it would be Bud Powell. He was in a class by himself".
Jazz pianist Bill Cunliffe said Powell was "the first pianist to take Charlie Parker's language and adapt it successfully to the piano." This was, in part, due to his desire to see the pianist get the adulation usually reserved for the saxophonist or trumpeter.
The drummer Art Taylor, who is listed among the personnel on about a dozen Powell recordings, elicited comments concerning Powell from numerous musicians in his 1993 book of interviews, Notes and Tones. Among the comments were these:
- Art Blakey: "I think there was a time when Bud Powell was playing more than Charlie Parker."
- Don Cherry: "Bud... could play the same thing differently each time."
- Kenny Clarke: "An exceptional musician."
- Erroll Garner: "Bud was the second greatest thing to Art Tatum... Bud was a genius on the piano."
- Hampton Hawes: "Bud Powell was the greatest be-bop piano player in the world. Nobody could phrase like him."
- Freddie Hubbard: "To me, they [Bud Powell and Dizzy Gillespie] were true geniuses to create something that spontaneous."
- Elvin Jones: "I always had the impression that Bud had been hurt so much. He was like a very delicate piece of china. I think he was an extremely sensitive person, a very beautiful person. He was really nice, and I loved him. I thought he was a genius in what he was doing. His ideas about modern music were revolutionary. There are very few pianists even now who have approached the level of proficiency which Bud Powell attained and consistently maintained. He's one of the masters."
- Carmen McRae: "He was a phenomenal pianist, a cat whose potential never really got where it could have gotten to. I think our way of American life has a lot to do with it."
- Max Roach: "Bud Powell played a major part in my development."
- Sonny Rollins: "In my opinion, Bud was a genius just like Bird. They were untouchable as far as their musicianship was concerned. They could do no wrong in anything they did..."
- Randy Weston: "Without a doubt he is one of our leaders."
- Tony Williams: "I wish I had been born earlier because of that whole period with Bud and Bird."
- "Bud Powell, Influential Jazz Pianist, Dies at 41; With Parker and Gillespie, He Led 1940 Bebop Revolt Known for Use of Percussive and Delicate Passages". Nytimes.com. August 2, 1966. Retrieved October 4, 2021.
- Moon, Tom (2008). 1,000 Recordings to Hear Before You Die. Workman Publishing Company. p. 608.
- Gitler, p. 112.
- Perkins, Bob. "The Demons of Bud Powell". Retrieved April 22, 2017.
- Siek, Stephen (November 10, 2016). A Dictionary for the Modern Pianist. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 159–. ISBN 978-0-8108-8880-7. Retrieved March 29, 2019.
- Crawford, p. 12.
- Dicaire, David (January 27, 2015). Jazz Musicians, 1945 to the Present. McFarland. pp. 51–. ISBN 978-0-7864-8557-4. Retrieved March 29, 2019.
- Patrick, pp. 159–161.
- Hentoff p. 16.
- Jazz: The First 100 Years. Henry Martin and Keith Waters. Cengage Learning, 2005. ISBN 0-534-62804-4. p. 215.
- "1941-1944 [Classics] - Cootie Williams & His Orchestra". AllMusic. Retrieved April 22, 2017.
- "Bud Powell Discography". Jazzdisco.org. Retrieved April 22, 2017.
- Ramsey, Guthrie P. (May 28, 2013). The Amazing Bud Powell: Black Genius, Jazz History, and the Challenge of Bebop. University of California Press. pp. 75–. ISBN 978-0-520-24391-0. Retrieved March 29, 2019.
- Geoff Dyer (June 24, 2014). But Beautiful: A Book About Jazz. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. pp. 219–. ISBN 978-1-4668-6985-1.
- "Alfred Lion, 78, the Founder of the Blue Note Jazz Label". The New York Times. February 9, 1987. Retrieved March 30, 2019.
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- Pullman, p. 120.
- Ramsey, Guthrie P. (2013). The Amazing Bud Powell: Black Genius, Jazz History, and the Challenge of Bebop. University of California Press. p. 69. ISBN 9780520243910.
- Modern Critical Interpretations: Thomas Pynchon's Gravity's Rainbow. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House, 1986.
