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Tethina lusitanica.jpg
Tethina lusitanica Munari, 2009
Scientific classification

Jones, 1906
  • Canaceidae Hendel, 1916

Canacidae, incorrectly Canaceidae, or beach flies, surf or surge flies, is a family of Diptera. There are 113 species in 12 genera.[3][4][5][6] The family now includes Tethininae as a subfamily.

face on view of the head of Canace ranula, Loew
Wing venation

Family description[edit]

For terms see Morphology of Diptera.

Minute (1.6–5 mm) yellow, grey or grey-brown pruinose flies with whitish to greyish markings. The head is large with small antenna bearing bare to pubescent arista. The "mouth" is a large oval opening. There are three or four pairs of orbital bristles on the head directed outward (inset upswept). Postvertical bristles are absent but diverging pseudopostocellar bristles are present. Other head bristles present are ocellar bristles, 2-5 pairs of frontal bristles, curving outward, interfrontal bristles and vibrissae ("whiskers"). The genae are high with 1 or more upcurving bristles. Tibiae are without a dorsal preapical bristle.

The wing is unmarked in almost all species. The costa has a subcostal break; the subcosta is parallel to vein R1 and merging with that vein just before the costa. Tibiae without dorsal preapical bristle.

See [1] Drawings of Canace.



Canacidae are mostly intertidal flies. They are found along sea coasts, on the surface of small water bodies, saline and fresh, at places protected from wind. They feed on Infusoria and other minute organisms.


  1. ^ a b c Jones, B.J. (1906). "Catalogue of the Ephydridae, with bibliography and description of new species". University of California Publications in Entomology. University of California, Los Angeles. 1 (2): 153–198.
  2. ^ a b Hendel, Friedrich (1916). "Beiträge zur Systematik der Acalyptraten Musciden (Dipt.)". Entomologische Mitteilungen. 5 (9–12): 294–299.
  3. ^ Mathis, Wayne N. (1992). "World Catalog of the Beach-Fly Family Canacidae (Diptera)". Smithson. Contributions Zool. (Print). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. 536 (536): 1–18. doi:10.5479/si.00810282.536.
  4. ^ Munari, Lorenzo; Mathis, Wayne N. (2010). "World Catalog of the Family Canacidae (including Tethinidae) (Diptera), with keys to the supraspecific taxa" (PDF). Zootaxa. Auckland, New Zealand: Magnolia Press. 2471: 1–84. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.2471.1.1. ISSN 1175-5334. Retrieved 25 January 2012.
  5. ^ Mathis, Wayne N (1998). Papp, L.; Darvas, B (eds.). Family Canacidae. Contributions to a Manual of palaearctic Diptera. 3. Budapest: Science Herald. pp. 251–257.
  6. ^ Mathis, Wayne N; Freidberg, A. (1991). "Review of Afrotropical beach flies of the tribe Canacini and subfamily Nocticanacinae (Diptera: Canacidae)". Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. Washington DC, USA: Entomological Society of Washington. 93: 70–85. ISSN 0013-8797.
  7. ^ a b c Haliday, A.H. (1837). "New British Insects Indicated in Mr. Curtis's Guide". Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 2: 183–190. doi:10.1080/00222933809512369.
  8. ^ a b Mathis, W.N. (1982). "Studies of Canacidae (Diptera), I: Suprageneric revision of the family, with revisions of new tribe Dynomiellini and new genus Isocanace". Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. Smithsonian. 347: iii+1–29.
  9. ^ Cresson, E.T., Jr. (1924). "Descriptions of New Genera and Species of the Dipterous Family Ephydridae, Paper VI". Entomological News. 35 (5): 159–164.
  10. ^ a b Hendel, Friedrich (1914). "Acalyptrate Musciden (Dipt.) III. In , H. Sauter's Formosa-Ausbeute". Supplementa Entomologica. 3: 90–117.
  11. ^ Giordani Soika, A. (1956). "Diagnosi preliminari di nuovi Ephydridae e Canaceidae della Regione etiopica e del Madagascar (Diptera)". Bollettino del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Venezia. 9: 123–130.
  12. ^ Wirth, W.W. (1951). "A revision of the dipterous family Canaceidae". Occasional Papers of Bernice P. Bishop Museum. Bishop Museum. 20 (14): 245–275.
  13. ^ Mathis, W.N.; Munari, L. (1996). "World Catalog of the Family Tethinidae (Diptera)". Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. Smithsonian. 584 (584): iv+1–27. doi:10.5479/si.00810282.584.
  14. ^ Eaton, A.E. (1875). "Breves Dipterarum uniusque Lepidopterarum insulae Kerguelensi indigenarum diagnoses". The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine. 12: 58–61.
  15. ^ a b Mathis, W.N. (1982). "Description of a new species of Nocticanace Malloch (Diptera: Canacidae) from Sri Lanka with notes on two related species". Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. The Entomological Society of Washington. 84 (3): 421–425.
  16. ^ Munari, Lorenzo (1986). "Contributo alla conoscenza dei Tethinidae afrotropicali. II. Considerazioni tassonomiche sulla sottofamiglia Horaismopterinae Sabr. e descrizione di un genere e due specie nuove (Diptera, Tethinidae)". Società Veneziana di Scienze Naturali - Lavori. 11: 41–52.
  17. ^ Hendel, Friedrich (1934). "Revision der Tethiniden (Dipt. Muscid. acal.)". Tijdschrift voor Entomologie. Amsterdam: Nederlandse Entomologische Vereniging. 77: 37–54.
  18. ^ Munari, Lorenzo (2000). "Beach Flies from South-Western coast of Australia, with Descriptions of a New Genus and Two New Species (Diptera Tethinidae)". Bollettino della Società Entomologica Italiana. 132 (3): 237–248.
  19. ^ Malloch, John Russel (1914). "Formosan Agromyzidae" (PDF). Annales Musei Nationalis Hungarici. 12: 306–336. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
  20. ^ a b Munari, Lorenzo (2004). "Beach Flies (Diptera: Tethinidae: Tethininae) from Australia and Papua New Guinea, with descriptions of two new genera and ten new species" (PDF). Records of the Australian Museum. Australian Museum, Sydney. 56 (1): 29–56. doi:10.3853/j.0067-1975.56.2004.1395. ISSN 0067-1975. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
  21. ^ Freidberg, A. (1995). "A study of Zaleinae, a taxon transitional between Canacidae and Tethinidae (Diptera), with the description of a new genus and species". Entomologica Scandinavica. 26 (4): 447–457. doi:10.1163/187631295x00107.

External links[edit]