- Martin, Henry; Waters, Keith (January 1, 2015). Jazz: The First 100 Years, Enhanced Media Edition. Cengage Learning. pp. 207–. ISBN 978-1-305-54503-8. Retrieved March 29, 2019.
- Reisner, Robert (August 22, 1977). Bird: The Legend of Charlie Parker. Hachette Books. pp. 81–. ISBN 978-0-306-80069-6.
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- Catalano, Nick (2001). Clifford Brown: The Life and Art of the Legendary Jazz Trumpeter. Oxford University Press. p. 167. ISBN 978-0-19-514400-0.
- Pullman, chapter 10.
- Wilmer, Val (1989). Mama Said There'd Be Days Like This: My Life in the Jazz World. Womens Press. p. 102. ISBN 978-0-7043-5040-3.
- "Powell, Earl 'Bud' (1924–1966)", Blackpast.org
- "NPR's Jazz Profiles: Bud Powell". Npr.org. Retrieved June 16, 2021.
- Morrison, p. 69.
- Owens, Thomas (May 23, 1996). Bebop: The Music and Its Players. Oxford University Press. pp. 148–. ISBN 978-0-19-535553-6. Retrieved March 29, 2019.
- Davis, p. 60 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFDavis (help).
- Davis, p. 103 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFDavis (help).
- Paudras, Francis (March 22, 1998). Dance Of The Infidels: A Portrait Of Bud Powell. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0306808161.
- Jazz, All About. "Dance of the Infidels: A Portrait of Bud Powell". All About Jazz. Retrieved April 25, 2017.
- Silver, Horace (1994). The Complete Bud Powell on Verve (Liner notes, booklet). Verve. pp. 98–100.
- Bogdonov, Vladimir; Woodstra, Chris (2002). All Music Guide to Jazz. Backbeat Books. p. 709. ISBN 978-0-87930-717-2.
- Bogdonov, p. 1364.
- Turner, Richard Brent (2003). Islam in the African American Experience. Indiana University Press. p. 140. ISBN 0253216303. Retrieved June 25, 2012.
- Deardra Shuler, "Cedar Walton and Barry Harris to play Jazz at Lincoln Center", Archived June 24, 2013, at archive.today New York Amsterdam News, June 20, 2013.
- Diliberto, John. "Jazz Profiles from NPR: Chick Corea". npr.org. NPR. Retrieved June 16, 2021.
- Paudras 1998, p. ix
- Reed, Leonard (November 13, 1994). "Bud Powell Gets His Long Overdue Due". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 7, 2017.
- "A Fireside Chat With Bill Cunliffe". All About Jazz. February 29, 2004. Retrieved March 30, 2019.
- Bishop, p. 41.
- Taylor, Art (1993). Notes and Tones: Musician-to-Musician Interviews. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 030680526X.
- Bishop, Walter (1994), Complete Bud Powell on Verve, New York City: Polygram Records
- Crawford, Marc (1966), Requiem for a Tortured Heavyweight, Chicago: Down Beat
- Davis, Miles; Troupe, Quincy (1989), Miles, The Autobiography, New York: Simon and Schuster, ISBN 9780671635046
- Fichet, Jean-Baptiste (2017), La Beauté Bud Powell, Paris: Bartillat
- Gitler, Ira (1966), Jazz Masters of the Forties, New York: Macmillan, ISBN 0-306-76155-6
- Hentoff, Nat (1956), Just Call Him Thelonious, Chicago: Down Beat
- Morrison, Allan (1953), Can a Musician Return from the Brink of Insanity?, Chicago: Ebony
- Patrick, James (1983), Al Tinney, Monroe's Uptown House, and the Emergence of Modern Jazz in Harlem, New Brunswick, NJ: Annual Review of Jazz Studies, IJS, ISBN 0-87855-906-X
- Paudras, Francis; Monet, Rubye (trans.) (1998), Dance of the Infidels: A Portrait of Bud Powell, New York: Da Capo Press, ISBN 0-306-80816-1
- Pullman, Peter (2012), Wail: The Life of Bud Powell, Brooklyn, NY: Bop Changes, ISBN 978-0-9851418-0-6
- Spellman, A B (1998), Four Jazz Lives, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, ISBN 978-0-472-08967-3
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